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PREFACE.

In presenting to the public another volume of the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA, containing the record of the most turbulent year which the country has witnessed, the publishers trust that it will be found truthful and impartial. No efforts have been spared to secure its completeness and accuracy, and to preserve it free from every mark of partisanship.

The year 1863 was a remarkable one. Principles adopted in the previous years had gone into effect, and now manifested their results. Many new and important questions thus came up, and were discussed in Congress, by the press, and before civil tribunals. In Europe, also, similar developments were manifested, and although the conflict of arms was not so extensive or violent as in this country, the agitation of men's minds was no less deep and earnest. In these pages the effort has been made to present the facts of this seething condition, so that the reader may see what steps have been taken in public and social affairs, and how far forward they lead toward any amelioration of mankind.

Among the numerous questions discussed were those relating to confiscation, emancipation, indemnity official and pecuniary, the relations of the insurrectionary States to the Union, personal liberty, martial law, prize, the liability of Great Britain for damages done by the Alabama, the reconstruction of the map of Europe, and the reorganization of Germany.

A detailed statement of the vast military and naval operations in this country is given, which presents the movements of the armies day by day, and step by step, with the objects of those movements, and their consequences; also the efforts of the Government to improve the condition of the freedmen who came within their control, and to organize the able-bodied as soldiers; also the plans and arrangements of its immense hospitals for the sick and wounded. The military operations are illustrated with complete topographical maps of the

country.

The details of the internal affairs of the country embrace the organization of the armies, North and South; the number and condition of the troops; the important measures and debates in Congress; the acts of State Legislatures, and resolutions of political organizations, and the results of elections; the finances of the Federal Government, and of that of the insurrectionary States, and the important public measures of the latter; the commerce of the country, and the regulations adopted for commercial intercourse with parts of the Southern States within the lines of the army; the correspondence with foreign States; the enrolment and draft, and the exchange of prisoners; the unusual popular disturbances, and all those important occurrences comprised in the history of the nation.

The interesting events relating to foreign nations in all parts of the world are presented, and more especially the conflict in Poland, the movements in Germany, the emancipation in Russia, the propositions of France, and her efforts to obtain a congress to settle the vexed complications of Europe.

The mechanical industry manifested in the construction of iron-clad ships has been severely tested during the year. These results, with the opinions of their commanders, are not overlooked. The improvements in heavy ordnance are also described.

The progress of science in its application to useful purposes has been brought up in some branches, and the views and discussions of scientific men in others, are presented.

The geographical explorations which have been actively pursued in all quarters, have resulted in some discoveries which have long been sought by brave and enterprising men.

The history of the financial operations of the Federal Government from the beginning of the civil war to the close of the year, are described. It embraces the condition of the treasury, the system of finance adopted by the Secretary, the measures recommended by him to Congress, the action of that body and the results, together with tables from the Department which have not before appeared in print.

A most thorough and complete classification of the books published during the year, shows that the record of literature is not less important than in any previous year.

The notice of the principal religious denominations of the country, states their branches, membership, views on civil affairs, and the spread of their distinctive opinions.

The number of distinguished men who closed their career during the year, has been unusually large. A brief tribute has been paid to their characters and services.

All important documents, messages, orders, and letters from official persons,. are inserted entire.

THE

ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA.

AFRICA. The most important of the coun- soaheri-Manjoka, and signed a constitution, tries of this continent which have native drawn up by the anti-foreign party of the Hogovernments, are Egypt, Abyssinia, Liberia, vas. The treaties concluded by King Radama Morocco, Tunis, Tripoli, and Madagascar with the European Powers were suspended, Egypt, under the enlightened rule of Said but assurance was given that religious liberty Pasha, who died on Jan. 18th, 1863, and his suc- would be respected, and that the labors of cessor, the actual Pasha Ismail, has been, and the missionaries would not be interfered with. is still, making great progress in civilization. Among the English possessions in Africa, the Its population is rapidly increasing, and had, islands of Mauritius and Seychelles are rapidly in 1859, risen to 5,125,000. The canal of Suez, increasing in population. The total population which is rapidly approaching completion (see of Mauritius, according to the census of April, Suez, CANAL OF), will give to Egypt a large 1861, was 813,462, no less than 129,956 more interest in the commerce of the world, and than in 1851. The Indian-born population greatly elevate its position among civilized numbered 172,425, and the children of Indian. nations. Its principal city, Cairo, with 254,000 parents were 20,029, so that the Indian element inhabitants, and Alexandria, with 150,000 in- now numbers 192,604, or more than three fifths habitants, will soon claim à place among the of the whole. In 1862 there were 9,893 addi. great and important emporiums of the world. tional immigrants landed in Mauritius, and 190

