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the ground in the spring, not all at one time, but at irregular intervals, and lay their eggs on the lower side of the terminal leaves of the vine. In the month of July the false caterpillars, hatched from these eggs, may be seen on the leaves, in little swarms, of various ages, some very small, and others fully grown. They feed in company, side by side, beneath the leaves, each swarm or fraternity consisting of a dozen or more individuals, and they preserve their ranks with a surprising degree of regularity. Beginning at the edge, they eat the whole of the leaf to the stalk, and then go to another, which, in like manner, they devour, and thus proceed from leaf to leaf, down the branch, till they have grown to their full size. At this period, they are about five-eighths of an inch in length, somewhat slender and tapering, and thickest before the middle, having twentytwo legs. The head and the tip of the tail are black; the body, above, is lightgreen, paler besore and behind, with two transverse rows of minute black points across each ring; and the lower side of the body is yellowish. After their last moulting they becorne almost entirely yellow, and then leave the vine, burrow into the ground, and form themselves small oval cells of earth, which they line with a slight silken film. In about two weeks after entering the ground, having in the mean time passed through the chrysalis state, they come out of their earthen cells, take wing, pair, and lay their eggs for another brood. The young of the second brood are not transformed to flies before the following spring, but remain at rest, in the mean time, in their cocoons.* A solution of one pound of whale-oil soap in six or seven gallons of soft water has been recommended to be thrown upon the vines in order to destroy these flies; but should this prove ineffectual, fumigation with tobacco, red-pepper seeds, or other hot, acrid substances may be tried.
The Vitis labrusca is sometimes attacked by several species of the Geometridæ, such as span-worms, loopers, measurers, etc.; but not often to very great injury. When the wounds, made by pruning the branches, the roots, or the ends of the cuttings, are not protected by a coat of fine earth, white-lead mixed with oil, or some other substance, the soft pith and decayed wood are also liable to be attacked by ants, centipeds, and other wood-eating insects, (Xylophagidæ,) which sometimes perforate an inconsiderable portion of the stem, thus secretly destroying its vigour, and eventually its life, without any visible external cause.
This species of vine is not subject to any other accidents of importance, except in some of its varieties, which are sometimes killed or greatly injured by the rigours of winter, or by vernal northerly winds. To guard against these evils, it is only necessary to bend down the vines from the trellis even with the ground, late in autumn, and cover them over with earth to the depth of eight or ten inches, and let them remain until early in the following spring, when the covering must be removed, and the shoots readjusted to the trellis as in the year before ; and to protect them in situations exposed to the northern blast, they may be sheltered by walls, buildings, or by hedges of other trees.
Properties and Uses. The wood of the Vitis labrusca, from its diminutive size, open texture, and comparative scarcity, is very limited in its use in the
When reduced to charcoal, it may be employed by painters for drawing outlines, or may be used as a tooth-powder. It has been suggested that the prunings of this species may be cut into small pieces, bruised, put into a vat, and boiling water poured upon them, which, on being fermented like malt, would make a fine beverage, either strong or weak; and on being distilled, would produce a spirit analogous to brandy. The green twigs, or fresh cuttings, have been recommended, as a substitute for rape, in flavouring vinegar. The fruit, when ripe and fresh, is considered as wholesome, nutritious, refrigerant,
Harris' Report, p. 378.
and if taken freely, is diuretic and laxative. The husks and seeds are indigestible, and should be rejected, although the latter may be substituted for coffee, and treated in the same manner for a beverage. If taken without the husks, this grape is regarded as one of the most safe and nutritious of our summer fruits. Although it is apt to disagree with dispeptics and children, medicinally considered, it proves invaluable in febrile and inflammatory diseases, in which it allays the thirst, and diminishes the heat. It is said, also, to have been found serviceable in dysentery, phthisical complaints, as well as in affections of the lungs.
Our fruiterers have a considerable trade in importing preserved grapes, principally from Europe, packed in saw-dust, in large earthen jars, closely sealed. Although the American grapes are preserved in a similar manner to a considerable extent, which add much to the luxury of our winter desserts, and afford great relief to the infirm and sick, there is not enough of this rare and excellent fruit to supply a ten-millionth part of what our population would demand, if it were sold at a reasonable price.
