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century aimed at making this succession a regular practice, since it would secure them the unrestricted appointment of the Patriarch.l

(4) 6 Xap-rovhdplos 1'06 Kavixheiov.

This official, generally called 6 but 106 Kamxaciov, first appears in our sources in the ninth century. Under Michael 11 it was held by Theoktistos, and Genesios (2320) thus explains the meaning of the title : rilv (‘1:11-06 Baa-Mimi“) Kaluiuov e‘yxexa'pw'ro npo'volav, 6:.’ 06 xavixMos e’6ofd(c-ro. His duty evidently was to be present when the Imperial pen signed state documents, and he also signed for the Emperor. A hull of Manuel Comnenus (Nov. 63, p. 457) was endorsed 516 106 e’ni. 1'06 KavmAu’ov Kai. 6u<a1066100 @eofiaipov 1'06 Z-rvnaoirov. He also prepared the codicilli of the Patricians, Phil. 710. Such duties required no oflicium,z and the post was often combined with another oflice. Thus Theoktistos was at the same time Logothete of the Course, and A.D. 869 the post was held by Christophoros, who was protoasecretis (Acta of Fourth Council of Cple., Mansi, xvi. 409).

The title Xap'rovhdpros shows that originally this ofiicial was one of the chartularii of the a-éxperou.

(5) 6 1rpw1'00'1'pdrc0p.

The Protostrator was strictly the chief of the taxis of stratores, whose duty originally was to assist the Emperor in mounting his horse (cp. Hist. Aug. xiii. 7 cum illum in equum stralor eius levaret) and perform the duty of grooms (in-nudged." In the sixth century we meet a schola stratorum in the oflicium of the Praetorian Prefect of Africa (C. I. 1. 27, § 33). We meet a fioyéo'rmos 1'63» 01-pa1'd1pwv in the time Of Justinian 11 along With a 'n'pwroo'rpdrwp 1'06 dghxiov. In A. n. 765 we meet a 01:110. Kai ,Bammxbs 7rpw1'00'1'pd1'wp (ib. 43815). See also Cont. Th. 18,, 24 . Basil, the Macedonian, began his career in the Imperial service as a strator and then became Protostrator (ib. 231). He had before been Protostrator (chief groom) of Theophilitzes (ib. 22510).

The Protostrator rides beside the Emperor, with the Comes staoull, Cer. 8118. At a triumph he rides close to the Emperor, with the flamullum, ib. 609m, and places the Imperial spear on the necks of captives, 6101,. He may introduce foreign visitors, instead of the Protospatharios 1'. Bao'LMxdw, or the Comes stabuli, 56815. In the age of Philotheos his place in the ofiicial hierarchy was not high, but in later times it grew in dignity and importance, and in the age of the Palaeologi it was one of the highest of all (Codinus, 9). Nicetas equates it with the marshal, nape’a'XaAxos, of the western kingdoms.

1 Cp. the observation of Cedrenus (Skylitzes), ii. 581.

2 But there was a person described as 6 oxsvdfwv 1‘6 xam’nhwv—the manufacturer or mixer of the ink (Ger. 798,). my. seems to have properly meant the inkbottle, cp. Ducange, c. v.

3 C. Th. 6. 31. 1 (A. 1). 365-373 P) concerns stratores in the province of Nova Epirus, but it is not clear that they belong to the Emperor's personal service.

(1) orpdrwpes, 1'09 Baaduxoii orpa'rwptxiov Phil. 73619. Cp. Cer. 811,, ,4. Most of the seals of BamMxoi orpdropes published by Schlumberger are late, but there are two (Sig. 597) of the eighth to ninth centuries.

(2) rippoqnfkaxes (for dppa'rogblihaxés‘ cp.&puaro¢v)\axeiov, see Ducange, 8.1).), meaning ofiicials in charge of the iippa'ra = 61M, military gear in the Imperial dppapévrov. There is, however, a difiiculty, for the dpuane’vrov, which was under the control of the Magister Ofliciorum (cp. Justinian, Nov. 108, 1, 3),1 was managed under Phocas (Theoph. 297) by an oiiicial named 6 e’n-dvw ‘r06 dppaue’v-rov, and he survived till the tenth century at least: see Phil. 7365 6 01110. mi iz'pxmv r06 rip/J", and 78821; Cer. 67320 (a protospatharios, A.D. 949) and 67615 r06 xa'remivw 1'06 dpna-ros (so Reiske, but the MS. has tipua’, and we should unquestionably read dpnape'vrov). The difiiculty is that he is not mentioned in the ofiicial lists of Philotheos. It is hardly possible to regard him as included under the dpnocbfihaxes. One would expect him to be mentioned distinctly. In the Takt. Usp. he appears, 6 dpxmv roii dppape'v'rov, immediately after 5 rfis Karao-rda'ems‘ (124). Tile seal of an épxwv roii Baarmxoii dppanévrov is published by Konstantopulos, No. 186.

