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On June 1, 1897, there were 4,253 savings-banks (State, municipal, and postal), with 2,228,858 depositors, deposits amounting to 451,850,546 roubles.

State banks for mortgage loans to the nobility, on January 1, 1896, showed loans granted amounting to 523,689,700 roubles, the remaining debt being 395,767.597 roubles.

Land banks for the purchase of land by the peasants show that up to January 1, 1895, the banks. had made 1,024,124 loans to village communities, associations, and separate individuals, representing an aggregate of 319,011 householders. They bought 6,374,116 acres, valued at £10,664,874, of which £8,243,226 were lent by the banks and £2,421,648 paid by the buyers.

On January 1, 1895, there were in European Russia, Poland, and Caucasus 36 mortgage banks, including both those for the nobility and for the peasantry. The extent of their operations is shown in the following statement:

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In 1896, there were 40 banking companies, 104 societies of mutual credit, and 241 municipal banks. Their aggregate assets and liabilities balanced at 1,249,353,000 roubles.

For further information on banking in Russia, see" History of Banking in All Nations," Volume IL, issued by the publishers of the "Commercial Year Book."

cents.

MONEY.-The legal unit of money is the silver rouble of 100 copecks. It is of the value of 77.2

For gold and silver coins, see Index.

According to a new law of January 3, 1897, new gold coins of exactly the same value, weight,. and dimensions as the above will henceforward be coined, bearing the inscription of 15 roubles on the imperial and 7 r. 50 c. on the half-imperial.

NETHERLANDS.

Area and Population.

The area of the Netherlands is 12,648 English square miles. The progress in population by census periods is as follows:

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The revenue and expenditure in guilders are shown as follows, the figures for 1897 and for 1898 being budget estimates:

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The share of direct taxes, excise, indirect taxes, and customs duties in the revenue has been in guilders:

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The following table shows the interest and sinking fund for the years named:

Sinking

50,000

64,119

15,000,000

2,638,100

1,106,541,893

32,491,093

Sinking

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31,483,559

2,539,941 1895.

31,519,317

24,923,052 1896.

31,463,972

5,185,458 1897

32,015,827

3,032,800

Interest.

Fund.

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Agriculture.

The total acreage under crops and grass in 1888 was 7,785,531, and there were 564,210 acres of woods and forests in 1893. The area of principal crops and the yield thereof per hectare, in hectolitres, are shown as fol

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NOTE.-1 hectare-2.47 acres; 1 hectolitre-2.84 bushels. The total number of cattle in 1895 was about 1,543,200; of horses, 266,300; of sheep, 679,200; of pigs, 1,246,600.

Mining and Manufactures.

A few coal mines are found in the province of Limburg; they belong to the State. The quan tity of coal extracted in 1896 was 91.706,000 kilos, valued at 344,895 guilders; clear revenue, 121,770 guilders; part of the State, 33,385 guilders.

There are no official returns of the manufacturing industries. According to the last reports there were, in 1896, 537 distilleries, 10 sugar refineries, 30 beet-sugar manufactories, 49 salt works, 49% breweries, and 92 vinegar manufactories.

The beet-sugar factories produced, in 1897, 257,589,800 pounds of sugar. Total exports raw sugar 394,787,616 pounds; refined, 125,653,435 pounds. Import of raw sugars, including molasses, 26,317,027 pounds; refined, 178,810 pounds.

Foreign Commerce.

The following are the estimates of the imports for home consumption and the produce for six years:

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The following table shows the values of the imports and exports of the great classes of products,

in thousands of guilders:

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The leading articles of import and export are shown as follows, in thousands of guilders:

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The imports for home consumption, and exports from and to the leading countries, are shown

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The principal exports into the United States for the year ending June 30, 1896, were: Chemicals, drugs, dyes, $232,592; coffee, $660,478; fish, preserved, $659,568; flax, hemp, etc., unmanufactured $51,091; jewelry and precious stones, $1,516,114; oils, $286,199; spices, unground, $298,169; sugar above No. 16 D. S., $1,023,223; tin, in blocks, bars, etc., $1,253,553; tobacco, leaf, $4,710,024.

