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Mr. FISH, of Boston.-Mr. President, the committee has considered numbers LV to LXII, and has authorized me to submit the following resolution:
Resolved, That the National Board of Trade reaffirms its belief that the destruction of wealth and the human misery attendant upon warfare may be greatly diminished by the extension of the method of arbitration in the settlement of disputes between nations, and further expresses the hope that the United States Government may find it expedient to initiate steps to bring about, by diplomatic negotiations, the organization of the proposed International Court of Arbitral Justice and to secure by arrangement among the nations an effective method of enforcing the decrees of that court.
The resolution was adopted.
Mr. FISH.-The other resolutions are:
Resolved, That the National Board of Trade records its gratification of the marked improvement which has taken place in general methods of commercial and industrial education.
Resolved, further, That it is the sense of this Board that such instruction is desirable, not only in the higher institutions, but in public and preparatory schools, forming as it does a necessary part of the equipment of every business man.
ENCOURAGEMENT OF FOREIGN TRADE.
WHEREAS, Events of the past year have completely verified the statement of our foreign trade conditions made at the last meeting of this Board, concerning the steady and inevitable reduction in our exportable balance of foodstuffs and the rapid increase of our industrial productivity;
Resolved That the National Board of Trade restates its belief that the foreign trade is to be one of the most important factors in the future prosperity of the United States, and calls for every encouragement, in principle and in detail, which Congress can devise.
FRED. P. FISH, Chairman,
G. WALDO SMITH.
I move the adoption of those resolutions.
Mr. HOWARD, of Chicago.-As I understand the Chairman, part of this is introduced by the New York Produce Ex
change in regard to the diminishing volume of our exports, fruit products, and the certainty that they cannot increase, and another statement here that there is a constantly growing demand for our produce.
The PRESIDENT.-Is that the report of the whole committee?
Mr. FISH.-There were only three present. There were two resolutions, LX and LXI, that seemed to cover the whole ground. It was the judgment of Mr. DOUGLAS, Mr. SMITH and myself that LXI would cover the ground adequately, and therefore we reported that resolution, instead of LX, which was in a sense a duplicate of LXI.
Mr. HOWARD.-The objection I make to it is that it is decrying the export grain trade. Why should you not introduce a resolution here covering all exports? Grain men are certainly trying to keep up the grain exports and it seems to me strange that such a resolution would come from New York. I would suggest to have it recommitted and the resolution covering all exports.
The PRESIDENT.-Do you accept that?
Mr. FISH.-I would not accept that without consultation with the committee. I am not sure that the facts would justify us in accepting it.
Mr. HOWARD.-The gentlemen of the East are very anxious for the gentlemen of the West to assist them in the merchant marine. Now, if we have not anything to export you would not expect us to help for the privilege of exporting the manufactured articles of the country.
Mr. FISH.-Would the gentleman be satisfied if the preamble were left out and simply state that the National Board of Trade restates its belief that the foreign trade is to be one of the most important factors in the future prosperity of the United States and calls for every encouragement in principle and in detail which Congress can devise? Mr. HOWARD.-Yes.
Mr. FISH.-The committee accepts that amendment.
The PRESIDENT.-The question is on the adoption of the resolutions as read, leaving out the preamble:
WHEREAS, Events of the past year have completely verified the statement of our foreign trade conditions, made at the last meeting of this Board, concerning the steady and inevitable reduction in our exportable balance of food stuffs and the rapid increase of our industrial productivity.
The resolutions were adopted.
The PRESIDENT.-Everything is a compromise in this. world, and that is one.
NATIONAL ARBITRATION OF LABOR
Mr. FISH.-It did not seem wise to report on the resolution with reference to arbitration in labor matters.
The PRESIDENT.-What number is that?
Mr. FISH.-That is No. LVII. That would bring not only the committee, but the National Board of Trade, into a subject that has not yet been thoroughly fought out, or worked out, and it seemed to the committee on the whole that it was preferable not to offer a resolution now in accordance with the suggestion of LVII.