This art of preserving grapes was well known to the Romans, and was among the first objects of their care. Columella recommends them to be put into small jars, that will contain only one bunch in each; and that the fruit should be made quite dry by the sun, and after being cooled in the shade, to be suspended in the jars, and the spaces around them to be filled with clean oat chaff. The jars, he says, must be well baked or burnt, and not such as will imbibe moisture; and the openings at the tops must be closed, and pitched, to exclude the air. The American grapes may be preserved for several months, by packing them in tin cases, of any convenient size, in clean chaff, bran, saw-dust, powdered charcoal, or in clean sand, all of which must be well baked and perfectly dry, when to be used. As soon as the cases are filled, they must be sealed or soldered up, air-tight, and kept in a place of uniform temperature, from 40° to 60° F., until they are required for use. This may be done by burying them in dry earth to a depth of four or five feet; or a room or cellar may be specially prepared for their reception, by being surrounded with a layer of charcoal-dust, or any other materials known to be bad conductors of heat. The preservation of grapes may also be prolonged by allowing them to remain upon the vines; but in being thus exposed, they soon lose their flavour, are liable to drop, or to be devoured by vermin or birds.
The cultivation of this species, independent of the profits arising from its fruit and wine, is highly ornamental as a climbing shrub. No person who possesses two square yards of unoccupied ground, sheltered from the cold northerly winds, and half of the day from the intense heat of the sun, can apply it to a more valuable purpose than planting it with a vine. But let it be remembered that, if ornament and shade are the objects in view, the vine must be left to pursue its natural vigour, and is not to be pruned more than is required to give it a graceful form.
BRITAIN AND ANGLO-AMERICA.
Ovaries as many as sepals, and opposite to them. Styles terminating in clavate stigmas, which are at first connate.-Colden, Planta.
ANTHOXYLUM is a genus belonging to the same natural family
as the Ptelea and Ailantus. There are at least two species indigenous to North America, the Xanthoxylumn fraxineum and tricarpum, and several varieties, some of which are much valued for
their medicinal qualities. The Xanthoxylum clava-herculis, of JSTE the West Indies, is esteemed as a good timber-tree, and an infusion of its leaves, as well as of those of the Xanthoxylum fraxineum, is used to cure the toothache. Mr. Royle, in his excellent work entitled “Illustrations of the Botany and other Branches of Natural History of the Himalayan Mountains, and of the Flora of Cashmere,” mentions two species, the Xanthoxylum hostile and alatum. Several other trees of this genus are enumerated in Loudon's “Hortus Britannicus," as natives of China and Japan, but they are not considered as very ornamental. All the species may be propagated by ripened cuttings of the branches or of the roots.
LINNÆUS, Species Plantarum.
BIGélow, Medical Botany.
TORREY AND Gray, Flora of North America.
WILLDENOW, Linnæi Species Plantarum.
De CANDOLLE, Prodromus.
LOUDON, Arboretum Britannicum.
Engravings. Bigelow, Medical Botany, pl. 59; Catesby, Natural History of Carolina, vol. i., pl. 26.; Loudon, Arboretum
obscurely sawed, equal at the base ; the petiole round and devoid of prickles; prickles in the situation of stipules. Flowers in axillary umbels without petals. The sexes diæcious.—
De Candolle, Prodromus. Description.
" That unpitying pain
TRAITS OF THE ABORIGINES.
HE Xanthoxylum frax
ineum usually grows to a
feet, and sometimes to more than double that height. Its trunk ramifies some distance above the ground, and then branches out into a regular head. The whole tree, when young, is armed with powerful prickles, which are thick at the base, and angular and sharp at the point, but become less so when old. The leaves are pinnate, a foot in length, often nearly glabrous when mature, and sometimes tomentose beneath ; and in the place of stipules, there are straight thorns a third of an inch in length. The flowers, which appear in April, May or June, are of a greenish or yellowish colour, with red anthers, and are succeeded by capsules containing large black seeds.
Variety. A tree is recognized by botanists as belonging to this genus, growing in North America, which does not differ from the present species, except in being thornless, and may bear the name of Xanthorylum fraxineum mite.
Geography and History. The Xanthoxylum fraxineum is usually found on the borders of rivers and other waters, from Canada to Virginia, and as far west as the Mississippi. It was introduced into Britain in 1740, and is common in European collections, but is never seen there of any great size.
Properties, Uses, fc. The bark and capsules of this species are of a hot, acrid taste, and when taken internally, act as a powerful stimulant. They are sometimes used for relieving the pains of toothache, and for the curing of intermittents and rheumatism.
The medicinal virtues of this tree were also well known to the American aborigines. Lawson remarks, that “they extracted from its berries the salivating power of murcury, and made use of decoctions of the plant, as strong perspira
No other particular use is made of this tree except for ornament. It is generally propagated by seeds or by cuttings of the roots, and usually attains a height of six feet in ten years after planting.