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De CanDoLLE, Prodromus.
Engravings. Loudon, Arboretum Britannicum, ii., figs. 569 and 570, in p. 854 et vi., pl. 123; and the figures below. Specific Characters. Leaves obovate-wedge-shaped, glabrous, serrated. Calyx a little villose ; its sepals awl-shaped, entire. Fruit usually dotted.- De Candolle, Prodromus.
THE Cratægus punctata is a
small tree, growing to a
five feet, in swamps, and on the borders of woods throughout the United States; is particularly abundant in Virginia and Carolina; and was introduced into Britain in 1746, where it is generally found in collections. Its wood is very hard, and is employed by the Indians of the west coast of America, to make wedges for splitting logs. Its leaves are light-green, membranaceous, rather thick, firm, from two to three inches long, and when old, are usually hairy beneath. The flowers are white, and appear in May or June. The fruit is globose, half of an inch or more in diameter, yellowish or of a dull-red colour, dotted, rather pleasant to the taste, but tough, ripens in September, and falls with the leaves.
Varieties. In the British gardens, there are three forms of this species, designated as follows:
1. C. P. RUBRA, Loudon. Red-fruited Dotted Thorn, a spreading tree, growing to the height of thirty, feet, with red fruit, and when old, has but few spines.
2. C. P. RUBRA STRICTA, Loudon. Red-fruited Erect-branched Dotted Thorn, differing from the above in being more fastigiate in its growth.
3. C. P. AUREA, Loudon. Yellow-fruited Dotted Thorn, a fastigiate-growing tree, with yellow fruit, and when old, with but few thorns.
THE COCK-SPUR THORN.
LINNÆUS, Species Plantarum.
LOUDON, Arboretum Britannicum.
TORREY AND Gray, Flora of North America.
BRITAIN AND ANGLO-AMERICA.
off late. Stipules linear. Lobes of the calyx lanceolate, and somewhat serrated. Styles 2. Fruit scarlet.—De Candolle, Prodromus.
OF HE Cratægus crus
galli is a beautiful
low tree, often grow
oing to a height of fifteen or twenty feet, found in woods and hedges, from Florida to Canada, and as far west as Missouri. It was introduced into Britain in 1691, and has been more generally cultivated in that country than any other American species. In warm, sheltered situations, it is sometimes subevergreen, retaining its leaves and fruit throughout the winter. Its branches are armed with sharp, slender spines, two or three inches long. The leaves are usually obtuse, of a shining, deep-green above, and paler and dull beneath. The flowers appear in April and May, and are succeeded by small, somewhat pyriform, scarlet fruit, which ripens in September and October.
Varieties. De Candolle and Loudon describe, under this species, the five following varieties :
1. Č. c. SPLENDENS. Shining-leaved Cock-spur Thorn, the leaves of which are ovate-wedged-shaped, and shining.
2. C. c. PYRACANTHIFOLIA. Yellow-spined-leaved Cock-spur Thorn. The leaves of this variety are oblong, with the upper part lanceolate, and the lower part tending to wedge-shaped.
3. C. c. SALICIFOLIA. Willow-leaved Cock-spur Thorn, with leaves resembling in shape, those of the preceding variety, and like it, forms a beautiful low, flatheaded tree.
4. C. C. LINEARIS. Parallel-sided-leaved Cock-spur Thorn. This variety may be known by its linear-lanceolate leaves, shortish spines, and yellowish-red fruit.
5. C. C. NANA. Dwarf Cock-spur Thorn, distinguished by its somewhat tomentose branchlets, oval-lanceolate leaves, paler on the under than the upper surface, and dwarfish in its growth. When trained to a single stem, it forms a beautiful miniature gardenesque tree, as denoted in the figure below.