The Emperor of Abyssinia has been for some liberated Africans on the Seychelles. No one years engaged in war against the neighboring of the European Powers is making so great tribes, for the purpose of enlarging the boun- progress on the African continent as France. daries of his empire. The details of these This is especially the case on the western coast. Fars, which continued during the year 1863, In Senegal and its dependencies she has already are of little interest, although the public was annexed a territory of 25,357,525 hectares with shocked toward the close of the year by a re- 252,000 inhabitants, while fully 1,000,000 of port of unparalleled barbarities committed by natives are exclusively trading with her. On him. On the other hand, the emperor is Feb. 27th, 1863, the commander of the French highly praised as friendly to civilization by fleet stationed upon the western coast accepted, some lay missionaries of the Missionary Socie- in the name of his government, the protectorate ty of Basle, Switzerland, who have been per- of Porto Novo, the coast west of Lagos. In mitted to settle in Abyssinia and establish Algeria France now rules over an area of 39,schools. The Republic of Liberia continues to 000,000 hectares, and a population of 2,999,124. advance in prosperity. On February 17th the Of these 2,806,378 are natives, and 192,746 ratifications of a treaty of commerce and nav- Europeans. ization, concluded at London between Liberia The number of Roman Catholics in Africa and the United States of America, were ex- may be estimated at about 1,100,000, of whom changed. In the island of Madagascar a revo- about 10,000 live in the Cape Colony, 2,500 in lotion broke out on May 12th, at the capital of Natal, 120,000 in Mauritius, 6,000 in the SeyTanarivo. King Radarna II. and his ministers chelles, 10,000 in Senegambia, 120,000 in Rewere assassinated. The widow of the king union, 439,000 in the Portuguese and 12,000 *as proclaimed queen under the name of Ra- in the Spanish possessions, 185,000 in Algeria,

FOL. III.-1 A

27,000 in Egypt, 30,000 in Abyssinia, 10,000 in of the crop of the previous year, and the qualTunis and Tripolis.

ity of much of that gathered was very poor, Protestantism prevails in Liberia, in the Cape possessing no fattening properties. As a result Colony, and other English possessions. In of this, the number of hogs fattened was very Madagascar, where the missionaries have been much smaller than the previous year, and the able to gather again the dispersed native con- larger part of those slaughtered were not in gregations, the number of Protestants is suppos- such condition as to furnish the best grades of ed to reach fully 10,000. Altogether the num- mess pork. The same frost materially diminber of the population connected with or at least ished the potato crop, which, in consequence, under the influence of Protestant denomina- was 13 millions of bushels less than the pretions is estimated at about 730,000.

vious year, and the buckwheat crop, which fell Of other Christian bodies, there are in Africa off nearly three millions of bushels, or about the Abyssinian Church with a population of one sixth of the crop. 3,000,000; the Copts in Egypt, whose number The grain crops of England and France is estimated by some at 150,000, by others at were much better than they had been for 250,000; Syrian Christians (in Egypt), 5,000; two years previous, and hence the export deGreeks (in Egypt), 5,000, Armenians, 2,000. mand was not as heavy; but the large de

