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PRELIMINARY EGOTISM.

11

the strength

dating our great struggle are, in good part, preserved. Perhaps the events of no former war were ever so fully and promptly embodied in a single work as are those of our great contest in The Record, which must prove the generous fountain whence all future historians of our country may draw at will. But I am also considerably indebted to Mr. Orville J. Victor's History of the Southern Rebellion, wherein is embodied much valuable, important, and interesting material not contained in The Record., I shall doubtless appear to have made more use of Mr. Edward A. Pollard's Southern History of the War; which I have often cited, and shall continue to cite, for peculiar reasons. Its author is so hot-headed a devotee of Slavery and the Rebellion, that nothing which seems to favor that side is too marvelous for his deglutition; so that, if he were told that a single Confederate had constrained a Union regiment to lay down their arms and surrender, he would swallow it, without scrutiny or doubt. His work, therefore, is utterly untrustworthy as a whole; yet, in certain aspects, it has great value. He is so headlong and unquestioning a believer in the Confederacy, that he never dreams of concealing or disavowing the fundamental ideas whereon it is based; it is precisely because it stands and strikes for Slavery that he loves and glories in the Confederate cause. Then his statements of the numbers engaged or of the losses on either side are valuable in one aspect: You know that he never overstates

nor the losses of the Confederates ; while he seems, in some instances, to have had access to official reports and other documents which have not been seen this side of the Potomac. Hence the use I have made, and shall doubtless continue to make, of his work. But I trust that it has been further serviceable to me, in putting me on my guard against those monstrous exaggerations of the numbers opposed to them with which weak, incompetent, and worsted commanders habitually excuse, or seek to cover up, their failures, defeats, and losses.

I have not found, and do not expect to find, room for biographic accounts of the generals and other commanders who figure in our great struggle, whether those who have hon

and blessed or those who have betrayed and shamed their country. To have admitted these would have been to expand my work inevitably beyond the prescribed limits. By nature little inclined to man-worship, and valuing individuals only as the promoters of

the exponents of ideas, I have dealt with personal careers only when they clearly exhibited some phase of our National character, elucidated the state of contemporary opinion, or palpably and powerfully modified our National destinies. Thomas Jefferson, Eli Whitney, Andrew Jackson, Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun, Benjamin Lundy, Elijah P. Lovejoy, John Brown-men differing most widely in intellectual caliber as well as in aspirations, instincts, convictions, and purposes—may fairly be regarded as, in their several

#hich we have seen fired by the Secessionists of our day with so magnificent a pyrotechnic display, so majestic a resulting conflagration; and of these, accordingly, some Dotion may be acquired from the following pages; while, of our generals and commodores,

miniature Portraits contained in these volumes, and the record of their respective achievements, are all that I can give. So many battles, sieges, marches, campaigns, etc.,

-a naked record of the remaining events of the war, especially should it be protracted

ored

measures,

train

the

pages

for a full year more, will test to the utmost my power of condensation to conclude the work in another volume of the generous amplitude of this.

My subject naturally divides itself into two parts: I. How we got into the War for the Union; and II. Horo we get out of it. I have respected this division in my cast of the present work, and submit this volume as a clear elucidation of the former of these problems, hoping to be at least equally satisfactory in my treatment of the latter.

It is the task of the historian to eliminate from the million facts that seemed important in their day and sphere respectively, the two or three thousand that have an abiding and general interest, presenting these in their due proportions, and with their proper relative emphasis. Any success in this task must, of course, be comparative and approximate; and no historical work ever was or will be written whereof a well-informed and competent critio might not forcibly say, 'Why was this fact stated and that omitted? Why give a page to this occurrence, and ignore that, which was of at least equal consequence? Why praise the achievement of A, yet pass over that of B, which was equally meritorious and important f' But, especially in dealing with events so fresh and recent as those of our great convulsion, must the historian expose himself to such strictures. Time, with its unerring perspective, reduces every incident to its true proportions; so that we are no longer liable to misconceptions and apprehensions which were once natural and all but universal. We know, beyond question, that Braddock's defeat and death before Fort Du Quesne had not the importance which they seemed to wear in the eyes of those who heard of them within the month after their occurrence; that Bunker Hill, though tactically a defeat, was practically a triumph to the arms of our Revolutionary fathers; that the return of Bonaparte from Elba exerted but little influence over the destinies of Europe, and that little of questionable beneficence; and that ‘fillibusterism,' so called, since its first brilliant achievement in wresting Texas from Mexico and annexing her to this country, though attempting much, has accomplished very little, toward the diffusion either of Freedom or Slavery. And so, much that now seems of momentous consequence will doubtless have shrunk, a century hence, to very moderate dimensions, or perhaps been forgotten altogether.

