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Robespierre (Francis Maximilian banana, 470; specimens of trees,

Joseph Isidore), his hatred of Eng ib. 475; remarks on orchids, 476;
land explained, cxxviii. 308

his greenhouse reforms criticised,
Robinson (Henry Crabb, b. 1775, ib.; suggestions for fruit-growing,

d. 1867), diaries of, edited by 478; on mushroom-culture at Mont-
Mr. Sadler, cxxx. 509; absurdly rouge, 481; merits of his work,
compared to Pepys and Boswell, 483
ib.; destitute of the dramatic Rob Roy. See McGregor
faculty, ib.; his robust longevity, Rochdale Pioneers, the Society of,
510; editor's materials, 511; origin of, cxx. 408; its advantages
inaccurate anecdotes, 512; bad described, 413, 414; educational
memory of details, 513; family efforts of, 427; proposal for closing
religion, ib.; his early life, 514; 1 reading-room on Sundays rejected,
studies in Germany, ib.; ac 428
quaintance with Schiller and Rochelle, La, bravery of Huguenots
Goethe, 515; with Madame de at the siege of, cxxiv. 103; cxxx.
Staël, 516; revisits the Continent, 375
ib.; a writer for the “Times,' 517; Rockingham (Charles Watson Went-
his life at the Bar, 518; his pro worth, Marquis of, 1730-1782),
fessional income, ib. 519 ; his his brief administration in 1765,
lavish generosity, ib. ; Bar anec cxxvi. 20
dotes, 520; visit to Ireland, ib.; Rock-Salt, production of, in Eng-
first meeting with O'Connell, ib. ; land, cxx. 484
and Shiel, 522; he was never in Rodney (George Brydges, Lord, 1717
love, ib.; description of Miss Bush, -1792), his improved naval tactics,
523; his adoration of Wordsworth, cxxxvi. 581
Coleridge, and Lamb, ib. ; simpli Rogers (Samuel, 1762-1855), his
city of his lion-worship, 525 ; his remark on autographs, cxxvi. 493
peculiar affection for Lamb, 529; | Rogers (Professor H. D.), his 'Es-
conversation with Mary Lamb, says on the Coal Formation and
530; anecdotes of Landor, ib. 531 ; its Fossils,' cxi. 68; his theory of
later intimacy with Lady Byron, coal deposits, 78,79; his estimates
532; meeting with Moore, ib.; of coal-fields in different countries,
and Macaulay, 533 ; his disregard 88 note; on anthracite deposits in
of politics, 534; early habits of America, 93; his laborious re-
free-thinking, 535; his mental searches, 94
instability, ib. ; religious specula Rogers (Professor J. E. Thorold),
tions, 536; shallowness of his his History of Agriculture and
scepticism, 537; his opinions of Prices in England, 1259–1793,'
Dissent, ib. ; on the existence of cxxvi. 43; his original authorities,

evil, 539; his amiable gossip, 539 44; under-estimates the popula-
Robinson (Admiral), his judicious tion, 49, 50; his social sketches,

appointment to the Controllership 52, 55; anecdotes of early use of
of the Navy, cxviii. 183

wine, 56 ; on the famine of
Robinson (Mr. W.), his · Parks and 1315-16, 59; on the effects of the
Gardens of Paris,' cxxx. 459; his Black Death, 60-65; on Tyler's
opportunities of observation, ib. ; insurrection, ib.; his views on
on the importance of squares, 464; peasant-proprietorship and strict
description of the Abyssinian settlements, 67-69

Rogers (Professor J. E. Thorold),

his letter on the Irish Land
Question, cxxxi. 272 note

on early prices of books in
England, cxxxix. 12
Roland (Marie-Jeanne Phlipon,
Madame, 1754-1793), rival me-
moirs of, cxxi. 284; her Appeal to
Impartial Posterity,' edited by M.
Bosc, 386; the Champagneux edi-
tion, 387; her correspondence, 388;
her love for Buzot, 389; discovery
of her letters to him, 390; and of
his portrait, 391; her memoirs
composed in prison, 393; doubts
of their authenticity, 394 note ;
her want of delicacy, ib. ; baneful
influence of Rousseau, 395; her
early zeal for learning, 396 ; her
convent life, 398; her earnestness
and sincerity, 399; friendship for
the Cannets, ib. ; her love of theo-
rising, 400; her masculine virtues,
401 ; her intellectual pride, 403 ;
portrait of her husband, 404; her

