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FACTORY STATISTICS.

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By the census taken on June 5, 1895, of the factories subject to the Federal factory law, the statistics thereof are shown as follows:

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1,253

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230

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62

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12

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242

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1,793

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126

4,551

Food products..
Chemical industry.

Paper manufactures

industry...

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537

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19,159

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Wood-working industry.

3,001

11,062

335

11,315

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10,000

Metal-working industry.

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10,339

Machine industry..

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Watch and jewelry industry

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10,983

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Salt, stones, and earth...

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Of the 200,199 operatives, there were 174,697 Swiss, 14,872 Germans, 5,124 Italians, 3,354 French, 1,896 Austrians, and 256 from different other countries.

The 152,718 horse-power was produced as follows: 87,865 by water, 53,410 by steam, 4,086 by gas and petroleum, and 7,357 by electricity.

Foreign Commerce.

For the years 1890 to 1896, inclusive, the imports for home consumption and the exports of domestic produce, and also of the precious metals, were as follows:

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The following statement shows the value of principal articles of special commerce:

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* Only the total shows the exact number of establishments. The addition of the figures would result in a higher number, because establishments engaged in several industries are counted in each group.

Includes iron, imports in 1895 beinz 43,819,995 francs, exports 4,952,170 francs.

In 1897, the principal classes of articles imported were, in francs: Silks, 139,583,060; machines and vehicles, 33,259,641; mineral materials, 71,852,891; leather and shoes, 26,189,247; objects of literature, science, and art, 18,809,806; wood, 32,769,205; straw, 4,153,816; edibles, spirits, and tobacco, 271,876.629; wools, 52,537,208; iron, 58,735,553.

The principal articles exported in 1897 were, in francs: Silks, 203,941,306; machines and vehicles, 34.337.939; clock-works, 103,765,315; coloring matters, 17,314,395; objects of literature, science, and art, 8,773,191; edibles, 81,177,331; cottons, 124,979,907; precious metals, not coin, 10,319,536; woolens, 16,710,547; linen, 1,748,172.

The following table shows the geographical distribution of the "special" trade of Switzerland (including bullion but not coin) :

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Exports to United States..... $13,196,469 $16,010,728 $11,450,270 $14,988,954 $14,080,033 $13,849,782 $11,380,835 Imports from United States.. 10,397 17,124 17,578

7,391

32,954

70,610 263,970 The principal articles of import from the United States for the year ending June 30, 1896, were Iron and steel and manufactures of, $12,202.

Exports to the United States were: Chemicals, drugs, dyes, etc., $579,474; clocks and watches and parts, $904,697; cotton, manufactures of, $6,455,480 (including laces, edgings, etc., $5,753,885); hat trimmings, $386,671; cheese, $651,841; silk, manufactures of, 33,610,853.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF GOLD AND SILVER COIN AND BULLION.

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Switzerland being a member of the Latin Union, its monetary system conforms to that organization. The franc is the equivalent of 10 batzen and 100 rappen or centimes. The 20-franc piece is 900 fine, the 5-franc silver piece is .900 fine, the silver 2-frane, franc, and half-franc are .835 fine. At the close of 1895, there was outstanding 190,000,000 francs of bank-notes, against which a reserve was beid consisting of 83,400,000 gold and 11,600,000 silver.

The estimated amount of money in circulation is placed as follows in 1896: Bank-notes, 175.000,000 francs; gold on hand and in circulation, 117,000,000; silver on hand and in circulation, 54,000,000; and nickel and copper, 5,000,000; total, 351,000,000 francs.

On December 31, 1896, there were 34 banks, with a paid-up capital of 150,525,000 francs, and a note issue of 202,400,000 francs. Their average monthly condition for 1898 is shown below:

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For other banking information, consult previous volumes of the "Commercial Year Book."

SPAIN.

According to the last census 1887, the population of Spain was 17,565,632. The figures for previous years may be found in Volume I of the Year Book." The area is stated at 197,670 square miles.

Fiscal Affairs.

The following were the receipts and expenditures of the Government for the years stated:

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The following are the budget estimates for 1896-97, 1897-98, and 1898-99 :

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In 1897 the public debt of Spain was approximately as follows: Consolidated debt, £183,967,000; redeemable, £66,225,000; Treasury debt (including £18,280,000 floating debt), £32,854,000: total, £283,046,000. The interest on the debt, including £3,802,840 for credit operations on account of the war in Cuba, amounted to £16,789,348.