The volume which is to conclude this work cannot, of course, appear till some time after the close of the contest; and I hope to be able to bestow upon it at least double the time that I was at liberty to devote to this. I shall labor constantly to guard against Mr. Pollard's chief error—that of supposing that all the heroism, devotedness, humanity, chivalry, evinced in the contest, were displayed on one side; all the cowardice, ferocity, cruelty, rapacity, and general depravity, on the other. I believe it to be the truth, and as such I shall endeavor to show, that, while this war has been signalized by some deeds disgraceful to human nature, the general behavior of the combatants on either side has been calculated to do honor even to the men who, though fearfully misguided, are still our countrymen, and to exalt the prestige of the American name.

That the issue of this terrible contest may be such as God, in His inscrutable wisdom, shall deem most directly conducive to the progress of our race in knowledge, virtue, liberty, and consequent happiness, is not more the fervent aspiration, than it is the consoling and steadfast faith, of

H. G. NEW YORK, April 10, 1864.

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PRELIMINARY EGOTISM.

pre, will test to the utmost my power of condensation to conclude the work e of the generous amplitude of this. Jurally divides itself into two parts: I. How we got into the War for the How we get out of it. I have respected this division in my cast of the hd submit this volume as a clear elucidation of the former of these

to be at least equally satisfactory in my treatment of the latter. If the historian to eliminate from the million facts that seemed important sphere respectively, the two or three thousand that have an abiding and presenting these in their due proportions, and with their proper relative þuccess in this task must, of course, be comparative and approximate; and no ver was or will be written whereof a well-informed and competent critic y say, 'Why was this fact stated and that omitted? Why give a page to ind ignore that, which was of at least equal consequence? Why praise the JA, yet pass over that of B, which was equally meritorious and importanti'

dealing with events so fresh and recent as those of our great convulsion, in expose himself to such strictures. Time, with its unerring perspec

INDEX BY CHAPTERS.

Jy incident to its true proportions ; so that we are no longer liable to misupprehensions which were once natural and all but universal. We know, that Braddock's defeat and death before Fort Du Quesne had not the imhey seemed to wear in the eyes of those who heard of them within the occurrence; that Bunker Hill

, though tactically a defeat, was practically a mns of our Revolutionary fathers; that the return of Bonaparte from Elba influence over the destinies of Europe, and that little of questionable beat fillibusterism,' so called, since its first brilliant achievement in wrestlexico and annexing her to this country, though attempting much, has little, toward the diffusion either of Freedom or Slavery. And so, much

f momentous conseqnence will doubtless have shrunk, a century hence, to mensions, or perhaps been forgotten altogether. ich is to conclude this work cannot, of course, appear till some time after botest; and I hope to be able to bestow npon it at least double the time rty to devote to this. I shall labor constantly to guard against Mr. Pol--that of supposing that all the heroism, devotedness, humanity, chivalry, ntest, were displayed on one side; all the cowardice, ferocity, cruelty, ral depravity, on the other. I believe it to be the truth, and as such I how, that, while this war has been signalized by some deeds disgraceful

PAGR XVII. The Nebraska-Kansas Struggle. ....224

1854-6!--Pierce-Atchison-A, C. Dodge--Douglas -Archibald Dixon-Salmon P, Chase Badger of N. C.-English of Ind.--A. H. Stephens-Gov. Reeder-William Phillips-John W Whitfield-Civil War in Kansas-Wm. Dow--Sheriff Jones-Nomination of Fremont-President Fillmore at Albany Election of Buchana2-Lecompton-Wyandot--Admission of Kansas as a Free State.

XVIII. Case of Dred Scott in Sup. Court...251

Views of President Buchanan-Chief Justice Taney
Judge Wayne-Judge Nelson-Judge Grier
Judge Daniel - Judge Campbell-Judge Catron-
Col. Benton-Wm. L. Yancey-Daniel Webster-
Judge McLean-Judge Curtis.

