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Area and Population.

At the census of December 31, 1861, the area was about 96,500 square miles, with a population of 21,777,334. According to the censuses of 1871 and 1881, the area of the kingdom was, as now, 114,410, the population aggregating respectively 26,801,154 and 28,459,628. The estimated population for 1894 was 30,913,663 and 279.45 inhabitants per square mile.

The increase in population from 1800 to 1881 (census figures) is shown as follows:

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The estimated population on December 31, 1896, was 31,290,490, or 282.8 inhabitants per square

At the time of the census of 1881 the resident or legal population was 28.953,480. The number of foreigners was 59,956: 16,092 were Austrians, 12,104 Swiss, 10,781 French, 7,302 English, 5,234 Germans, 1,387 Russians, 1,286 Americans (United States), 1,212 Greeks, 922 Spaniards, and the rest mainly Turks, Belgians, Swedes, and Norwegians, Dutch, Egyptians, Argentines, Brazilians.

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Fiscal Affairs.

The following table shows the revenue and expenditure for the fiscal years named, ending June 30, the budget estimates being given for the last two years:

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The capital of the outstanding public debt for the year ending June 30, 1896, was 12,732,392,000 lire, divided as follows: Consolidated, 9,587,111,000 lire; redeemable, 2,782,451,000 lire; treasury bonds, 288,298,000 lire; miscellaneous, 430,000,000 lire; total, 3,087,860,000 lire, from which deduct bonds and securities in possession of treasury, 355,468,000 lire.

The interest on the public debt is classified as follows for the year ending June 30, 1896: Consolidated, 470,578,000 lire; redeemable, 114,655,000 lire; treasury bonds, 11,070,000 lire; miscellaneous, 911,000 lire: total, 597,214,000 lire; less interest on securities held by the treasury, 2,246,000 lire, or total of 394,968,000 lire.

Customs Imposts.

The following statement shows the customs duties in lire, collected for the years 1896 and 1897:

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The area of Italy comprises 28,658,900 hectares. Of this area, 20,238,000 hectares (70.6 per cent.) are productive, 4,647,451 hectares (16.2 per cent.) unproductive, and 3,773,449 hectares (13.2 per cent.) produces little or nothing. The agricultural condition of the country is shown in the following table:

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1 kilogramme = 2.2046 pounds. 1 hectare = 2.471 acres. 1 hectolitre = 2.8375 bushels. 1 quintal = 220.46 pounds. 1 hectolitre = 26.417 gallons.

In 1890 Italy had 5,000,000 cattle, 6,900,000 sheep, 1,800,000 goats, 1,800,000 swine. In 1895 there were 550,048 persons employed in rearing silkworms, and 172,000 skilled and other workers (including ninetenths women and children) were employed in the treatment and manufacture of silk. The total weight of the cocoon harvest was: In 1890, 89,866,800 lbs.: in 1891, 85,491,748 lbs.; in 1892, 69,283,000 lbs., in 1893, 104,991,900 lbs.: in 1894, 95,073,000 lbs.; in 1895, 90,723,700 lbs.

According to last census, the whole agricultural population was computed to be 14,900,000, including women.

The average values of produce, agricultural, animal, and forest, are, in round numbers: Cercals, fibers, wine, fruit, etc., 2,873,000,000 lire; animals, wool, milk, cocoons, etc., 1,424,000,000 lire; forest yield, 88,000,000 lire; total, 4,385,000,000 lire. The value of accessory agricultural produce, such as vegetables, fungi, poultry, eggs, etc., is not known, but the exports alone of such produce amount to about 80,000,000 lire annually.

The total wine crop in Italy for the year 1894 amounted to 25,816,588 hectolitres; 1895, 24,245,836 hectolitres; 1896, 21,373,092 (provisional figures).


The chief mineral production for 1896 was as follows, in metric tons and dollars (U.S.): Copper ore, 90,408 tons, valued at $424,719; iron ore, 203,966 tons, value $507,973; lead ore, 33,545 tons, value $892,865; zinc ore, 118,171 tons, value $1,498,129.

Products are: Briquettes, 422,409 tons, value $2,081,645; copper and alloys, 10,319 tons, value $3,426,050; iron, cast, 15,321 tons, value $592,034; iron, pig, 139,991 tons, value $6,606,951; lead, 20,786 tons, value $1,162,469; salt, sea, 422,555 tons, value $856,072; silver, 38,075 kilogs., value $882,228; steel, 65,955 tons, value $4,874,539; sulphur, refined, 71,072 tons, value $1,198,447; sulphur, ground, 89,292 tons, value $1,602,797.

Foreign Commerce.

The following table exhibits the total imports and exports, the precious metals (uncoined silver excluded), and merchandise (special commerce) for the years given:

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The leading imports and exports for the years 1895 and 1896 are shown as follows, in thousands



of lire:

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The imports from and exports to (special commerce) the leading countries are given below in thousands of lire:

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The values of the imports into the United States and of the exports from the United States to Italy for the years ending June 30 were as follows:

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The principal imports into the United States for the year ending June 30, 1896, were: Argol, $1,488,478; sulphur, $1,586,551; fruits (lemons and oranges), $5,941,855; hides and skins, $843,548; matting (floor), $684,886; oils (vegetable), $946,722; cheese, $475,940; silk (unmanufactured), $4,587,761; wool, and manufactures of, $533,467; silver, $40. Exports from the United States were: Corn, $583,268; cotton, $10,533,092; refined mineral oils, $1,829,177; tobacco (unmanufactured), £2,874,473; wood, and manufactures of, $714,959.


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Shipping, Railroads, Post-Offices, Telegraphs. (See Index.)

Money and Circulation.

The money is the same as that of France, the lira being equal to 19.3 cents. The circulation of State and bank notes is shown as follows:

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Gold was coined to the value of 1,364,400 lire in 1890; 653,220 lire in 1891; 674,120 lire in 1892; 824,280 lire in 1893. No silver has been coined in recent years. In 1894 bronze pieces were coined to the amount of 3,790,978 lire; nickel, 17,780,200 lire; in 1895, nickel, z,219,800 lire.

The total coinage from 1862 to the end of 1894 was: Gold, 426,332,990 lire; silver, 567,037,025 lire; nickel, 17,780,200 lire; bronze, 83,636,121 lire; total, 1,094,786,336 lire. The recoinage was 28,954,834 lire.

For gold and silver coins, see Index.

NOTE.-For further information see this "Year Book," Volume I, pages 61-63.

*Including, for 1893, 9,182,000 lire; for 1894, 2,445,000 lire; and for 1895, 857,355 of notes of the Banca Romana (in liquidation).


There are now only three banks of issue: The Banca d'Italia; the Banca di Napoli, and the Banca di Sicilia. In 1896 the condition of the three institutions combined was as follows, in thousands of lire :

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There are 759 co-operative credit societies and popular banks, with assets at the end of 1891 amounting to 754,072,665 lire, and liabilities 745,789,445 lire; 150 ordinary credit companies, with assets 1,726,911,882 lire, and liabilities 173,940,689 lire. Eleven agrarian credit companies had assets (1892) 49,812,389 lire, and liabilities 49,759,134 lire. There were 10 crédit foncier companies with assets 1,071,378,107 lire, and liabilities 1,063,418,487 lire (1894).

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In 1895 the ordinary savings-banks had 1,588,412 depositors, their total deposits amounting to 1,343,723,104 lire.

* Figures are for the year 1893.

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