The PRESIDENT.—The committee decided to offer no resolutions on LVII, national arbitration, as proposed by the New York Produce Exchange.
Mr. CARHART.-Well, we will survive.
Mr. DOUGLAS, of New York.-I might say that I hardly think Mr. FISH is correct in that statement, I understood that was to go over. There were only three gentlemen present. But, in view of Mr. CARHART'S acceptance, I will not endeavor to change the status.
The PRESIDENT.-Well, you cannot go against the acceptance of Mr. CARHART. You could not recall that.
Mr. CARHART.-I have not accepted anything.
The PRESIDENT.—No, you simply said you would survive.
Mr. DOUGLAS. Did you announce that the Committee would have to convene again to report to the Board with reference to the question of the consular service and reform? We will have another meeting.
Mr. FISH.-The question of consular service and reform, again, forms a subject upon which we have made no report. That will have to remain for a further meeting of the committee.
The PRESIDENT.-Then, Mr. FISH, have that prepared in triplicate, so as it can go through the proper course. That will be a subject taken up again by your committee and presented.
The next committee is National Bankruptcy Act. That has made its report. The next is Government Inspection of Grain. Can that come up?
Mr. HOWARD, of Chicago.-The Chairman is not present.
Mr. McKIBBEN, of Boston, submitted the following report:
The committee to which was referred the resolution presented by the Pittsburg Chamber of Commerce relative to the need of a better distribution of immigrants now coming in at our ports, respectfully submits the following report:
The great volume of immigration flows into the United States at Ellis Island, New York. A great majority of those who seek our shores as immigrants come with very little money, and of necessity are obliged to either remain in New York City or in close proximity thereto. The vast majority of the male immigrants coming to the United States were either farmers or engaged in farm work or common labor in Europe. In the agricultural sections of this country there is a large and growing demand for the services of just such men as these, but unless they are informed as to the opportunities which are open to them on the farms they remain in ignorance of the real facts, and are likely to become dwellers in the slums of the large cities, rather than workers in
the fields of the nation. Only those who have friends in the interior willing to aid them are likely, under ordinary conditions, to go many miles away from the seaport.
On July 1, 1907, there was established in the Department of Commerce and Labor, a Division of Information, the duties of which should be to promote a beneficial distribution of aliens admitted into the United States. This Division was authorized to collect information concerning the resources, products and physical characteristics of the various States and Territories, and to present these facts to admitted aliens and to all others who might desire this information. That division aims especially to supply immigrants with information, and to direct their steps to places in the interior of this country where they may better their condition.
The division secures its information by corresponding with the representatives of the States, counties and municipalities as to the opportunities for laborers in their respective localities. An official in each county is corresponded with and requested to state where lands are available for cultivation in his county, the prices of land, its proximity to and means of transportation to the market, the kinds and number of crops, the schools and their grades, the churches-in fact, every item which a homeseeker would inquire about is sought by the division through recognized sources of authority, and this in turn is verified later.
The department at present has offices for the collection of this information at two ports only-New York and Galveston. Its operation in those cities has had the effect of paving the way for a substantial relief of the congestion in our cities.
In view of the beneficial results of the operations of these two bureaus, and of the desirability of securing a wider distribution of our immigrants, the passage of the following resolutions is recommended:
Resolved, That the National Board of Trade commends the work done by the Immigration Bureau, through its Division of Information, in placing at the disposal of immigrants information which enables them to obtain employment at interior points, and especially on our farms, and thus tending to prevent a further increase in the overcrowded slums of our cities; and recommends the providing by Congress of a larger appropriation to make possible the opening of branch offices of this division at the various seaports of our country; and
Resolved, That, as a means of more equitably distributing our immigrant population, and as a means of relieving the congestion of our Eastern coast cities, the National Board of Trade approves the suggestion of President Taft, that additional stations for the reception of immigrants be established at one or more South Atlantic or Gulf ports.