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THE most exciting event of 1895, in this quarter of the world-and it may yet prove to be the most important-was the declaration by our Government of a purpose to apply the Monroe doctrine to the boundary dispute that has been going on so long between Great Britain and Venezuela concerning the westward extension of British Guiana. Whether the English claim is honest, or is merely an expression of the cupidity excited by the discovery of rich gold fields in eastern Venezuela, is a fair subject for discussion, and its examination will be greatly assisted by the history of the case in our article on "Venezuela" and the accompanying colored map. The assertion of the Monroe doctrine, with its possible results, naturally brings the inquiry, What have we to rely upon in case of sudden war? and this is answered in large part by the article in this volume on the "National Guard," which has been compiled carefully from official sources and shows the strength of that organization in the several States and groups of States. It is illustrated with portraits of some of the best known of the commanding officers. For information as to actual wars waged in 1895 the reader will turn to the account of the Italian advance into Abyssinia, that of the British advance in Afghanistan, and the rebellion in Cuba.
Turning from the contemplation of war to the arts of peace, we have an important article on "Manufactures in the United States," which shows the capital invested, the cost of material, and the value of the product, in 165 cities, wherever the capital in any one industry exceeds $200,000.
The progress of science is recorded in the articles "Associations for the Advancement of Science," "Astronomy," "Chemistry," " ogy," "Physics," and "Physiology," all of which are freely subheaded, so that Metallurgy," "Meteorolthe reader can readily find the specific subject in which he is interested. matters mechanical rather than scientific the articles "Bicycles," "EngineerFor ing," ‚” "Horseless Carriages," and "Patents" may be consulted.
The articles on the Dominion of Canada and the separate provinces, written by a native Canadian from direct information, will be found unusually full and interesting. And beyond Canada is our own Alaska. Material is not available for an article on this Territory every year, but in the present volume we present one from the pen of Prof. Russell, of the University of Michigan, who has studied the subject on the ground.
The articles on the great religious denominations will be found full as usual, and that class this year includes also some on the smaller and less known organizations, such as "Christian Endeavor," "Congress of Free Churches," "Evangelical Association," "Independent Roman Catholic Church," "Reunion of
Christendom," and "Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints." The progress of humane work is indicated to some extent by the articles on Dog Shelters" and "Peace Societies," while the opposite tendency may be read in the story of the atrocious massacres in Armenia, as set forth in the article "Turkey."
The article on the Congress of the United States, setting forth the acts and debates of the short session, covers the subjects of the Currency, the Bond Question, Silver Coinage, some Japanese matters, Hawaiian relations, the Seal question, Copyright, Lotteries, Military Parks, the Nicaragua Canal, and others. And for what took place in our monetary centers the "Financial Review of 1895" may be consulted, while minor happenings are briefly chronicled under "Disasters" and "Events." The annual record of the Fine Arts is contributed by John D. Champlin, author of the "Cyclopedia of Painters and Paintings," and there is a rapid review of the year's publications in the three Literature articles. The article "Gifts and Bequests" presents a gratifying record.
The most notable of the special articles in this volume is that on the "Cotton States and International Exhibition," held in Atlanta, Ga., which is illustrated with a map and seven views. Other special articles are those on "Elks, Order of," "Football," "Félix Faure," "Irish-American Alliance," "Oleomargarine," "Polish Alliance," "Search Light," "Sloyd," and "West Africa."
The death roll of 1895 is notable. The scientific world suffered the loss of Huxley in England, Pasteur in France, and Dana in our own country. Our losses of clergymen include Edward Beecher, John A. Broadus, Arthur Brooks, O. B. Frothingham, Alonzo A. Miner, John G. Morris, Samuel F. Smith, and William M. Taylor. In art we lost Charles B. Atwood, Edwin Forbes, M. F. H. de Haas, Thomas Hovenden, Peter F. Rothermel, William W. Story, Calvert Vaux, and Leonard W. Volk; of our authors, H. H. Boyesen, Eugene Field, and Charles Étienne Gayarré; of our educators, James R. Boise, Charlotte Emerson Brown, Norman A. Calkins, Henry A. Coit, Henry Coppee, A. C. Kendrick, Charles Northend, Julius H. Seeley, and John M. Waddell; of our jurists, Walter Q. Gresham, Ebenezer R. Hoar, William Strong, and Allen G. Thurman; of our soldiers, Joseph B. Carr, Philip St. George Cooke, Richard Irving Dodge, Michael T. Donohue, Augustus V. Kautz, Erasmus D. Keyes, and John Newton; of our composers, Harrison Millard and George F. Root; and of our orators, Frederick Douglass. Among the notable names in the European necrology are those of the statesmen Lord Aberdare, Lord Randolph Churchill, Nicholas Giers, Jules St.-Hilaire, Count Taaffe, and Stambuloff; the soldiers Sir Patrick Grant, Marshal Canrobert, and Archduke Albrecht; John Bell, the sculptor; Sir Roundell Palmer, Sir Henry Rawlinson; the authors John Stuart Blackie, Alexandre Dumas, Gustav Freytag, Frederick LockerLampson, John R. Seeley, Heinrich von Sybel, and Stepniak. In philanthropy we have lost Linda Gilbert, and England, Emily Faithful. Sketches of all these and many more, with numerous portraits, will be found in this volume.
The book closes with an index covering the twenty volumes of the series. NEW YORK, April 2, 1896.
Among the Contributors to this Volume of the "Annual Cyclopædia" are the following:
Oscar Fay Adams,
Austin E. Ford,
Editor of " Freeman's Journal."
Author of "Handbook of American Authors."
SEELEY, JOHN ROBERT,
STORY, WILLIAM WETMORE, and other articles.
Mrs. Florence E. Angle.
WASHINGTON (State), and other articles.
Mrs. Fredericka B. Gilchrist,
Author of "The True Story of Hamlet and
PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH,
and other articles.
Rev. William E. Griffis, D. D.,
Formerly Professor of Physics in the University
George J. Hagar,
GIFTS AND BEQUESTS,
OBITUARIES, AMERICAN (in part),
Rev. Moses Harvey,
Author of "Text-book of Newfoundland History."
Author of "Etching in America."
HAAS, MAURITZ F. H. DE,
Benjamin B. Hoffman,
Author of "The Sloyd System of Wood-Work-
J. Castell Hopkins,
Author of "Life and Work of Mr. Gladstone."
and articles on the Canadian provinces.
Abram S. Isaacs, Ph. D.,
Editor of "Jewish Messenger."
Mrs. Helen Kendrick Johnson,