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by the Jesuit missionary, D’Incarville, in 1751; and that they were sown by Miller, in the Chelsea botanic garden, and by Philip Carteret Webb, at Bushbridge, in Surry, the same year. As the tree produced suckers freely, it was soon generally propagated, and there are many fine specimens of it growing in different parts of that country.
The largest tree of this species in Britain, is at Syon, near London. In 1835, it had attained the height of seventy feet, with a trunk three feet, ten inches in diameter, and an ambitus, or spread of branches, of forty feet. Its trunk formed an erect column about thirty feet high, before it ramified, and its head was hemispherical. This tree is said to flower, and occasionally to produce fruit.
The Ailantus glandulosa was introduced into France in 1780, by M. Blaikie, and the oldest specimens are at St. Leu, and at Paris. At St. Leu, there is a tree, planted by M. Blaikie, in 1794, which attained the height of eighty feet in forty years, with a trunk from three to three and a half feet in diameter. In the Jarden des Plantes, at Paris, there is another tree, which, in 1835, had attained the height of sixty-eight feet, with a head forty-four feet in diameter, flowering most years, and occasionally ripening seeds.
At Geneva, in Switzerland, at the entrance of the botanic garden, there is a tree of this species, fifty or sixty feet in height, which, when in flower, emits so powerful an odour that it may be perceived at a distance of nearly a quarter of a mile (cinq minutes de distance.) The suckers from this tree shoot from the ground in every direction, for forty or fifty feet.
Many other interesting specimens are to be met with in the chief gardens and collections in Britain, Ireland, and continental Europe, and the tree is generally cultivated for ornament in all the temperate countries of the civilized world. It is not destined to thrive, however, in a very rigorous climate, for it dwindles down to a mere shrub, no farther north than Montreal, in Lower Canada.
The Ailantus glandulosa found its way into the United States from two distinct sources. It was first introduced from Europe, in 1784, by Mr. William Hamilton, at the Woodlands, near Philadelphia, and a sucker, planted from the original tree, in 1809, is at present standing in the Bartram botanic garden, which is sixty feet in height, with a trunk nearly two feet in diameter.
On the authority of Governor Charles Collins, of Newport, this species was brought from South America, in about the year 1804, and was presented to General Andrew McCorrie, of Portsmouth, in Rhode Island, by a master of a vessel. From this tree there were numerous others produced by cuttings, and six or eight of them were planted in 1807, by Governor Collins, at Bristol, several of which were felled and sawn into boards about twenty years after. In about the year 1810, Rev. Henry Wight, of the last-named place, procured a young shoot, and planted near his house, which has grown to a magnificent tree, fiftyfive feet in height, with a trunk seven feet in circumference, at a yard above the ground, and an ambitus or spread of branches of fifty feet. In Portsmouth, Bristol, and Providence, there are numerous other trees of this species with trunks nearly two feet in diameter.
In about the year 1820, Mr. William Prince, of Flushing, Long Island, imported the ailantus from Europe, and from this source, most of the plants of this species in New York and vicinity, have been supplied. It may here be remarked, that both male and female trees grow in abundance in the last-named places, and that the male may generally be distinguished by its more graceful leaves and handsome form.
Propagation, Culture, fc. The Ailantus glandulosa may readily be propagated from seeds, or by cuttings of the roots; but the former mode is far more preferable, as the tree is not so liable to throw up suckers as when produced by cuttings. The seeds should be sown, if possible, as soon as they are gathered; and if they are to be transported any great distance, they may be sown in boxes of light earth, or sand and peat, protected under glass. It will grow in any soil, though one that is light and somewhat humid, and in a sheltered situation, is considered the best. In France, it is said to thrive on chalky soils, and attain a large size, where scarcely any other tree will prosper. It grows with great rapidity for the first ten or twelve years, producing annual shoots from three to six feet in length, and under favourable circumstances, it often attains a height of fifteen or twenty feet in five or six years. Afterwards, its growth is much slower, which renders it very valuable as a shade-tree, in situations of limited space; although there is the disadvantage of the unpleasant odour of its flowers. The leaves are not liable to be attacked by insects, which is a very great desideratum, and as we before remarked, they continue on the tree, and retain their verdure till the coming of the autumnal frosts, when the leaflets drop suddenly off and often leave the petioles on the tree some weeks longer.
Properties and Uses. The wood of this species is very hard, compact, of a deep-red colour, when old, resembling newly-wrought mahogany, and is often beautifully veined with deep-gold colour and red. It is susceptible of the finest polish, and has a fine, satin-like lustre, which renders it well suited for the purposes of cabinet-making. From its capability of being raised on meagre and worn-out soils, and the rapidity of its growth, it is thought that this tree might be profitably cultivated for cabinet-wood, or to be treated as a coppice, to be cut every third year for fuel. In France and Italy, it is much valued for shading public walks, and is planted for that purpose along with the American tulip-tree, (Liriodendron,) the horse-chesnut, the oriental plane, and other large-leaved exotic trees. It also graces lawns and avenues in various parts of the United States, and succeeds equally well as in its native country.
Genus ILEX, Linn.
Deriration. The name lles was given to this genug by Bauhin and Loureiro, on account of the resemblance of its leaves 10 those of the Quercus ilex, or the true llet of Virgil. Generic Characters. Sexes hermaphrodite, very rarely, by defect, diæcious or polygamous. Calyx 4–5.
toothed. Corolla 4–5-cleft. Stamens 4—5, inserted into the tube of the corolla. Fruit including 4 or 5 nuts. Evergreen shrubs, with, mostly, coriaceous leaves. Flowers many on a peduncle.-De Candolle, Prodromus.