The negro tribes in the interior of Africa mand for the army and navy, and the short have, since the beginning of the present cen- crop of corn, enhanced the price of all descriptury, adopted to a large extent the Mohamme- tions of bread stuff, and at the close of the year, dan creed. More recently it has been reported they were from twenty to twenty-five per cent. that Islamism is making some inroads in re- higher than in 1862. Provisions of the higher gions which have been hitherto regarded as grades had advanced, mainly from the falling secured to Christianity. On the west coast of off of the corn crop, about 30 per cent.; but Africa it has proselyted many of the lib- the exports of these, owing in part, perhaps, to erated Africans, and is now extending south- the higher rates of exchange, had increased durerly on the coast. In the Cape Colony the ing the year over any previous year. The acMohammedan working people are accounted companying tables will exhibit the estimated among the most orderly part of the population, amount of the principal crops in each of the and many of them find wives among the Eng- Northern States in 1862 and 1863, and the exlish girls, who do not scruple to adopt the re- ports of agricultural produce.' ligion of their husbands.

The following crops and products are estiAGRICULTURE. Tbe crops of the year mated in the aggregate by the Agricultural 1863 were not generally equal to those of 1862. Department from the monthly returns of their The wheat crop exceeded that of 1862, in the correspondents, as follows, in 1862 and 1863: quantity produced, about one million of bushels; but this was owing to the considerably

Crop or Product

1862.

1863. greater breadth sown, and not to the number Hay................. tons...... 21,500,000 20,000,000 of bushels grown to the acre. The quality of Flax seed........... bushels... 825,684 1,155,953

Clover seed......... bushels... 1,034, 790 806,448 the grain was somewhat inferior. The amount

Sorghum molassos... gallons....

10,203, 728 6,970.882 of rye produced was nearly half a million of Louisiana sugar..... bogsheads.

50,000 bushels less than in 1862, and of barley about a million bushels less: while the production of Exports of Breadstuffs and Provisions in 1862 and

1863 from New York. oats (though the grain itself was lighter) was about two and one third million bushels more. Breadstuffs and Provisions.

1869.

1863. The great falling off, however, was in the fall Flop

2,989,619 2,434,786 crops-corn, buckwheat, and potatoes, and Wheat...

.... bushels 24,890,841 | 14,867,056 was due to two severe frosts: one occurring on Corn..........

11,531,819 7,526,149

1,099,656 416,869 the 28th, 29th, and 30th of August; the other Oats

172,922 125, 806 on the 18th of September. These frosts were Beef, from al orts....... tierces. 65,961 69.163

....... barrels. 44,250 52,498 most severe in a tract extending from Lake P

Pork «
........tierces.

8.822

2,189 Superior southward as far as Tennessee, and,

.barrels. 243,854 252,536 perhaps, five hundred miles in width. In thé Hams and bacon.........100 lbs. 1,669,976 2,028,620

.100 lbs. 1,459,040

1.828,815 northeast, the second frost did not appear till? the 22d of September, and in New York not The culture of the grape, both as a table fruit until the 24th, and was much less severe than and for the purpose of producing wine, has rein the Mississippi valley. The corn, at the ceived a new impulse the past year. The comtime of the first frost, was not sufficiently for- parative merits of different varieties bave been ward to have formed much of its starch prin- very thoroughly ascertained. For table purciple, and as the sap flowed but little after the poses it seems to be settled that, in the northfirst 'frost, and not at all after the second, it ern tier of States, the Delaware, Concord, and was prevented from any complete development, Hartford Prolific are the most desirable, ripenand dried up in a shrivelled condition. The ing earlier than others, and producing fruit of falling off in the amount of the crop, notwith- a good quality. For the region lying south standing the much greater breadth planted, was of 40° N. latitude, the Catawba, Diana, Union over 184 millions of bushels, about one fourth · Village, Isabella, and Allen's Hybrid are re

Flour ....................barrels

Oats .....................

Do.

Do.

Lard...................

[graphic]

AMOUNT OF THE PRINCIPAL CROPS IN EACH OF THE NORTHERN STATES AND TERRITORIES IN 1862 AND 1863.

Compiled from the Reports of the U. & Agrioultural Department.

• The returns of the Crops in these States showing very little variation in tho two years, the returns of 1862, which were made with great caro, have beon adopted for 1863.

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