PAGE , I Our Country in 1782 and in 1860.... 17

Increase of Population and Wealth
II. Slavery in America, prior to 1776.... 24
III. Do. in the American Revolution... 33
IV. Do. under the Confederation....... 37

Jeferson's Proposal of Restriction–Nathan Dane's do. V. The Convention of 1787 and the Fed. eral Constitution..

41 VI Slavery after 1787...

49 Persistent Hostility of Congress to Slavery Extension -Purchase of Louisiana-Eli Whitney and his Cot

koa-Gi-Colopization. VII. Missouri—the Struggle for Restriction. 74

Stel-Cs-Pinkney-P. P. Barbour-Webster

Joka W. Taylor-Thomas-the Compromise.
VTIL State Rights Resolutions of '98..... 81

Nullification-Hayne-Webster-Jackson--Calhoun

Georgia and the Indians,
IX. Abolition-Its Rise and Progress....107

Early efforts for Emancipation-Slave-holders con-
demie Slavery-Virginia-- Benjamin Lundy-Wm.

Lloyd Garrison,
I. The Churches on Slav'y and Abolition.117
XI. The Pro-Slavery Reaction-Riots.....122

Rifing the Mails-Persecution and Marder of Rev,
E. P. Lovejoy--The Struggle in Congress for the

Right of Petition.
XIL Texas and her Annexation to the U.S.147

Sam, Houston-V. Hunt-Webster-T. W. Gilmer-
Jueksan. Q. Adang-Van Baren--Clay-Benton

-Polk --Tyler--Calhoun,
XIII. The Mission of Samuel Hoar to S. C.. 178
XIV. War with Mexico-Wilmot Proviso...185

Gen. Ches--Letter to Nicholson-Gen. Taylor chosen
President-Attempts by Gen, Burt, of s. C., and by
Senator Douglas, ia exiend the Compromise Line of

330 to the Pacific.
XV. The Struggle for Compromise in 1850..198

-Gr. Seward-James Brooks--Gen. Taylor-Hen-
y Clay Jefferson Davis-Webster's 7th of March

Speech The Texas Job.
XVL The Era of Slave-Hunting—1850–60.210

Pasgitive Slave Lawr-John Van Buren Judge Grier
- Sloane-Margaret Garder--Anthony Burns
-The Flaunting Lie-National Party Platforms
of 1852–Gen. Scott-Election of Pierce and King.

XIX. Our Foreign Policy– Monroe-Cuba.264
Treaty with France-Washington,

Jefferson-The Monroe Doctrine'-The Panama Congress-Se cret Intrigues for the Acquisition of Cube-Edward Everett on the Proposition of France and England for a triplicate guarantee of Cuba to Spain -The Ostend Manifesto-Wam Walker and the

regeneration' of Central America--Mr. Buchanan on Cuba-Democratic National resolve of 1860 respect

ing Cuba. XX. John Brown and his Raid..........279

Linenge and early life of John Brown--His Kansas Experiences-His Convention in Canada--Repairs to Virginia-Seizes Harper's Ferry-1s overpowered -captured-convicted-hung.

XXI. The Presidential Canvass of 1860..299

State Elections of 1857-8-9— Lincoln verans Douglas -Gov. Seward's Irrepressible Conflict-Slavery legally established in New Mexico-Helper's Impending Crisis' in Congress-defents John Sherman for Speaker-Pennington chosen-Jeff. Davis's now Democratic Platform The National Democratia Convention at Charleston-Splits on a PlatformThe fragments adjourn to Baltimore and Richmond Douglas and Fitzpatrick nominated by the larger fraction-Breckinridge and Lane by the smaller Fitzpatrick declines-H. V. Johnson substituted Bell and Everett nominated by the Constitutional Union Party-Lincoln and Hamlin by the Ropublicans-The Canvass-Gov. Seward's closing words.

