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as the ministry of the sacrae largitiones; it surveyed and collected the taxation of the Empire. Some departments indeed were withdrawn from the Logothete’s control, especially the vestiarium which became an independent bureau. For early seals of Aoyode'rat yevutof see Schlumberger, Sig. 530 No. 1, 531 No. 10.1

(1) The XaprovAdpwi aeycixot rofi o'expe'rov (below spathar rank Takt. Usp. 127; spathars Phil. 735,3) probably were the heads of a number of difierent departments or scrinia. Many of the same scrinia which existed in the ofiicium of the comes largitionum must have continued down to later times. They are enumerated in the Not. Dig, Or. xiii (canonum, aureae massae, &c.). Their chiefs were then called primicerii.a

(2) Xap'rovkapwt r631: dpxMiv, also called 02 é'fw Xaprovltdpwi roii yevixofi (Cer. 69418), where é’fw shows that they functioned in the provinces. 'réiv apKAé‘w suggests that they may have taken the place of the praepositi thesaurorum of the Notitia. This, however, is by no means certain. But they cannot be identified with the chartularii de cohortalibus ofieiis uniusque provinciae, mentioned in a constitution of Leo I (O. I. 10. 23. 3, A.D. 468) as revising taxes, for these are evidently mere clerks. There is an interesting seal (of a later period, tenth—eleventh century) in Panchenko, 13, 129, of Eustathios, spatharocandidatus, who was (at the same time, apparently) gamma; 1'05 yemxoii Aoyoaco'tov XGPTOUAlipLOS‘ and 'n'pwrovo'rdptos 16311 ’Avaro)uxéiv. In the latter capacity he was subordinate to the Chartulary of the Sakellion (see below).

(3) The éré-ir-rat r611 swam» were the provincial tax-controllers. Cp. Cont. Th. 346, Schlumberger, Sig. 513. The egwamz seem to have been difierent from the é-ro'm-ai. The two names are closely associated in Cont. Th., loc. cit., but they are enumerated distinctly in Alexius Comn., Nov. 30 (Zach., p. 374). [The seal of Michael Kamateros, éfiwwrils rfis Adams (end of twelfth century, Sig. 516) is hardly relevant.]

(4) The functions of the xo’aq-res tad“... must have been connected with the aqueducts, probably not in Constantinople but in all parts of the Empire. Cp. the comes formarum, under the Prefect of Rome in Not. Dig., Occ. iv. 4.

1 The curious seal, published by Panchenko 13. 124, is too uncertain to build on. He ascribes it to the first half of the seventh century, and restores ['flwdwnu e’vdofob’fii-rw)? d1r]o in'r(zirmv) 1ra'rpix(i)[ou ho]y09z'(rou) Bao'LMlxa‘w) [d P]pxa[pim]v. If dpxapiaw is right, J. was a rationalis under the Praetorian Prefect.

’ For the a-éxperov of the Log. Gen. in the eleventh century see MiklosichMiiller, op. cit. vi. 50, 54-5, where psydkoi Xaprovképioi and ho'yapimrrai are mentioned ; cp. his Ao'yaptao-rr’ls and vo‘l’éplol. in Alex. Comn. Nov. 34, p. 398.

(5) 6 oixw'nxo's. The name of this ofiicial is rightly given in Phil. 789,, but appears as 6 xurnxds in the list of officia and in 736,. The true form is shown by two seals of the Comnenian period (Sig. 559) : (1) lwavvr) [3(aaiMxw) mra6(apuo) Kat Xap'rovhapuo rov om.— o-nvov (sic); (2) A66 [= Aavtb] [a']vo'rap1.w 'rov OLKLO'TLKO'U ; also a seal (3) in Konstantopulos, No. 435 a nor. r017 olxw'flxoii. It is impossible to admit Panchenko’s theory that oixw-nxo’s is a mistake for 'n'w'nxo's (xiii. 116). The ,Bacnmxés manxo's of the three seals which he has published and who, as he has shown (ib. vii. 40 sqq.),l had functions connected with maritime commerce, must be accepted; but there can be no doubt that olxwruais was also an ofiicial title. Besides the seals cited above, cp. olxwnxé‘w in the Donation of Alex. Comn. Ad). 1087, Miklosich-Miiller, Acta et Dipl. vi. 28. The meaning is quite obscure.

