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said to have no manufactures, than in those rich ones that are said to abound in them. In the latter you will generally find, both in the clothes and household furniture of the lowest rank of people, a much greater proportion of foreign productions than in the former.

Those manufactures which are fit for distant sale, seem to have been introduced into different countries in two different ways.

Sometimes they have been introduced, in the manner above mentioned, by the violent operation, if one may say so, of the stocks of particular merchants and undertakers, who established them in imitation of some foreign manufactures of the same kind. Such manufactures, therefore, are the offspring of foreign commerce; and such seem to have been the ancient manufactures of silks, vel. vets; and brocades, which flourished in Lucca, during the thirteenth century. They were banished from thence by the tyranny of one of Machiavel's heroes, Castruccio Castracani. In 1910, nine hundred families were driven out of Lucca, of whom thirty-one retired to Venice, and offered to introduce there thesilk manufacture *. Theiroffer was accepted, many privileges were conferred upon them, and they began the manufacture with three hundred workmen. Such,too,seem to have been the manufactures of finecloths that anciently flourished in Flanders, and which were introduced into England in the beginning of the reign of Elizabeth; andsuch are the present silk manufactures of Lyonsand Spitalfields. Manufactures introduced in this manneraregeneral* See Sandi Istoria civile de Vigezia, part 2. vol. i. pagę 347 and


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ly employed upon foreign materials, being imitations of foreign manufactures. When the Venetian manufacture was first established, the materials were all brought from Sicily and the Levant. The more an'cient manufacture of Lucca was likewise carried on with foreign materials. The cultivation of mulberry trees, and the breeding of silk-worms, seem not to have been common in the northern parts of Italy before the sixteenth century. Those arts were not introduced into France till the reign of Charles IX. The manufactures of Flanders were carriedon chiefly with Spanish and English wool. Spanish wool was the material, not of the first woollen manufacture of England, but of the first that was fit for distant sale. More than one half the materials of the Lyons manufacture is at this day foreign silk; when it was first established, the whole, or very nearly the whole, was so. No part of the materials of the Spitalfields manufacture, is ever likely to be the produce of England. The seat of such manufactures, as they are generally introduced by the scheme and project of a few individuals, is sometimes established in a maritime city, and sometimes in an inland town, according as their interest, judgment, or caprice, happen to determine.

Atother times, manufactures for distantsalegraw. up naturally, and as it were of their own accord, by the gradual refinementofthose householdandcoarser manufactures, which must at all times be carried on even in the poorest and rudest countries. Such manufactures are generally employed upon the materials which thecountry produces, and they seem frequently to have been first refined and improved in such inland countries as were, notindeed at a very great, but

at a considerable distance from the sea-coast, and sometimes even from all water carriage. An inland country, naturally fertile and easily cultivated, produces a great surplus of provisions beyond what is necessary for maintaining the cultivators; and on account of the expence of land carriage, and inconveniency of river navigation, it may frequently be difficult to send this surplus abroad. Abundance, therefore, renders provisions cheap, and encourages a great number of workmen to settle in the neighbourhood, who find that their industry can there procure them more of the necessaries and conveniencies of life than in other places. They work up the materials of manufacture which the land produces, and exchange their finished work, or what is the same thing, the price of it, for more materials and provisions. They give a new value to the surplus part of the rude produce, by saving the expence of carrying it to the water side, or to some distant market; and they furnish the cultivators with something in exchange for it, that is either useful or agreeable to them, upon easier terms than they could have obtained it before. The cultivators get a better price for their surplus produce, and can purchase cheaper other conveniencies which they have occasion for. They are thus both encouraged and enabled to increase this surplus produce, by a further improvement and better cultivation of the land; and as the fertility of the land had given birth to the manufacture, so the progress of the manufacture re-acts upon the land, and increases still further its fertility. The manufacturers first supply the neighbourhood, and afterwards, as their work improves and refines, more distant mar

kets. For though neither therude produce, norever
the coarse manufacture, could, without the greatest
'difficulty, support the expence of a considerable
land carriage, the refined and improved manufac-
ture easily may. In a small bulk it frequently con-
tains the price of a great quantity of rude produce.
A piece of fine cloth, for example, which weighs
only eighty pounds, contains in it the price, not
only of eighty pounds weight of wool, but some-
times of several thousand weight of corn, the
maintenance of the different working people, and
oftheirimmediate employers. The corn which could,
with difficulty, have been carried abroad in its own
shape, is in this manner virtually exported in that
of thecomplete manufacture, and may easily be sent
to the remotest corners of the world. In this man-
ner, have grown up naturally, and as it were of their
own accord, the manufactures of Leeds, Halifax,
Sheffield, Birmingham, and Wolverhampton. Such
manufactures are the offspring of agriculture. In
the modern history of Europe, their extension and
improvement have generally been posterior to those
which were the offspring of foreign commerce. Eng-
land was noted for the manufactureoffinecloths made
of Spanish wool, more than a century before any

of those which now flourish in the places above mentioned were fit for foreign sale. The extension and improvement of these last could not take place butin consequence of the extension and improvement of agriculture, the last and greatest effect of foreign commerce, and of the manufactures immediately introduced by it, and which I shall now proceed to explain.

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How the Commerce of the Towns contributed to the

Improvement of the Country.

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The increase and riches of commercial and manufacturing towns, contributed to the improvement and cultivation of the countries to which they belonged, in three different ways.

First, by affording a great and ready market for the rude produce of the country, they gave encouragement to its cultivation and further improvement. This benefit was not even confined to the countries in which they were situated, but extended, more or less, to all those with which they had any dealings. To all of them they afforded a market for some part either of their rude or manufactured produce, and, consequently, gave some encouragement to the industry and improvement of all. Their own country, however, on account of its neighbourhood, neces* sarily derived the greatest benefit from this market. Its rude produce being charged with less carriage, the traders could pay the growers a better price for it, and yet afford it as cheap to the consumers as that of more distant countries.

Secondly, the wealth acquired by the inhabitants of cities was frequently employed in purchasing such lands as were to be sold, of which a great part would frequently be uncultivated. Merchants are common. ly ambitious of becoming country gentlemen, and, when they do, they are generally the best of all improvers. A merchant is accustomed to employ his money chiefly in profitable projects; whereas a mere - country gentleman is accustomed to employ it

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