XXII. Secession inaugurated in S. C......328

Legislature called-Gov. Gist's Message Senator Chesnut's Speech - Boyce --Mores - Trenholm McGowan-Mullins-Rain Judge Magrath resigns-Military Convention in Georgia--Votes to se cede-Facilities to Disunion--Houston--Letcher Magoflin-Conway-C. F. Jackson--Alex. Il. Stem phens-S. C, Convention-Ordinance of Secession immediately and unanimously passed--Georgia fol low-30 do Alabamn, Florida, Mississippi, Louisians, and Texas-Arkansas, North Carolina, Virginia, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Maryland and Delaware, refuse to do likewise, The Secessionists a minority in the Slave States.

he general behavior of the combatants on either side has been calculated to the men who, though fearfully misguided, are still our countrymen, estige of the American name. of this terrible contest may be such as God, in His inscrutable wigvst directly conducive to the progress of our race in knowledge, virtue, pent happiness , is not more the fervent aspiration, than it is the conso

H. G.

with, of

PAGX

IL

XXIII. The Press and People of the North deprecate Civil War..

.351 The Tribune's overture-The Albany Evening Journal's--The Philadelphia Meeting-Mayor Henry-Judge Woodward-George W. Curtis

suppressed. XXIV. Attempts at 'Conciliation' in Cong. 367

Buchanan and Black condemn "coercion-
Mr. Crittenden and his Compromise-Mr. Cor-
win's Committee of Thirty-oneSenator Antho-
ny's proffer-C. L. Vallandigham's project--Tho
Corwin Constitutional Amendment adopted by

either House,
XXV. Peace Democracy at the North, and

the Peace Conference at Wash-
ington....

.388
The Tweddle Hall Convention at Albany, 1861
-Seymour, Thayer, etc.--Peace Conference or
Congress at Washington--Modified Crittenden
Compromise adopted thereby-Congress non-

concurs-Failure io compromise-Why. XXVI. The Union versus the Confederacy. .407

Organization of the Confederacy-Jefferson Da-
vis chosen President, and Alex. H. Stephens
Vice-President--Davis's Inaugural-Stephens's
corner-blone' speech-Mr. Lincoln's journey to

Washington--Speeches--Inaugural.
XXVII. The Pause before the Shock......428

The tw, Cabinets--Attempts to Negotiate by
Forsyth and Crawford--Repelled by Gov. Sew-
ard-Judge Campbell's Statement-Northern
proposals to join the Confederacy-Society for

the promotion of National Unity. XXVIII. Siege and Reduction of Ft. Sumter 440

Hesitation---Futile Negotiations-Attempt to
provision Order to open fire-Bombardient
commenced-Fire returned--Interior of the fort
in flames-- Wigtall's volunteer embassy-- Ander.
son surrenders-Garrison leaves for New York-
Dixie jubilant.

PAGE XXXII. West Virginia clings to the Union 516

Convention called-State organization effected
--McClellan advances Fight at Ricb Moun-
tain-Rebel rout at Carrick's Ford--Union Ro
pulse at Scarytown-Surprise at Cross Lanes-
Carnifex Ferry-Guyandotte-Romney-Alle-

ghan y Summit-Huntersville. XXXIII. The War in Old Virginia........528

Ft. Monroe-Great Bethel-Alexandria occu-
pied-Vienna--Patterson's advance-His tank
movement to Charlestown --Johnston rushes to
Manassas-Gen. Sanford's testimony--McDow-
ell advances to Centerville-Blackburn's Ford
-Bull Run-Union defeat and Hight-Causes
thereof-Gen. Scott's plan-Criticised by Hon.

F. P. Blair--Consequences of our failure. XXXIV. First session of the 37th Congress 553

Organization of the House-Mr. Lincoln's first
Message-Various propositions-Henry May's
visit to Richmond-Conservative Republicans
on Slavery and the Union-Mr. Crittenden's
resolve-Proposals to Compromise-Confisca-
tion of Slaves used to promote the Rebellion-

The President's acts approved-- Adjournment. XXXV. Rebellion and War in Missouri.572

State preparations to aid the Rebellion-Flight
of Jackson from Jefferson City-Fight at
Booneville-Camp Cole--State Convention-
Jackson's Proclamation of War-Dug Springs
-Battle of Wilson's Creek-Death of Lyon-
Fremont in comunand-Letter to the President
-Proclaims Martial Law-Mulligan besieged
at Lexington--Surrenders --Price retreats-
Fremont pursces-Zagonyi's Charge at Spring-
field-Fremont superseded-Halleck in com-

mand-Battle of Belmont, XXXVI. War on the Seaboard and Ocean.597

The Privateer Savannah-- The Petrel-Fort
Hatteras-Pensacola and Pickens-The Sum-
ter-Hollins's Ram exploit-Dupont and Sher-
man's Expedition-Capture of Port Royal-
The Treni Case-Surrender of Mason and Sli-

dell, XXXVII. Kentucky adheres to the Union.608

Politiciang-Elections-Overwhelming Union
majorities-Magottin's neutrality-The Preai-
dent's response-Rebel Invasion--Legislature
protests-Gen, Grant occupies Paducah-Zol-
licoffer at Wild Cat-Nelson at Piketon-
Schoepf's Retreat-Rebel Government organ-
ized at Russellville-Geo, W. Johnson made
Governor-Kentucky gravely admitted into
the Southern Confederacy--Full delegation
sent to the Congress at Richinond-Richard