(6) The Kovpspxidproi were the officers who collected duties and customs throughout the Empire. They represent the comites com— merciorum of Not. Dig., Or. xiii. 6, and are thus evidence of the continuity between the spheres of the comes s. larg. and the General Logothete. The term xoauepmdpros is ofiicially used in the sixth century. Schlumberger publishes a seal (Me'l. 237, soap’ Tvpov) which he ascribes to that period, and another dates from the reign of Justin II (Sig. 317). In Chron. Pasch. 721 (A.D. 626) we meet Geo'6wpos 6 év6oEo'ra-ros Kolmepma'pios 6 riyv Za-drw (P),2 evidently a comes commerciorum.

A seal [16511 B]ao'i)\l.xéiu Koppepm'wv o'rpa'rryias‘ 'EMuifioB] is dated to A. D. 708 (Mél. 221, and cp. 200). Early seals of xouaepmdpioi are comparatively numerous, cp. Sig. 471 sqq.; Panchenko, viii. 18 sqq. I may note those of Constantine (Sig. 165) d'n'oc'n'dpxcov Kai 'yevucoii xoppepmaplov d-n'odrixns 'EAM’1609 (zirrolifixn = customs depét), and of Kosmas (Panchenko, xiii. 115) Koppepxraplov d'n'odrimys ‘Ayxfipas (P), both belonging to the reign of Constans II, and the latter dated apparently to A. D. 644. These ofiicials might have the rank of hypatos or spathar: cp. Panchenko, ib. 147 No. 489, 149 No. 495.

(7) 6 rfis xovpa'rwpfas, fuller title 7362 6(0-1100. Kai) én'i rfis' Kovparwpins 'réiv Baammé‘w arm». This functionary presided over a special department dealing with the fiscal revenue derived from the taxation of the Imperial estates (res privata). I believe that this was the function of the magistri privatae who are under the com. s. larg. in Not. Dig. (Or. xiii. 15). For we find that before J ustinian’s innovation in the government of Cappadocia in A. D. 536, the collection of the fiscal revenue in the Imperial estates was in the hands of payIa-repes (Nov. 44. 2, 4, p. 266), who are evidently the magistri privatae. Justinian replaced them, for Cappadocia, by 1rptix'ropes‘. At some subsequent period, these media-ope: were either replaced by, or placed under, a single controller 6 é-ni rfis Kovpa-rwpias. This title is explained by the concrete use of Kovpa'rwpl'a = res privata. Cp. Theoph. 4872 TE; 6?: Kpefr‘rova. ‘r631: xr-quo'n'wv eZs ‘rip: Bao'zhuu‘yv xovparopL'av aipeo’eai.

' Cp. Ashbnrner, The Rhodian Sealaw (1909), cxxxii. 93; Leontios, Vita Iohanm's, ed. Gelzer, xxvii, xxviii; Pap. Brit. Mus. iv. No. 1341, p. 13. 2 Rendered in the Latin version of Ducange, cammerciurius Glasti.

(8) It may be conjectured with probability that 6 Ko'lms 11*]; Aaplas (cp. lamna, see Reiske, ad loc.) had to do with bullion and mines, and it is tempting to identify him with the comes metallorum per Illyricum who appears under the comes s. larg., in the Not. Diy., 0r. xiii. 11. For a seal of a x. 1179 A. see Konstantopulos, No. 206.