(3) o'mfihoxdpn'res. They were three in number: the araflaoxéuns 'rfis wo'Mws, and oi. 6150 craflkoxo'unres (? of Malagina), wept raf. 47820, 4791.

(6) 6 e'n'i rfis Karau'ra'ocws‘.

This ofiicial, generally called 6 rfis xa-ram-daews, does not appear in the list of possible patricians, but may be a protospathar, in Philotheos (in Takt. Usp. he is a spathar or lower, 124, 127). The title may be rendered Master of Ceremonies. [The use of Ka'rda'rao'ts' in the sense of ‘ order’ is illustrated by wept raf. 503 ‘riyv uh: KaTG'JTGO'U) 'rfis' wo'Aews‘ Kai ¢LAoxaMav firomofaaro 6 é'ampxoa] The court ceremonial in former times was controlled by the magister ofiiciorum, and a work on the subject, entitled 'rrepi rfis xaram'éaews, was compiled in the sixth century by Peter the Patrician who held that oflice. Under the magister was ‘the scrinium dispositionum, of which the head was the comes dispositionum (C. Th. 6. 26. 10 and 18), and it devolved on him to arrange for the details of the Emperor’s daily programme. 6 £16 'rfis xa-raam’ocws seems to descend from this functionary (KGTG’G'TGO’LS‘ may represent dispositio) .

1 rd aeiov rip-(5v zippape'vror. It contained ornto'ma 617)“!

There was a special oflfcium ammissionum under the magister (Not. 01'. xi. 17), of which the chief was the proximus ammissionum (Peter, in Cer. 3942) ; but in the time of Justinian there was already a minusré‘w zil‘annvmo’vwv (Peter, Cer. i. 84). In one ceremony we meet a KO'I-L‘IIS r6311 cifiu'qaio'vwv (i. 41. 209). The oficial named 6 66pm:aovva’mos is more frequently mentioned (Cer. 800,, 238, 2392,, 44210), and from 269l6 it appears that he might be under the orders of 6 rfig Karao'roio'ews. This is what we should expect, for in the sixth century 6 dpLa'o'LwvdMos was ‘the first of the silentiaries’ (Lydus, 731,).1 In Cer. 800,, 8021., he is mentioned along with the fiuurdptol. of the Palace, and must have been a subordinate of one of the eunuch oflicials (such as the 'n'a'n'las or deli'repos).

Under 6 117; Karao'rdocws were the rdéas- of those orders of rank which Philotheos distinguishes as senatorial from Imperial in the stricter sense, namely, the ii-naroi, the vestetores, the silentiaries, the apoeparchontes (for all of which see above under B, p. 23 sqq.). Besides these avyKAn-rixof are also mentioned in the oi‘ficium, which, if the text is correct, points to a lower class of o-vyKAqnxoi not belonging to those five or higher orders. It is difficult to believe that such a class existed, and it seems to me highly probable, if not certain, that o'vyxArrrmof is an error for o'rpa'nlhdrat, who were a synklétic order, and would naturally, along with the apoeparchontes, belong here.

We constantly find the Master of Ceremonies acting in conjunction with silentiaries, e. g. Cer. 81,6, 12725, 238,, 503,. From Phil. 710lo we learn that a newly elevated Patrician gave a fee of twelve nomismata to the Master of Ceremonies, Zwev r06 (hi/‘Kiev, and a fee of eighty nom. to be divided among the 611M011. This is explained by the ceremony of the creation of Patricians, Cer. i. 47. The silentiarii act as an escort of the new Patricians ; cp. 23912 , 241.,_,.

(7) 6 fiopéo'nxos' 'réiv Baa-Max:311.

See above under 6 'n'pmroo'n'aadpws‘ ré‘w BamMmBu (VI. 4).

1 Cp. Pet. Patr. in Ger. 404,, ,5, 405,5.

D. DIoNrrIEs AND OFFICES or 'rnn Ensucns.

In the fifth century the cubicularii were the most important class of the Palace servants and were under the Praepositus. The other court servants were under the Castrensis s. palatii, so far as they were not under the Master of Offices.1 The castrensis seems to have disappeared by the sixth century.2 The cubicularii included the chief officials who had charge of the private wardrobe, the Imperial table and cellars, as well as the Imperial bedchamber.

The history of these domestic offices is parallel to the history of the offices of state in the principles of its development. (1) A number of the subordinate oflicials are elevated to independent, co-ordinate positions, and (2) titles of office are adopted as grades of rank.