Imports from the United States were: Breadstuffs, $6,907,797; casings for sausages, $427,701; copper, ingots, bar and old, $5,335,736; cotton, unmanufactured, $556,471; fruits, including nuts, $643,900: fertilizers, $380,470; leather, $301,818; naval stores, $787,935; oil cake and oil-cake meal, $827,114; oil, mineral, refined, $6,884,733; oil, cottonseed, $1,311,540; provisions, $8,681,417, of which lard was $2.287,634; oleomargarine oil, $5,056,488; tobacco, unmanufactured, $1,152,136; wood and manufactures, $3,386,767.

IMPORTS AND Exports of GOLD AND SILVER COIN AND BULLION.

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Shipping, Railroads, Post-Office, and Telegraphs. (See Index.)

Money and Circulation.

The standard coin is the 10-florin piece, weighing 6.720 grammes .900 fine, and thus containing 6.048 grammes of fine gold. The unit of the silver coinage is the florin, weighing 10 grammes .945 fine, and containing 9.45 grammes of fine silver.

Gold is legal tender, and the silver coins issued before 1875.

For gold and silver coins, see Index.

The total circulation was valued as follows, in thousands of guilders:

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The Bank of the Netherlands, a private institution, is the only bank authorized to issue banknotes. Its condition is shown as follows, in thousands of guilders:

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A more detailed statement of its affairs on December 30, 1897, follows:

in July.

33,790

in July. 85,090

54,270

83,660

51,390

84,320

31,610

83.560

31,560

83,890

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The bank keeps the State treasury and the cash of the State Postal Savings-Bank. It receives 5 per cent. of the clear gains; the remainder is divided between the State and the bank.

There are 282 savings-banks, all private, having 19,186,000 guilders of deposits. Besides these, there is a State postal savings-bank, established in 1881, with 23,220,000 guilders of deposits.

SWITZERLAND.

In 1894, the population of Switzerland was 2,986,848, and in 1888, 2,917,754. The area of the Republic is 15,976 square miles.

The chief occupations of the population in 1888, with the numbers employed, their families and domestic servants, were:

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The chief source of revenue is from customs duties, the confederate Government having no power to levy direct taxes.

The following table gives the total revenue and expenditure of the Confederation:

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The cantons have their own local administrations and their own budgets of revenue and expenditure. In 1890, their combined revenue was 79,152,000 francs, and expenditure 80,178,000 francs. The cantonal revenues are derived partly from direct taxes on income and property, and partly from indirect duties, stamps, etc. Several cantons have only indirect taxation; and over the whole about 58 per cent. of the revenue is raised in this form.

The public debt of the Confederation amounted on January 1, 1897, to 80,870,763 francs, mostly at 3 per cent. At the same date the "Federal Fortune," or State property, was. Real property, 38,476,500 franes; stock, etc., 42,849,550 francs works producing interest, 19,616,215 francs; stores not producing interest, 19,765,709 franes; various debts, 533,673 francs; inventory, 30,855,665 francs; alcohol administration, 232,130 franes; cash, 1,760,820 francs; total, 144,800,184 francs, the net Fortune being thus 60,910,745 francs.

Industries.

Out of a population of about 2,000,000 engaged in agriculture, there are about 300,000 peasant proprietors. Of the total area 28.4 per cent. is unproductive; of the productive area 35.8 per cent, is under grass and meadows, 29 per cent. under forest, 18.7 per cent. under fruit, 16.4 per cent. under crops and gardens. Rye, oats, and potatoes are the chief crops, but the bulk of food crops consumed in the country is imported. The chief agricultural industries are the manufacture of cheese and condensed milk. The export of cheese (1896) amounts to 239,591 quintals, and of condensed milk to 188,365 quintais. In 1896, there were 108,529 horses, 1,211,613 cattle, 341,632 sheep, 415,619 goats, 394,451 swine, of the total value of £17,936,880. In 1896, the provisional census returns show: Cattle, 1,304,788; sheep, 271,432; pigs, 565,781; horses, 108,529; mules, 3,116; asses, 1,735; goats, 414,968.

The Federal alcohol régie in the year 1894-95 sold 58,268 metric quintals of spirits (36 degrees), and 34,869 metric quintals of medicated spirits. In Switzerland there are about 1,400 hotels, employing about 16,000 persons, the receipts of the hotels amounting annually to about £3,500,000.

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