Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB

BULGARIA.

The estimated area of the Principality of Bulgaria proper is 24,360 English square miles, and of South Bulgaria (or Eastern Roumelia) 13,500 square miles. By a census taken on January 1, 1893, the population of the whole Principality was ascertained to be 3,309,816; the population of Eastern Roumelia being 992,386. The great majority of the inhabitants live by the cultivation of the soil and the produce of their flocks and herds.

The budget estimates for 1897 were: Revenue, 83,425,019 levs (francs); expenditure, 82,422,659 levs. The chief items of revenue were: Direct taxes, 33,731,145 levs; customs and excise, 31,080,000 levs. The chief items of expenditure were: Public debt, 18,267,992 levs; finance, 4,991,940 levs; interior, 8,380,876 levs; public instruction, 9,188,560 levs; war, 22,104,000 levs. The public debt consists of 10,000,000 levs, besides a loan of 46,000,000 levs in 1886 for the purchase of Varna-Rustchuk Railway, a loan of 30,000,000 levs in 1889, and a loan of 142,000,000 levs in 1892 (of which 72,000,000 only have yet been paid over). The total amount of these loans in January, 1897, was 169,814,404 levs, while the total assets of the State amounted to 157,200,806 levs. Besides these liabilities, there are the Russian occupation debt of 1,000,0007, the East Roumelian tribute, the Bulgarian tribute, and the still undetermined share of the Turkish debt.

The principal agricultural product is wheat, which is largely exported. There are (1892) 5.359,900 acres arable, 770,600 meadow, 237,120 vineyard, 111,120 market garden, etc.; woods and forests, 3,291,100. The total cultivated area is 9,770,700 acres; uncultivated but fit for cultivation, 13,651,300; unfit for cultivation, 1,099,150. There are about 400,000 proprietors of land, and the rural population not possessing land numbers about 2,329,900.

The public debt consists of a loan of 46,777,500 levs in 1886 for purchase of Varna-Rustchuk Railway (42,063,500 levs outstanding in January, 1897); a loan of 30,000,000 leys in 1888-9 (27,440,000 outstanding); one of 142,780,000 levs in 1892, of which 76,030,000 have been issued; there has also been received an advance of 10,000,000 levs on account of a further issue of this loan; the Russian occupation debt, 11,918,296 levs outstanding; the East Roumelian tribute debt to the Ottoman Government, 6,785,208 levs.

The total value of the imports into Bulgaria in 1896 amounted to 76,530,278 levs or francs, as compared with 69,020,295 frs. for 1895. The exports for 1896 were valued at 108,739,977 frs., against 77,685,546 frs. in 1895. The following table shows the trade by countries, in thousands of levs or francs:

[blocks in formation]

The chief imports in 1896 were: Textiles, 26,467,000 levs; colonial goods, 6,575,000 levs; metals, 8,788,000 levs; machinery, 2,611,000 levs; timber and furniture, 4,124,000 levs. Chief exports: Grain, 94,089 levs; live stock, 4,247,000 levs.

The number of vessels entered at the port of Varna in 1896 was 795, of 496,331 tons; and 793, of 468,687 tons, cleared; at Bourgas, 489 vessels, of 347,285 tons, entered.

For RAILROADS, POST-OFFICES, TELEGRAPHS, see Index.

There is a National Bank of Bulgaria, with headquarters at Sofia and branches at Philippopolis, Rustchuk, and Varna; its capital is $2,000,000, provided by the State, a reserve fund of $150,000, and $80,000 notes in circulation. The Ottoman Bank has a branch at Philippopolis, and in each district there is an agricultural bank under control of the Government. There are nickel and bronze stotinki (centimes), silver coins of 1⁄2, 1, 2, and 5 levs (francs); the notes of the National Bank circulate at par.

[blocks in formation]

For details of States and Provinces, consult "Commercial Year Book" for 1898, Vol. III.

POPULATION BY OCCUPATIONS (000's OMITTED).

State and local administrations...

184

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

Wood, cane, and matting..