FLEX is a genus very abundantly diffused in the warm and colder
climates of both continents, and in many islands in the ocean. Besides the Ilex aquifolium, which constitutes so beautiful a feature in the winter scenery of many parts of England, there are also worthy of note, the Ilex opaca of the United States, and the
Ilex dipyrena of the Himalayas, which is nearly allied to it; the Ilex balearica, or broad-leaved holly of Minorca; the Ilex canariensis, with black berries; the Ilex vomitoria or yaupon of the southern Indians; the Ilex paraguariensis, or Paraguay tea; the flex dahoon of Florida, which may be considered as one of the most ornamental of the whole family; and the Ilex cassine, or broad-leaved dahoon holly of Carolina and the Floridas.
LINNÆUS, Species Plantarum.
DE CANDOLLE, Prodromus.
Don, Miller's Dictionary.
Selby, British Forest Trees.
baum, Stecheiche, Stechlaub, Stechap-
dorn, Kleezbusch, Walddistel,
BRITAIN AND ANGLO-AMERICA.
Derivations. The specific name, aquifolium, is derived from the Latin, acutum, sharp, and folium, a leaf, in allusion to the sharp points of the leaves. The Greek authors called this species agria, that is, wild, or of the fields; whence some of the French, Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese names. The English name, holly, is probably a corruption of the word,' holy, from its being used to commemorate the holy time of Christmas, not only in houses, but in churches. The German name, Christ. dorn, the Danish name, Chrislorn, and ihe Swedish name, Christtorn, would seem to justify the same conjecture.
Engravings. Selby, British Forest Trees, pp. 37 et 47; Loudon, Arboretum Britannicum, v., pl. 64; and the figures below. Specific Characters. Leaves shining, wavy, ovate, spiny-toothed, and sometimes entire. Peduncles axil. lary. Flowers nearly umbellate. Fruit a 4-celled berry, globose, and containing four solitary, horny, oblong seeds, rounded on one side, and cornered on the other.
THE European Hol-
tree, growing to a height of twenty or thirty feet, in a wild state, with a trunk from eighteen inches to two feet in diameter, and to double these dimensions in a state of cultivation. In viewing it as a hedge-plant, or as an ornamental tree or shrub, it is not surpassed by any other evergreen whatever, whether we look upon it in its native woods, with its shining, deep-green leaves and coral-red berries, which persist for half the year, or in its numerous variegations of silver or golden leaves, and its white or yellow fruit.
Varieties. In general, the deviation from the common form and colour observable in wild plants, or in those in a state of cultivation, more especially in trees and
shrubs, is accompanied by a ragged, or otherwise unhealthy appearance in the leaves; but the holly is one of the very few exceptions to this rule. Its variegations are chiefly confined to the modifications of white and yellow in the leaves; but there are some kinds in which the deviation results from the size, form, and prickly state of the leaves; and others consist of differences in the colour of the fruit, which is red, yellow, black, or white. The following varieties are all that are regarded as truly distinct; but the shades of difference under each name are almost innumerable :
1. I. A. HETEROPHYLLUM, Loudon. Various-leaved Holly. 2. I. A. ANGUSTIFOLIUM, Loudon. Narrow-leaved Holly. 3. I. A. LATIFOLIUM, Loudon. Broad-leaved Holly. 4. I. A. ALTACLERENSE, Loudon. High Clere Holly. Leaves broad, thin, flat.
5. I. A. MARGINATUM, Loudon. Thick-margined-leaved Holly. Leaves broad, entire.
6. I. A. LAURIFOLIUM, Loudon. Laurel-leaved Holly. Leaves small, entire.
7. I. A. CILIATUM, Loudon. Ciliated-leaved Holly. Leaves small, with prickles along the margin like hairs.
8. I. A. CILIATUM MINUS, Loudon. Smaller-ciliated-leaved Holly. Leaves smaller than the preceding.
9. I. A. RECURVUM, Loudon. Recurved-leaved Holly.
12. I. A. FEROX, Loudon. Fierce-spine-leaved, or Hedgehog Holly. Leaves rolled and covered with spines.
13. I. A. CRASSIFOLIUM, Loudon. Thick-leaved Holly.
15. I. A. ALBO MARGINATUM, Loudon. White-edged-leaved Holly. Margins of leaves white, or pale-yellow.
16. I. A. AUREO MARGINATUM, Loudon. Golden-edged-leaved Holly. Margins of leaves light and dark yellow.
17. I. A. ALBO PICTUM, Loudon White-spotted-leaved Holly, Milk-maid Holly. Margins of leaves green, middle white.
18. I. A. AUREO PICTUM, Loudon. Gold-spotted-leaved Holly.
Geography and History. The Ilex aquifolium is indigenous to most parts of the middle and south of Europe, and it is said to be found in China and Japan. It does not appear to be a native either of America or of India, unless the Ilex opaca of the United States, and the Ilex dipyrena in the Himalayas, should prove, by cultivation, to be varieties of it. According to Pallas, it scarcely occurs within the ancient limits of the Russian empire, though frequent on the southern side of Caucasus, where it forms a low, branching shrub, about ten feet high. In France, it is abundant, more particularly in Brittany. In Germany, it abounds in many forests, especially in the southern and middle states; where, when sheltered by lofty trees, it attains the height of twenty feet; but in exposed situations, it does not exceed a height of six or eight feet. This tree appears to attain a larger size in England than in any other part of the globe. It abounds in that country, more or less, in the remains of all aboriginal forests, and perhaps, at present, it prevails nowhere to a greater extent than in Needwood Forest, in Staffordshire. In Scotland it is found in most natural woods, as an