Marriage of Reason,' 405; retire-
ment at Clos La Platière, 408 ;
plunges into politics, 409; intimacy
with the Revolutionary leaders,
410; her services to her husband,
412; distrust of the Court party,
ib.; her letter to Louis XVI., 413 ;
her aversion to Danton, ib.; her
imprisonment, 417 ; declines pro-
posals to escape, 419; her passion
for Buzot renewed, ib. ; ideas of
suicide, 421 ; her sentence, 423;
her firm conduct on the scaffold,
ib.; her husband's suicide, 424;
her character, ib.
- M. Beugnot's description of,

at her trial, cxxv. 314
Rolls, Master of the, Bill for his ex-

clusion from Parliament, cxiv.

282
Romagna, the, lawless state of, in

the sixteenth century, cxxx. 11
Roman Catholics (Roman Catholic

Church), exclusive • Italianism'

of, since the Reformation, cxvi.

276
Roman Catholics (Roman Catholic

Church), fiction of vicars-apostolic
or bishops in partibus infidelium,
cxviii. 566 note

- her corrupt condition in Scot-
land at the Reformation, cxix. 185;
other causes of its unpopularity
there, 186; repressive measures of
the Reformers, 187; its gradual
reintroduction, 188; its vitality
in the Highlands, 189; seminaries
for Scottish priests abroad, 192

- her claims to a divine com-
mission, cxxviii. 259 ; rejects all
allegiance to the civil power, ib.;
her separate sovereignty in foreign
countries, ib. ; her compacts with
States for establishment, ib.; con-

sistency of her pretensions, 261
Roman Catholic Church, recent evi-

dence of internal divisions, cxxxiv.
134 (see Vatican Council); two

classes of the laity in, 149
Roman Catholicism, misdirected de-

votion of, illustrated by history,
cxxx. 52 ; ethnological features of,

67
Roman Catholics, their position in

the Church under Elizabeth,

cxxiii. 148
-- their pretensions respecting

the diocesan system, cxxxvii. 201
Roman Catholics (Irish), recent ag-

gressiveness of, in Ireland, cxxiii.
462 ; numerical proportion of,
there, 463
- marriages of, cxxx. 277, 279;
contradictory attitude of, respect-
ing endowment, 331

- their demands of educational
control, cxxxv. 166, 196. See

Irish Education
Roman Empire, the, cxxix. 68; his-

torians of, under the Cæsars, ib.
71; social life in the time of Plu-
tarch, 72 ; propensity to crowd in
cities, 75; disorder before Augus-

tus, 80; senatorial maladministra- | Roman poets, high social position of,
tion, 82; provincial improvements in the Augustan age, cxxxiii, 536;
under the Cæsars, 83 ; reforming their obligations to the Greeks,
schemes of Julius Cæsar, 84; 540
policy of Augustus, 85 ; Cæsari Romans (ancient), their generalisa-
anism considered as a remedy for tion of the Deity, cxii. 392; their
society, ib. ; survey of the Empire theory of foreign conquest, 397
under Augustus, ib. ; want of bal -- their character contrasted
ances to central power, 87; impe with the Greeks, cxv. 446; theory
rialism under Domitian and Trajan of their purely Latin origin, 448;
compared, 88; panegyric of Pliny, their conimercial enterprise, 451;
89; unity desired as a remedy for their greatness ascribed to their
Anarchy in the provinces, 90 ; ex system of law, 452; fall of the
tension of franchise to foreign Decemvirate, 454; their scheme of
subjects, ib.; Cæsarian improve conquest limited to Italy, 456;
ments in the provinces, ib.; anxi character of Roman Imperialism,
ety of provincials to become Rc 476
man citizens, 91, 92 ; system of - military roads of, under the
Augustus the only one available Empire, cxix. 342; their highway
for the time, 93 ; external gran legislation, 343; the roads in
deur of his rule, ib.; building Britain, 348
achievements of Nerva's succes - their system of consular years,
sors, 94; Hadrian's visits to the cxx. 227 ; later changes in family
provinces, 95; dark side of impe names of, 235, 236; proportion
rialism, 96; cost of material pro of early Christians in the army,
sperity, ib. ; power of prætors and 239
proconsuls, 97 ; jealousy at Rome -- busts and statues of, cxxiv.
of the provincials, 99; the Empire 351, 353 ; collectors of autographs,
protected by want of combination 354 ; their writing paper and
among its subjects, ib. ; limits of ciphers, ib.; habit of scribbling
religious toleration, ib. 100; Plu on monuments, 355; book-trade at
tarch's views of Cæsarianism and Rome, ib.; scribes and copyists,
official life, 101 ; general features ib.; earliest extant specimens of
of Cæsarianism, ib. 102