2,361 4.293

[blocks in formation]

Drugs, dyes, gums, etc.

392

Provision and care of cattle.

3,646

Leather, horns, boxes, etc.

3,285

[blocks in formation]

4,686

Personal, household, and sanitary ser

Transport and storage.

3.953

vices..

11.220

Learned and artistic professions.

5,672

[blocks in formation]

Sport and amusements..

141

Light, firing, and forage..

3,522

Earth work and general labor..

25,468

Buildings...

1,438

Undefined and disreputable..

1,563

Vehicles and vessels.

147

Independent means...

4,774

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

Fiscal Affairs.

The subjoined table gives, in tens of rupees (Rx.), the total gross amount of the actual revenue and expenditure of India, excluding capital expenditure on public works, and distinguishing Indian and home expenditure, in each of the financial years ending March 31, named:

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

The following table exhibits the growth of the three most important sources of the public revenue of India-namely, land, opium, and salt-in the financial years named:

[blocks in formation]

The following table shows the amount (in tens of rupees) of the debt of British India, both bearing and not bearing interest, distinguishing the debt in India and in Great Britain, in each of the financial years given:

Year ended

March 31.

1885.

1890.

1894.

1895.

1896..

Unfunded Debt
in India.

Rx.

Permanent Debt
in India.
Rx.

Permanent Debt

in England.

Total.

Rx.

Rx.

[blocks in formation]

11,266,746

173,721,494

[blocks in formation]

10,675,877

211,629,443

105,546,078

108.113,792

13,694,528

227,354,398

104,373,740

114,005,826

13,906,720

232,286,886

103,788,928

113,903,732

14,646,368

232,339,028

Agriculture.

The total acreage over which the chief crops of British India were grown in 1895-96 were as follows: Rice, 69,160,351; wheat, 18,530,832; other food grains, 84,227,474; sugar-cane, 2,930,593; tea, 406,478; cotton, 9,600,616; oil seeds, 12,844,062; indigo, 1,569,869; tobacco, 1,111,973; jute, 2,248,593.

The average production of tea for the five years ending 1894-95 was 124,971,905 pounds, of which 120,439,095 pounds were exported. The average production of coffee for the corresponding period was 34,444,087 pounds, of which 31,595,514 pounds were exported.

In 1894-95, there were nearly 74,300 square miles of forest demarcated and reserved by the State.

Industries.

At the end of 1896-97, there were 31 jute mills and 1 hemp mill, employing a daily average of 91,389 persons, namely: 60,141 men, 17,179 women, 5,649 young persons, and 8,420 children. The mills contained 12,784 looms and 258,154 spindles. The nominal capital of the mills is about Rx.4,645,000.

At the end of June, 1897, there were 154 cotton mills, containing 37,303 looms, and 3,975,719 spindles, employing a daily average of 148,997 persons, of whom 92,180 are men, 28.028 women, 17,782 young persons, and 10,177 children, and 900 not classified. The mills consumed 5,032,000 cwts., and the total production of yarn was 421,540,000 lbs., as compared with 435,124,000 lbs. in 1896.

In 1896, there were ten paper mills, employing 3,613 persons. The output was 40,707,589 lbs., valued at Rx.587,200. The amount of beer brewed in 1897 was 5,309,475 gallons, and 3,022,171 gallons were imported. There were six woolen mills open at the end of 1896, with 530 looms and 18,658 spindles.

The division of the aggregate capital among the principal classes of joint-stock companies in 1897 is shown as follows:

[blocks in formation]

The value of the sea-borne external trade is shown below. The average rate of increase is given for the last 35 years, the period being divided into five parts, of seven years each:

[blocks in formation]

The following shows (in tens of rupees) the total imports and exports of India, divided into merchandise and "treasure" (bullion specie), excluding Government stores and Government treasure, in the fiscal years ending March 31:

[blocks in formation]

Of the exports of merchandise in 1897, Rx. 99,880,660 represented the domestic products. Rx. 4,033,637 were re-exports of foreign imports.