Propagation, soc. In the twenty-third volume of the “Transactions of the London Society of Arts," is given the following method of raising thorns from roots, which has long been practised both in Europe and America with success :“Purchase the desired number of thorns, and when three years old, take them up and trim the roots, from each of which, ten or twelve cuttings will be obtained. Plant these cuttings in rows half a yard asunder, and about four inches from each other in the row. They ought to be about four inches long, and planted with the top one fourth of an inch out of the ground, and well fastened, otherwise they will not succeed so well. April is the best time to plant the cuttings. The thick end must be planted uppermost. The advantages of this mode are, first, in case any one has raised from haws, a thorn with remarkably large prickles, of vigorous growth, or possessing any other qualification requisite to make a good fence, he may propagate it far better and sooner, from roots, than any other way. Secondly, in three years he may raise from roots a better plant than can in six years be raised from haws, and with double the quantity of roots."
De CANDOLLE, Prodromus.
LOUDON, Arboretum Britannicum.
TORREY AND GRAY, Flora of North America.
Engravings. London Botanical Register, pl. 1151 ; Loudon, Arboretum Britannicum, ii., fig. 590 in p. 861, et vi. pl. 137 ; and the figures below. Specific Characters. Disks of leaves cordate-ovate, angled by lobes, glabrous. Petioles and calyxes with
out glands. Styles 5 in a flower.—De Candolle, Prodromus.
tree or shrub, fifteen or twenty feet in height, found in greater or less abundance in rocky places, and on the banks of streams which issue from the Alleghanies, from Canada to Georgia. Its head is close and compact, with branches armed with very long, slender, sharp spines. Its leaves are of a deep, shining green, and vary, exceedingly, in size, according to the age and vigour of the tree. They are usually from one to two inches in length, and are often deeply, and nearly equally three-lobed, like those of the red-flowered maple, being sometimes of a slightly rhombic form, and a little tapering at the base. The flowers, which appear by the end of June or the beginning of July, are produced in numerous terminal corymbs, and are succeeded by very small, depressed-globose, bright-purple fruit. This species has been cultivated in Britain since the year 1738, where several fine specimens are growing, of a height of fifteen to thirty feet. It was first cultivated in the nursery of Mr. Main, of Georgetown, in the District of Columbia, towards the close of the last century, and has since been much employed in other parts of the United States for hedges, under the name of “Washington Thorn.'
Deritations. Amelancier, according to Clusius, is derived from amelancier, the old Savoy name for the Amelanchier rulgaria. The other names have been applied to the trees of this genus, from the resemblance they were supposed to bear to the medlar, thorn, etc.
Generic Characters. Ovaries 5, each divided by a partition, so that there are 10 cells; ovules, 1 in each
cell. Ripe pome including 3-5 carpels. Petals lanceolate. Leaves simple, serrate, deciduous. Flowers in racemes.-Loudon, Arboretum.
HE genus Amelanchier occurs in but two forms sufficiently dis
tinct to be regarded as species, namely, the common amelanchier of Europe, (A. vulgaris,) and the Amelanchier canadensis, (June berry,) of North America. The former is a native of mountainous woods, among rocks, in different parts of the continent, as
the Alps, the Pyrenees, Fontainbleau, &c., and has been cultivated in Britain since 1596, where it forms a most desirable low tree, fifteen or twenty feet in height, on account of its early and numerous flowers, which cover the tree like a white sheet, about the middle of April, and, in very mild seasons, even in March. Its fruit is round, soft, eatable, and ripens in July, soon after which, it drops off, or is eaten by birds. It may be propagated from seeds or by grafting on the hawthorn or the quince.
To the same natural family belongs the common medlar of Europe, (Mespilus germanica,) a tree which was known to the Greeks, and has been cultivated in Britain for an indefinite period. As an ornamental shrub, it well deserves a place in every collection, from the tortuous, fantastic appearance of its branches, its large leaves, large white flowers, and rich-looking persistent calyxes, which accompany its fruit. There are several varieties of this species, among which, what is called the “Dutch medlar,” is reckoned the best. The fruit, however, is not eaten till in a state of incipient decay, when it is very agreeable to some palates; though, as Du Hamel observes, it is probably more "un fruit de fantaisie,” than one of real utility.