4,714,512

53.858,240

54,560,054

140,225,381

142,120,396

143,844,451

23,433,941

28,344,991

24,994,260

27,249,868

27,527,569

28,839,198

77,960,225

79,446,306

80,738.653

16,187,418

16,109,442

18,549,933

28,708,565

28.222.212

33,543,483

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1,638,085 *399,236,678

1,614,651 61,749,730

980,883 4.935.919 54,717,850

Production and Industry.

About 80 per cent, of the soil is classed as productive, of which 33.8 per cent. is devoted to agriculture. The wheat yield for 1895 was 78,737,000 English bushels. The number of farm animals in 1895 was estimated as follows: Horses, 383,313; mules and asses, 1,496,703; cattle, 2,071,326; sheep, 16,469,303; goats, 2,820,827; pigs, 1,910,368.

The production of minerals and metals for the years 1895 and 1896 was as follows, in metric tons: Coal, in 1896, 1,874,771; in 1895, 1,783,083; iron ore, in 1898, 6,808,000; in 1895, 5,514,329; pig iron, in 1896, 246,326; pig lead, in 1895, 172,695; in 1895, 163,521 ; copper, in 1896, 2,873,025; in 1895, 2,847,600. There were produced 1,513,998 kilogrammes of quicksilver in 1896, and 222,900 kilos of silver, against 58,546 for 1895.

Foreign Trade.

The total imports and exports (including the precious metals) have been as follows, in pesetas:

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The following table shows the principal articles of import and export, in thousands of pesetas:

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The total values of imports and exports, including bullion and specie, with the principal countries are shown below in thousands of pesetas:

892,329 924,937

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The principal exports into the United States for the year ending June 30, 1896, were: Chemicals, drugs, dyes, $498,667; fruits, including nuts, $1,458,262; iron ore, $302,327; wines, $542,841.

Imports from the United States were: Cotton, unmanufactured, $8,739,024; mineral oil (crude), $664,316; tobacco, unmanufactured, $988,140; wood, and manufactures of, $713,561.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF Gold and Silver Coin and BULLION.

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Shipping, Railroads, Telegraphs, and Post-Office.

Money and Banking.

On September 24, 1898, and September 25, 1897, the position of the Bank of Spain was as follows, in pounds sterling:

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Theoretically, there is a double standard of value, gold and silver, the ratio being 15% to 1. But of silver coins only the 5-peseta piece is legal tender, and the coinage of this is restricted.

PORTUGAL.

Portugal, including the Azores and Madeira, had a population in 1878 of 4,745,124, and in 1890 of 5,082,247, occupying an area of 34,038 square miles. The only important non-Portuguese element in the population is the gypsies; there are about 3,000 negroes in the coast towns. The population in the north is mainly Galician; further south there has been considerable intermixture with Arabs and Jews, as also with French, English, Dutch, and Frisians.

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In 1897, the outstanding debt of Portugal is stated as follows: External 3 per cent, consolidated, £39,261.051; external 4 per cent. redeemable, £1,822,223; external 4% per cent. redeemable, £12,793,989; external 4% per cent. tobacco loan, £9,260,000. Total external, £63,137,263.

Internal 3 per cent. (quoted in London), £56,941,901; total external and internal, £120,079,164. Also outstanding: Internal at 4 and 4% per cent., £6,181,905.

3 and 4 per cent., £28,607,411.

Stated to be in hands of Government: External at 3, 4, and 4% per cent., £2,529,362; internal at In 1895-96, the interest amounted to 17,160,140 milreis. The floating debt in June, 1897, amounted to 36,826,421 milreis.

Industries.

Of the whole area of Portugal, 2.2 per cent. is under vineyards; 7.2 per cent. under fruit trees; 12.5 per cent. under cereals; 2.7 per cent. under pulse and other crops; 26.7 per cent. pasture and fallow; and 2.9 per cent. under forest; 45.8 per cent. waste. In Alemtejo and Estremadura and the mountainous districts of other provinces are wide tracts of common and waste lands, and it is asserted that from 2,000,000 to 4,000,000 hectares, now uncultivated, are susceptible of cultivation.

There are three cotton factories at work for exportation to Angola. The population engaged in industries of various kinds, exclusive of agriculture, in 1881, was 90,998. Portugal has about 4,000 vessels engaged in fishing, and the exports of sardines and herrings are considerable.

Foreign Commerce.

The following shows the value of the imports for consumption and the exports, in milreis:

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