The imports of merchandise for the year 1897-98 amounted to Rx. 69,394,000, and exports of Indian produce Rx. 93,777,000.

The following table shows (in tens of rupees) the respective shares which the leading countries with which India deals had in the exports and imports (merchandise alone) of India in the years ending March 31:

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

The following table shows (in tens of rupees) the value of the leading articles of private merchandise imported and exported (the produce of India only-that is, not including re-exports of foreign goods) in the years ending March 31, 1896 and 1897:

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

11,947,586

[blocks in formation]

Cotton manufactures..
Metals, hardware, cutlery..

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

Silk, raw and manufact'd..

2,937,271

2,242,157

Cotton, manufactured.

[blocks in formation]

3,151,829

Opium..

8,459,336

8,022,923

Woolen goods..

[blocks in formation]

Seeds (oil seeds mainly)..

[blocks in formation]

Liquors..

1.695,828

1,644,944

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

2,661,717

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

3,439,150

Jute, manufactured.

4,747,443

5,213,930

Machinery and mill work..

3,237,401 3,510,190

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

Other dyes and tans..

872,683

638,936

Apparel, excluding hosiery

[blocks in formation]

Coffee..

[blocks in formation]

Spices...

[blocks in formation]

Wool, raw.....

1,355,108

1,241,497

Glass.

741,078

704,186

Spices...

[blocks in formation]

846,210

772,097

Lac (excluding lac dye)....

1,833,601

1,399,862

COMMERCE WITH THE UNITED STATES

The figures which follow include British East Indies, and are for the years ending June 30:

1894.

1892. 1893. 1895. 1896. 1897. 1898. Imports into U. S.. $24,773,107 $25,968,554 $14,829,661 $21,266,013 $20,270,558 $20,567,122 $27,238,459 Exports from U. S..... 3,674,307 3,152,760 4,329.103 2,853,941 3,225,368 3,844,911 4,695,855

The principal articles of import into the United States for the year ending June 30, 1896, were: Chemicals, drugs, dyes, etc., $4,003,077; coffee, $735,250; india-rubber and gutta-percha, crude, $2,536,481; spices, $726.424: leather, skins for morocco, $2,037,915; oils, $1.134,645; textile grasses, etc., unmanufactured, $1,828,560; manufactured. $2,729.266. Exports from the United States: Cotton, manufactured, $138,603; iron and steel manufactures, $176,299; oil, refined, mineral, $2,430,475; silver, $100,000.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF PRECIOUS METALS.

The amount of bullion and specie, private and Government, imported and exported, will be seen from the following table for the years 1892-97 :

[subsumed][subsumed][merged small][ocr errors][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

Railroads, Post-Office, and Telegraphs. (See Index.)

Shipping.

In 1896-97, there entered at ports of British India in foreign trade 5,006 vessels of 3,883,989 tons, of which 1,989 vessels of 3,086,971 tons were British. There cleared 4,934 vessels of 3,814,596 tons, of which 1,980 of 3,078,271 tons were British.

Money and Banking.

The silver rupee is the monetary unit, the value of which fluctuates with the gold price of silver. On July 1, 1896, its value was 23.6 cents.

In the year ending March 31, 1863, the total value of notes in circulation was 49,260,000 rupees. The following were the total values of notes in circulation (in tens of rupees) on March 31 in each year from 1891 to 1896:

[blocks in formation]

Nearly two-thirds of the total note circulation is in the currency circles of Calcutta and Bombay.

The following are the statistics of the various Government savings-banks in India. These banks were divided into presidency banks (3), railway banks (12), post-office banks (6,343), and military banks (162) in 1895-96:

[blocks in formation]

NOTE.-For monetary system, see this "Year Book," Volume I, page 67.

Rx.

6,457,817

8,330,484

8,473,378

8,718,286

73.211

86.130

88,295

86,929

Rx.

1,602,859

1,991,976

2,061,548

2,402,966

Rx.

457,329

8,060,676

644,658

10,322,460

683,209

10,534,926

[blocks in formation]
« AnteriorContinuar »