(9) The ammmz were the ofiicers who presided over the collection of taxes. (Cp. Leo VI, Nov. 61, p. 157 robs @111 avMoyfiv rzBv ounce-[mu ¢dpwv KaGw-rape'vovs‘, 5L0u<117a9 6' al'rroils‘fi a'vwidws ouLMa Kahe'iv 0156.) Paulos d évoofdraros' (i116 i'mdrwv Kai Swwqrhs 16321 dva-rohméiv €1rapX163u,in the Acts of the Sixth Ecum. Council A. n. 680 (Mansi, xi. p. 209) probably represents the ‘comes largitionum per dioecesim Asianam ’ (Not. Dig. Or. xiii. 5). The abolition of the diocesan divisions led to the replacement of the ‘ comites largitionum per omnes dioceses ’ by filoutn'rai of themes and districts. See the seals of ozomnmi' in Sig. 496-7 (cp. M61. 205 dlotm'rrfi rfis "Avfipov, saec. ix); Panchenko, xiii. 131 blOl-Krlffi Eduov Kai 'rfis‘ Xi'ov, saec. viii—ix; Mansi, xii. 837 dioecete quad Latina dispositor Siciliae dicitur).l They were responsible to the General Logothete for the fiscal revenue from their districts, and liable to punishment if it fell short (cp. Theoph. 867,7, from which it appezfi‘s that Theodotos, the Logothete under Justinian II, was unreasonably strict in calling the 5wu<qrai to account). It appears from Theoph. 41218 that there were 6wm11-ai at Constantinople as well as in the provinces. The 1rpdx'ropes, who are often mentioned in our sources, must not be confounded with the alarm-mi. The ‘IfpdKTOpGS were the ofiicials who actually went round and collected the taxes (¢opo)\o'yoi), and every 6wu<nr1is must have had a number of 1rpdx‘ropes‘ under him.

(10) Konevnavo's (xofievnavo's ?) 2 seems to be equivalent to KOfl-fifll'fldvo's from xopBév-ros = conventus (e. g. Chron. Pasch. 59620, John Mal. 4382,, 4.9412), cp. Cer. 4221,, 4:335 o'ihévnov Kai xope'vrnv (Kofie'v'rov .7) ;

‘ The oflice of 8. might be united with that of Koppcpxuipws, cp. the seal (saec.

viii—ix) published by Panchenko, xiii. 87.
' The letters p. and B were easily confused.

“M

but the meaning is obscure. Can it have anything to do with market dues?

(11, 12) 'n'pwroxayxehkdptos, Ka'yxeMtdpiot.

(3) d Aoyofie'rns‘ 1'06 orpa'rtw'rixoii.

In the fifth and sixth centuries one of the most important functions of the arca of the Praetorian Prefect was to furnish the pay of the army (cp. C. I. 12. 37). Difiiculty has been felt as to the duties of the schola chartulariorum in the ofiicium of the Pr. Pr. of Africa (C. I. 1. 27. 1 (38)).1 I conjecture that some of their duties were connected with the armonae militares. In the Prefecture of the East We find scriniarii of the Pr. Pr. administering military expenditure (arparm'rixd btolxeiv), and in Egypt such a scriniarius was called o'rpanw-ro's; see Justinian, Nov. 96. 13, p. 544.

In the seventh century we find that a separate military chest, called r6 arpanmnxdv, has been formed, at least for the eastern portion of the Empire, and removed from the control of the Praetorian Prefect. In A. D. 680 we meet Julian 6 évBofdra-ros d-rro {m-drmv 'mrrpfxtos Kai orpa'rtm'rtxoii Aoyoliérqs, as one of the ministers who, along with the Emperor, are present at the Sixth General Council (Mansi, xi. 209). Schlumberger has published (M61. 242) a seal Efizrrafilov STRAT LOGOTHETOY which seem to belong to the seventh century.2

Under Irene we meet Ioannes Aoyofie’rns 1'01’) a-rpa-nwnxofi Aoyoawlov, holding the rank of (,BaatAuu‘Js) do-ndpws- (therefore a eunuch) in A.D. 787 (Mansi, xii. 999, 1051) and attending the sessions of the Seventh Council; two years later he is Sakellarios as well as My. o'rpar.

