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whom the Sultan was then at war, and bade him defiance. Parga, however, agaiu escaped by calling from Corfu a Russian force for its protection; and when, by the treaty of Tilsit, in 1807, the Ionian Islands were delivered up to France, and Berthier was sent as the Governor-General of Corfu, he threw into the place a garrison of three hundred Frenchmen. Ali Pasha, however, having information that the secret instructions of Berthier directed him to occupy the Ionian Islands alone, dispatched his effendi to Corfu, to insist on the French troops being withdrawn from Parga; and the general, satisfied of the justice of his den and, informed the Parganotes that he was about to cede the place to the Turkish government, to whom of right it belonged.
Had this determination been carried into effect, the Parganotes were aware, from their previous conduct, that they had little mercy to expect. The Primates therefore repaired in a body to Corfu, and throwing themselves at the general's feet, implored his compassion for their unfortunate countrymen, and besought him not to surrender them to certain destruction. Overcome by their earnest entreaties, the general recalled his orders, and permitted the garrison to remain for the protection of the place, which the French continued to hold as an appendage to the lonian Islands.
In 1814 the star of Napoleon was visibly declining; and Ali, whom the circumstance did not escape, marched an army to the confines of Parga, and took possession of Aja, a village within the limits. A favourite nephew of the Pasha was shot, at the head of his troops, by a Parganote lying in ambush. No other person was killed on either side, yet the Parganotes boasted of a great victory, and even succeeded in persuading Lieutenant-Colonel De Bosset
that they had fought desperately in their own defence, and repulsed the Turks;' and that' the bey had fallen in the action with a great number of his men."* It is amusing to observe how completely these people duped M. de Bosset, who for a time commanded the garrison, with stories of their warlike achievements.
In the month of March, 1814, when all the Ionian Islands had fallen into the possession of the English, except Corfu, between which and Parga, (then in possession of the French,) all intercourse had become not only difficult but nearly impracticable; and when the relief of the former place by French reinforcements was rendered almost impossible by the closeness of the blockade-the Parganotes, ever on the watch to avail themselves of passing events, and apprehensive that it was the intention of the French to deliver the fortress to Ali, (who, as we mentioned above, had taken possession of Aja,) sent a deputation to the English commandant of
the island of Paxo, requesting the assistance of the British troops, and promising to give up the fortress to them. There was no summons on the part of the British for a surrender of the fort, as stated by the writer of the Exposé; the officer in command refused even to send a force to take possession of it, until a written declaration was brought from the principal inhabitants to shew there was no treachery. Two frigates, the Bacchante and the Havannah, then took on board a detachment of troops to form the garrison, and, on their landing with a party of marines, the French made little or no resistance; and the British troops occupied Parga.
The bravery of the Parganotes has been much vaunted on this occasion, and one of their agents (“who is not a British subject) has supplied the northern critics with a very pretty episode of an old woman smuggling the British flag under her petticoat into the fortress: unluckily, however, for the moral beauty and effect of this story, the flag was carried in by four stout fellows disguised in women's clothes, who overpowered the sentinel, killed a French commissary, and hoisted the English colours. This was the extent of their gallant bearing—but the act afforded them an opportunity of giving a practical commentary on their boasted good faith.*
To return, however, to our subject—no stipulations whatever were entered into by, or in behalf of, the British government with the Parganotes; no other promises made-no other assurances given, than such as held out to them generally a continuance of security and protection so long as the British flag should fly on their fort: and so far was General Campbell from accepting the offer • to follow the fate of the Seven Islands,'with which they concluded their declaration, t or from giving any encouragement to the deputation of primates, who subsequently went to Corfu to implore him
* When Ali Pasha had got possession of Previsa, as above stated, he warned the Parganotes of the fate of that place, told them he had no desire to make war on them, and only asked a conference to settle the terms on which they should become fellow-subjects of his sovereign-whatever form of government you wish for,' he added, “ I will grant to you.' The Parganotes, having a strong French garrison, treated this proposal with contempt, and returned no answer. He then wrote to desire they would send away or destroy the French garrison. To this they replied, very properly, that they neither could nor would do so,-' our country,' said they,' has boasted her good faith for four centuries past, and in that time often vindicated it with her blood. How then shall we now sully that glory?—Never.' This never was not of long duration.-In less than eight years afterwards, finding the English the stronger party, they sent the deputation abovementioned, betrayed the French into our hands, murdered a poor commissary, and would not, we incline to think, have greatly scrupled to destroy them all if we had been atrocious enough to ask it.
tö We, the undersigned Primates of Parga, engage, on behalf of the population, that at the moment when the frigates of his Britannic Majesty shall appear before our fortress, we will subject our country and territories to the protection of the invincible arms of Great Britain, and will plant on the walls of our fortress her glorious flag; it being the determination of our country to follow the fate of the Ionian Islands, as we have always been under the saine jurisdiction. (Signed, &c.)
that that the fate of Parga might be united for ever to that of the Ionian Islands,' (a condition which would not have been conclusive, even if he had accepted it,) that he told them in plain terms, (as Sir James Gordon had done before him,) that he could accede to no such condition; but that they might rely on the protection of the British flag, until their fate should be decided at a general peace. It is indeed perfectly obvious that no stipulation of this kind could be made, for Corfu was at the time in full possession of France; and no man would or could, under those circumstances, have been absurd enough to determine by implication that the revival of the Septinsular Republic would form a part of the ultimate arrangements of the allied
powers. General Sir James Campbell reported to his government the step which he had taken, and in which he had been guided by the double motive of humanity and policy ;-of saving these unfortunate people from an unconditional surrender to Ali, and of obtaining a temporary possession of a spot which might assist in the effectual blockade of Corfu. The British government approved of his conduct, and directed him to continue to hold Parga provisionally in possession, as he already did several of the Ionian Islands, until their final destination should be arrunged at the conclusion of a general peace. In these instructions from home no assurances whatever were held out to the Parganotes as to their future destination, nor, we repeat it, did General Campbell or any other officer, either at the first voluntary overture of this people, or at the time of surrender, or at any subsequent period, give them any other assurances than those we have mentioned.