writing, 356. See Manuscripts
Roman Law, considered as a basis of - their attachment to law and

general jurisprudence, cxviii. 445; custom, cxxix. 97, 98
Mr. Austin's estimate of, as such, Romance Languages, rise of, cxv.
446; systematising genius of Ro 78; their connexion with Latin,
man jurists, ib.; secondary value 85
of their arrangement, 447; origin - Sir G. C. Lewis on, cxvii.
of the Jus Gentium, 459 ; divisions 152, 160
of the Corpus Juris, 470 ; the Romanesque architecture, its intro-
jus rerum and personarum, 471 ; duction into Spain, cxxii. 172, 175
primary division of Rights, 472; Romanovski (General), his defeat of
on quasi-contracts, 473; on rights the King of Bokhara, cxxv. 40
arising from offences, ib.; limited Rome (Ancient), literary relations
conception of delicts, 478; con- ' with Greece, cxv. 73
fused notions of Jurists between 1 - chronology of, cxvi.91; cxxv.
Titulus and Modus Acquirendi, 479/ 129

Rome (Ancient), character of the Fla of Italy, cxiii. 276 ; the choice

vian era,cxix. 28; critical position of I determined by sentiment, 280
Vespasian at his accession, 30; de Rome (Ancient), Passion-Week
cay of Cæsarianism, 32; reform of music at, cxv. 139
the Senate, 35; practical character - architectural defects of St.
of Roman education, 37; declining Peter's, cxviii. 84 ; early inter-
attractions of military service, 38; course of Saxons with, 241
republican spirit of philosophy in, - Scotch Jesuit College at,
40; importance attached to public cxix. 192
works, 41 ; cosmopolitan charac — the catacombs of, cxx. 217;
ter of its literature under the discovery of, in 1578, ib.; explo-
Empire, 44; the Antonine pesti rations by Bosio, 218; Christian
lence, 57; signs of national dege inscriptions in, 219; dated epi-
neracy under Aurelius, 59

taphs in, 230; small proportion of
-- Decemviral government at, Greek on epitaphs, 232; Jewish
cxxxii. 174

catacomb discovered, 243
- history and topography of, - considered by Napoleon III.
by Mr. Burn, cxxxv. 293 ; the the natural metropolis of Italy,
city in A.D. 357, ib. ; visit of Con cxxiv. 419
stantine, 295; the ancient Roma - French occupation of, in
quadrata,' 299 ; history of the 1808, cxxviii. 485
Palatine Hill, ib., 302; mansions of - literary decadence of, after
the early magnates, 303; Impe Buniface VIII., cxxxvi. 117, 122
rial quarter under Augustus, 306; - Murray's handbook of,
and his successors, 307 ; classical cxxxviii. 500
allusions to localities, ib. note ; - - different types of female
Caligula's palace, 308; 'Golden beauty at, cxl. 180
House' of Nero, 310; direction of Rome (Church of), theory of Greek
the fire, 311 ; destruction of tem predominance in, examined, cxx.
ples, 312; the · Domus aurea' de 232, 233
scribed, 313; the Flavian Amphi - its censorship of science and
theatre, 314; Baths of Titus, ib.; literature, cxxx. 322, 323; ques-
works of Domitian, 315; and of tion of membership, 327; its rela-
later Emperors, ib., 316; promi tions to the State, 329
nent interest of the Palatine, 317; - - relations of, with the State
prospects of archæological re since the Reformation, cxxxix.
search, 318; site of the modern 360, 362 ; recent aggressiveness
city, 319; company for dredging of, ib. ; proper attitude of the
the Tiber, 320; Cloaca of the State, 363 ; relations with Prussia
Tarquins, ib.; illusory expectations before 1848, ib., 366; effects of
of treasure-trove, 321