(1) XGPTOUAdPLOL roii oexpe'rov. Takt. Usp. oi Xap'r. r05 o-rpa'rtwnxofi 127 (6 xap'r. 129) ; Cer. 52415, 69419, Phil. 7523 (1'05 orp. Aoyofie'rov); Sig. 353 seal of Constantine [3' o-lradapoxavdtfiarm Kat xap'r' r’ o'rparno'r' (eighth—ninth century) and of John v1ra'rm ue'yaMo Xap'rovAapLm rov orpa'riwrtxov AOYOQHHOU (perhaps tenth century).

(2, 3) XGPTO'UAdPLOL r631; dead-mu and 11311 rayaa’irwv. The chartularius of a theme or a tagma was subordinate to the Log. Strat. as well as to the Stratégos or Domestic. He performed similar duties to those which used to be performed by scriniarii (arpa-riw-ro’s, &c., see above) of the Praetorian Prefect.

1 Cp. Karlowa, i. 887.

a For other seals see Sig. 352. Panchenko, ix. 372 ’Io(éw,r;) inr(d'rcp) [X]0706[<'-r]i [a]1'p[a]no[r]ix[ofi] (eighth—ninth century).

(4) We met Aeya-rdpwr also in the oflice of the Excubiton and the Arithmos.

(5) rim-(ours, the ofiicers who distributed pay to the soldiers (oi 61m'oves réiu rayadrwv Phil. 7386). This was their function in the sixth century, Procopius, B. V. i. 17, ii. 20; Justinian, Nov. 150. 1, p. 262. (Cp. Nov. 141. 11, p. 221 in case of foederati.)

(6) 1rpwroxayK€AAapLos, implying xayxeMdpwc.

(7) pavbd'ropes‘.

The vo-rdpror 1'06 arpano-rixoii, not mentioned in this list, appear in Cer. 69420 (they received half the honorarium of the chartularii).

(4) 6 Ao'yodé'rns‘ roii 6po'uov.

This title should correspond to ratioualis cursus publici. There was no such ofiicial, and we may conclude that the Logothete of the Course descends from the Curiosus cursus publici praesentalis who was in the ofiicium of the magister ofiiciorum (Not. Dig., Or. xi. 50, cp. Lydus, 2. 10).

The magister ofiiciorum can be traced in the seventh century to the reign of Constantine IV. In the reign of Heraclius the post was held by Bonus (Chron. Pasch. 718, 726), by Anianus and Theodorus (Niceph. Patr. 24,, 2518).1 In A.D. 680 it was held by Niketas (1'06 év6oford'rov rim‘: frrrdrwv 'n'a'rptm'ov Kai aayfcrrpov r6311 pummel, 6¢¢u<fwv, Acta Conc. Coast. III, Mansi, xi. 209, 217). For the break-up of the office and for the pa'yw-rpor of the eighth century see above B (14) p. 29.

The magister had performed multifarious duties, and he was the functionary who most nearly corresponded to a minister of foreign afiairs. This important part of his work was transferred to the curiosus who presided over the state post. It seems not unlikely that before the time of Leo III the magister had been deprived of some of his functions, and, for instance, that the state post may have been raised to a separate and independent office. In any case the official who derived his title from the state post and was named Aoyo0érns rofi Bpo'uov, a name which does not appear till the eighth century, took over also from the mag. off. the duties connected with diplomacy, correspondence with foreign powers, and the reception of ambassadors.

When Aoyode'rns is used without qualification, in Byzantine writers, the Logothete of the Course is generally meant (e. g. Cont. Th. 1223,

1In Chron. Pasch. 696, a.n. 605, the subadiuoa of the magister is mentioned.

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