The cubicularii of the bedchamber, who were specially distinguished as Komauirai,3 are separated from the rest of the cubiculum, under their chief the Parakoimémenos, who becomes a high official. The private wardrobe becomes an independent oflice under the Protovestiarios, and similarly the service of the table under 6 61:1 11']; rpa'n'erns'.

The rest of the cubiculum (0i. xovBcxovAdpLoL 1'06 xovBovxAeiov, distinguished from 01 x. 1'06 Baa-Mixofi K017631109) seem to have remained under the Praepositus, and the primicerius s. cubiculi of the fifth century (Not. Dig., 01'. i. 17) continued to be their chief (Phil. 72121, Cer. 79817).

The servants who attended to the cleaning, heating, lighting of the Palace, the porters of the gates, &c., had probably been under the control of the castrensis. In the later period we find that two have been raised to the dignity of independent officials, the Papias and the Deuteros. '

In a wide sense of the term all the eunuch oflicials belonged to the cubiculum. They were graded in eight ranks, and of these the praepositi, protospathars, primicerii, and ostiarii are described as of. 111106016376; 1'06 pvmrruro6 xovflovxhelov (Phil. 750m).4 1) 'rdfcs' 1'06 K., Phil. 7 0520 , seems to be used in the wide sense.

The term olxaaxo's' (privy, domestic) may be explained here. We find it used of the Parakoim6menos (Phil. 7845), and of the private vestiarion (see above under 6 Xapr. 1'06 Bum). In the latter case it distinguishes the private from the public Imperial Wardrobe, and its most important significance is to limit the term ,Bacnmxo’s. There were many flaomucot, of various ranks, who were not eunuchs and did not belong to the cubiculum, but were engaged in the more personal and domestic service of the Emperor in the Palace. These (protospathars, spatharocandidates, spathars, &c.) were distinguished as oZxeraKor’. Compare Cer. 1001-, 1'61: dpxdvrmv r01") xovBovKAa’ov Kai )SamMKiSu oiKetaxéiv (and 103). So in Takt. Usp. 118 oi olK. 'll'pwfoo‘mlfidptot, 123 oi. o-waadprol. Kai. 0iK., 128 04'. oZKeLaKoi (candidati, &C.),1 and cp. Phil. 78522. The rr-n'aéidprot, &c., who were under the Protospatharios r631; gamma» were of course not oixaaxot’, nor were the protospathars, &c., of the uayAdfltou. On the other hand, the protospathars, &c., of the Chrysotriklinos (Phil. 7321,, 7331,) probably were oZKnaKoZ.

' Cp. Mommsen, 513. ' Mommsen,ib., suggests that his place was taken by the cum palati. ' Cp. Phil. , 734M.

' Cp. C81‘. , 551; 1'6"! 1rpal1rooi1'wv 1'06 xaufiouxhn'ov.

We also find the term used of KpLTaL', Phil. 73320 of lr‘rraaapox. oi oZK. Kai. Kprrat'. But 7'3218 oi. 'npwrorrvr. Kai Kp., 7'352 oi. 0'1ra0. Kai Kp. These judges were doubtless those who were known later as the xpurai. 'rofi firjkov or E's-i 1'01? i-n'noopo'uov (Zacharia von L., Geschichte des griechisch-rb'm. Rechts, 358 sqq.). oixaanot’ seems to be used to distinguish them from the Kprrai. 16v fieyec-Suwv who were under the Prefect of the City.

The financial office 6112 ‘r6311 oixuaKéiv, which was important in later times, was not instituted as early as the ninth century. The seal of Basil, a spathar who held this office, cannot be as early as Schlumberger thinks (Sig. 556).

I. ’A€|:G.L 5th. ,Bpafidwv. Of the eight orders by which the eunuchs of the Palace were graded, they shared two in common with barbati, namely, the proto

spathariate and the patriciate. The others are, as already observed, names of ofiice which have become grades of rank.

(1) vulrw-rtdpws Insigne (Bpafie'iov): linen Kaufman with purple

embroidery.

(2) KOUflLKOUAépl-OS ,, Kaju'mov edged with purple, and 'n'apaymiorov.

(3) maaapoxovflutovhdptos ,, gold-handled sword.

(4) dandpros ,, gold band with jewelled handle.

(5) 1rptmmjptos ,, White tunic with gold broideredshoulderpieces.

(6) n'pco'roo'n'aadptos ,, gold collar with jewels and pearls.

(7) 1rpanro'rn'ros ,, ivory tablets, not inscribed.

(8) fla'rpiKtos ,, ivory inscribed tablets.

‘ The meaning of 1rpwroomuaxoi, 124, is not Clear. For a seal of a protosp. Kai oiKuaKdr See Sig. 558.

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