It has been falsely asserted that Sir James Campbell verbally confirmed the wishes of the Parganote deputation. Sir James Campbell is dead—but we have before us a letter dictated by him, a few days before his death, in answer to a question put to him by a brother officer, in which he says, “I can assure you most distinctly, that no officers were at any time authorized by me, either verbally or otherwise, to enter into any engagement on the part of the British government, or to give any assurances to the Parganotes, with respect to Parga remaining permanently under the protection of Great Britain.' We wish to direct the reader's attention particularly to this point, because it forms, in fact, the whole gist of the case, and because M. de Bosset has asserted what he had not the means of knowing, and what we know to be directly contrary to truth,—that Captain Hoste (now Sir William) promised the deputies they should be considered under the protection of Great Britain, and follow the fate of the Ionian Islands."*
The Parganotes, in reality, were so well aware that no agreement, either written or verbal, had been acceded to, which could unite
their fate with that of the Ionian Islands;' and that, as a matter of right, they were subjects of the Ottoman Porte, that, having failed with General Campbell, they beset Sir Thomas Maitland, immediately after his arrival, with applications for a more intimate connection, pressing for answers, which of course he constantly resisted.
At the Congress of Vienna, and at Paris in 1815, the governments of Russia, Austria and Prussia, after much deliberation, offered to Great Britain the sovereign protection of the lonian Republic; and in November of the same year, a treaty was signed, by which the Ionian Islands and their dependencies, us described in the Treaty of 1800 between Russia and the Ottoman Porte, were placed under the protection of England. The Parganotes, or their officious agents, affect to be surprized that Parga was not mentioned in the Treaty of Paris, though they cannot but know that every arrangement which related to Parga was comprehended in the Treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Porte, which was still in full force; and that it was only referred to in that of Paris for the sake of description.
By this treaty of 1800, the continental possessions of Parga, Previsa, Vonitza and Butrinto, were restored in full sovereignty to the Porte, and were no longer to form a part of the Iopian Republic, then placed under the sovereignty of Russia. In reference to it, the islands of Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante, Santa Maura, Ithaca, Cerigo and Paxo, with their dependencies, (but to the exclusion by name of the four places above-mentioned,) were erected into a free and independent state under the immediate protection of Great Britain. In the discussion that took place, the Treaty of 1800, which had been renewed and confirmed in 1812 by that of Bucharest, between Russia and the Porte, made it incumbent on the allied powers to respect the territorial rights of the Porte to the continental possessions of the late Venetian Republic; and they were excluded from the Septinsular Republic, of which, in fact, they had never constituted a part. Thus, when Great Britain was called, in 1815, to the protection of the Ionian Republic, Parga formed no part of that Republic. Parga, of course, followed the fate of the other three ex-Venetian states, and became, like them, united to the Turkish empire.
It does not follow that because, in the Treaty of Great Britain with the other powers of Europe in 1815, a reference is made to the Treaty between Russia and the Porte of 1800, for the purpose (and for no other) of determining the limits of the lonian Republic, and because Parga had fallen by other means, and
by by the seeking of the inhabitants, with a view to their own safety, into her provisional occupation;-it does not therefore follow, we say, that Great Britain was bound in the most distant manner to interfere, or to see that the conditions which had been stipulated by the Porte with Russia, and which are detailed in the Treaty of 1800, should be fulfilled towards the Parganotes. There is no article in the British Treaty of 1815 which confirms, or by which she takes upon herself, the conditions of 1800; they were perfectly foreign to her; they could not have been listened to for a moment; and that treaty was referred to, as we said before, merely as the means of defining the limits of the new territory to be placed under her protection. As far, therefore, as treaties, or engagements, or promises are concerned, Great Britain might have withdrawn her troops from Parga, and left it open at any time she pleased to the re-occupation of the Ottoman Porte.
But, to be more explicit.— There were three ways in which Great Britain might have acted with regard to Parga. ist. She might (as we have just said) at once have withdrawn the garrison, and left the Parganotes to themselves. 2dly, She might have taken upon herself the Russian guarantee of 1800. 3dly, She might have kept possession of Parga as an appendage to the Seven Islands. The first would have been inhuman. The second equally so, if we may judge from what took place at Previsa, Vonitza, and Butrinto, under the immediate guarantee of Russia that guarantee had proved utterly unavailing to secure the inhabitants from every species of oppression and inhumanity, or against the infraction of every stipulation on the part of the Turks; how then could it be hoped, that Parga, which had given an equal or greater degree of offence than any of them, would escape the vengeance of an unfeeling and exasperated tyrant,—for so they themselves represented Ali Pasha, under whose immediate government they were to be placed ?—How could it be hoped that those conditions would be better respected in the case of Parga, than in those of the three places abovementioned, which were equally included in the same treaty ? On the contrary, the very act of their having called in a British garrison at the moment when Ali Pasha had made himself certain of obtaining possession of the town, would naturally add to that thirst of vengeance with which the Parganotes supposed him to be actuated against them for former disappointments which their intrigues had occasioned. To stipulate, therefore, with the Ottoman Porte for the fulfilment of these conditions, would have been, in fact, to deliver over the Parganotes to the unlimited fury of Ali Pasha ; in whose territories they are situated, and who is supposed to manage the internal concerns of his government, without much consulting the pleasure of his master.