Hawes finally declared Governor.
XXXVIII. The Potomac-Ball's Bluff......618

Scott & failure-Gen. McClellan called to
Washington--Bringe Order out of Chaos
Great increase of our Army--No advance-
Ball's Bluff-Dranesville- All Quiet!—The

Hutchinsons expelled-Whittier's Lyric.
Appended Notes...,

..631
1. The Synod of Kentucky and Slavery. IL.
New School Presbyterians condemn the insti-
tution. III. The Albany Evening Journal on
Gov. Seward and Judge Campbell. IV. Jere.
Clemens on Alabama secession--the Rebels
feared delay, V. The confidence of the Rebels
-Russell on the capture of Washington. VL.
The North Carolina Convention-an error

corrected. ANALYTICAL INDEX, .. ....633

XXIX. The Nation called to arms—and responds...

.449 Virginia sends Envoys to Washington-The President's response to them--He calls for 75,000 Militis--Comments of the Press-Response of the Border State Governors--Baltimore in a ferment-Attack on the 6th MassachuBette-Do, on Pennsylvaniang - The Rebels uppermost-Railronds and telegraphs broken upMayor Brown and the Young' Christians visit Washington to demand that no more Northern troops enter Baltimore-Their success-General Butler lands at Annapolis and recovers Maryland-Her traitorous Legislature.

XXX. Secession resumes its march......473

Shameful surrender of the Norfolk Navy Yard
Secession of Virginia-Tennessee-North Caro-
lins -- Arkansas- Missouri--Bluir und Lyon rally

a Union force at St. Louis-Kentucky. XXXI. The Opposing Forces in conflict...497

Davis's first Message-Relative strength of the
North and the South-European opinion-
Slavery Cotton - Military training -- Ariny
Officers--Northern sympathy with the South
-The heart of the People for the old flag and
their whole country.

ILLUSTRATIONS.

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PRESIDENT AND CABINET. 1. ABRAHAM LINCOLN, President 2. HANNIBAL HAMlin, Vice-President . 3. William H. SEWARD, Secretary of State 4. Salmon P. Chase, Secretary of the Treasury 5. Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War. 6. GIDEON Welles, Secretary of the Navy 7. John P. Usher, Secretary of the Interior 8. MONTGOMERY BLAIR, Postmaster-General 9. EDWARD Bates, Attorney-General 10. SIMON CAMERON, ex-Secretary of War 11. CALEB B. Smith, ex-Secretary of the Interior.

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EMINENT OPPONENTS OF THE SLAVE POWER.

PAGE

PAGE 112

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16. WI

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12. JOHN QUINCY ADAMS

112 18. CASSIUS M. CLAY 13. BENJAMIN LUNDY

19. Joshua R. GIDDINGS 14. HENRY WARD BEECHER .

20. WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON . 15. WENDELL PHILLIPS.

21. GERRIT SMITH ILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT

22. Owen LOVEJOY. 17. JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER

23. CHARLES SUMNER CONFEDERATE CHIEFTAINS. 24. JEFFERSON Davis

336 | 29. JOHN B. Floyd. 25. ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS

30. R. BARNWELL RHETT 26. JUDAH P. BENJAMIN

31. James M. MASON 27. ROBERT TOOMBS .

32. John SLIDELL

33. Isham G. HARRIS
ILLIAM L. YANCEY. .
34. HENRY A. WISE

336

336

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UNION GENERALS. 35. Lieut.-Gen. WINFIELD SCOTT 448 41. Maj.-Gen. Don Carlos BUELL , 448 38. Maj. Gen. John E. WOOL

42.

JOSEPH HOOKER
HENRY W. HALLECK 43.

AMBROSE E. BURNSIDE
Geo. B. McClELLAN 44.

BENJAMIN F. BUTLER
IRWIN McDowell.

45.

DAVID HUNTER.
JOHN C. FREMONT

46. Brig.-Gen. ROBERT ANDERSON

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