Austrian defeat on, 367
- allusion to, in the Apoca- | Rome (Republican), supremacy of
lypse, cxl. 492 ; social corruption the Senate, cxv. 455 ; political
of, under the Emperors, 502

degeneracy, 461; growth of inili-
- its municipal liberties gup tary despotism, ib.
pressed by the Papacy, cxii. - its supposed effeteness at the
122; the Campagna of, 128 time of Cæsar, cxxiv. 406, 407;
note

servile spirit of the nation, 408;
- objections to, as the capital social features of, compared with

A A

the Stuart Monarchy, ib.; short | Sacred Way, ib.; buildings on the
comings of the aristocratical party, Palatine, ib. ; state of the Capitol,
413; characters of their leaders, ib.; Forum of Trajan, 362; aspect
414

of the Campus Martius to the
Rome (Mediæval), work of Mr. Einsiedeln pilgrim in the ninth
Gregorovius on, cxviii. 342; his century, 363; destructive effects
torical gap supplied by his re of reconstruction of the modern
searches, 343; its fortunes allied city, ib. ; rise of monasteries in,
with the Papacy, ib.; architectural 364; effects of Papal power, 1b.;
improvements of Emperors after civil contentions, 365; desolation
Trajan, 344; the Basilica of Con of the Campagna by the Saracens,
stantine, ib. ; visit of Constantius ib. ; their plunder of basilicas
to, ib. ; closing of heathen temples, outside the walls, 366 : precincts
345; entry of Honorius, ib. ; de fortified by Leo IV., ib. ; the
struction of Pagan monuments, ib.; *Leonine City,' 367 ; Castle of St.
captured by Alaric, 346 ; agencies Angelo, ib. ; the Papal Quarter,
of destruction compared, ib.; cul ib. ; malaria in the Campagna,
pability of the Goths, 347; dis 369; besieged by Henry IV., 370;
persion of the city nobles, 348; captured and burnt by Guiscard,
tinal overthrow of paganism, ib.; ib., 371 ; his injuries to the city
attempted restoration of the city, never repaired, ib.; accumulation of
ib. ; completely sacked by the ruins, ib.; subsequent ravages by
Vandals under Genseric, ib. ; city factions, 372; fortified towers
gradual process of demolition, of the nobles, ih. ; the towers de-
349 ; third capture of, by Ricimer, destroyed by Brancaleone, 373;
350 ; prosperity under Theodoric, altered aspect of the city after
ib.; the games of the Circus re 1084, 374 ; improvements by
vived by him, ib.; ancient build Sixtus IV., ib. ; revolution of the
ings repaired, ib. ; ravages of twelfth century, 375; later want
Totila, 351, 352 ; attempted re of progress, 376 ; poverty of the
storation by Belisarius, ib.; aque city due to indolence, ib.; degene-
ducts destroyed by the Goths, racy of the populace in the middle
353 ; recovered by Narses, ib. ; ages, 377
degradation under Gregory the Romilly (Sir Samuel, 1757-1818),
Great, ib.; the plague, 354; com his character by Lord Kingsdown,
mencement of its Papal history, cxxix. 48
ib.; growth of ecclesiastical archi - Mr. Landor's panegyric on,
tecture, 355 ; consecration of the cxxx. 230
Pantheon, 356; conversion of an- Roncali, Diet of (1158), cxxxiii. 461
cient materials to construction of Ropes, collections of, used at execu-
churches, ib.; the Basilica of St. tions, cxxiv. 361
Lorenzo, 357 ; manufacture of Rosa (M.), his theory of the topo-
lime, ib. ; plundering by Con graphy of Rome, cxxxv. 299
stans II. and Urban VIII., 358 Roscoe (Professor H. E.), on the
and note; resort of pilgrims to, opalescence of the atmosphere,
359 ; visit of a pilgrim from cxxx. 146
Einsiedeln, ib. ; the Forum, ib., - his Lectures on Spectrum
360 ; Temples of Venus and Analysis, cxxxi. 56
nus, ib. ; the Arch of Titus, 361; | Rose (Right Hon. George, 1741

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