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Opinion of the Court.

for the uses and to serve the purposes of the general government. The court further said:

“A very large proportion of the property within the States is employed in execution of the powers of the government. It belongs to governmental agents, and it is not only used, but it is necessary for their agencies. United States mails, troops, and munitions of war are carried upon almost every railroad. Telegraph lines are employed in the national service. So are steamboats, horses, stage-coaches, foundries, ship-yards, and multitudes of manufacturing establishments. They are the property of natural persons or of corporations, who are agents or instruments of the general government, and they are the hands by which the objects of the government are attained. Were they exempt from liability to contribute to the revenue of the States it is manifest the state governments would be paralyzed. While it is of the utmost importance that all the powers vested by the Constitution of the United States in the general government should be preserved in full efficiency, and while recent events have called for the most unembarrassed exercise of many of those powers, it has never been decided that state taxation of such property is impliedly prohibited.” p. 33.

In National Bank v. Commonwealth, 9 Wall. 353, which was a case of a tax levied upon the shares of a national bank, the same objection in regard to a tax by state authority was pressed upon the court, but this court said that the principle of exemption of Federal agencies from state taxation has a limitation growing out of the necessity upon which the principle is founded. “That limitation is, that the agencies of the Federal government are only exempted from state legislation, so far as that legislation may interfere with or impair their efficiency in performing the functions by which they are designed to serve that government. Any other rule would convert a principle founded alone in the necessity of securing to the government of the United States the means of exercis. ing its legitimate powers into an unauthorized and unjustifiable invasion of the rights of the States.

So of the banks. They are subject to the laws of the State, and are

Opinion of the Court.

governed in their daily course of business far more by the laws of the State than of the nation. All their contracts are governed and construed by state laws. Their acquisition and transfer of property, their right to collect their debts, and their liability to be sued for debts, are all based on state law. It is only when the state law incapacitates the banks from discharging their duties to the government that it becomes unconstitutional. We do not see the remotest probability of this, in their being required to pay the tax which their stockholders owe to the State for the shares of their capital stock, when the law of the Federal government authorizes the tax.”

p. 362.

The tax in the present case, though nominally upon the shares of the capital stock of the company, is in effect a tax upon that organization on account of property owned and used by it in the State of Massachusetts, and the proportion of the length of its lines in that State to their entire length throughout the whole country is made the basis for ascertaining the value of that property. We do not think that such a tax is forbidden by the acceptance on the part of the tele graph company of the rights conferred by $ 5263 of the Revised Statutes, or by the commerce clause of the Constitution.

It is urged against this tax that in ascertaining the value of the stock no deduction is made on account of the value of real estate and machinery situated and subject to local taxation outside of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The report of Examiner Fiske, to whom the matter was referred to find the facts, states that the amount of the value of said real estate outside of its jurisdiction was not clearly shown, but it did appear that the cost of land and buildings belonging to the company and entirely without that State was over three millions of dollars. In the statement of the treasurer of the company it is said that the value of real estate owned by the company within the State of Massachusetts was nothing. Since the corporation was only taxed for that proportion of its shares of capital stock which was supposed to be taxable in that State on the calculation above referred to, and since no real estate of the corporation was owned or taxed within

Opinion of the Court.

its limits, we do not see why any deduction should be made from the proportion of the capital stock which is taxed by its authorities. But if this were otherwise we do not feel called upon to defend all the items and rules by which they arrived at the taxable value on which its ratio of percentage of taxation should be assessed ; and even in this case, which comes from the Circuit Court and not from that of the State, we think it should appear that the corporation is injured by some principle or rule of the law not equally applicable to other objects of taxation of like character. Since, therefore, this statute of Massachusetts is intended to govern the taxation of all corporations therein, and doing business within its territory, whether organized under its own laws or those of some other State, and since the principle is one which we cannot pronounce to be an unfair or an unjust one, we do not feel called upon to hold the tax void, because we might have adopted a different system had we been called upon to accomplish the same result.

It is very clear to us, when we consider the limited territorial extent of Massachusetts, and the proportion of the length of the lines of this company in that State to its business done therein, with its great population and business activity, that the rule adopted to ascertain the amount of the value of the capital engaged in that business within its boundaries, on which the tax should be assessed, is not unfavorable to the corporation, and that the details of the method by which this was determined have not exceeded the fair range of legislative discretion. We do not think that it follows necessarily, or as a fair argument from the facts stated in the case, that there was injustice in the assessment for taxation.

The result of these views is, that the tax assessed against the plaintiff in error is a valid tax; that the judgment of the court below, “that the sum claimed by the plaintiff (below) to be due for taxes, to wit, $10,618.46, be paid to said State by said corporation, with interest thereon,” is without error, and so much of said judgment is hereby affirmed.

The decree or judgment, however, proceeds and awards an injunction against the company in the following language,

Opinion of the Court.

added to that above extracted : “and that an injunction shall be issued out of and under the seal of this court, directed to said corporation, and its officers, agents and servants, commanding them and each of them absolutely to desist and refrain from the further prosecution of the business of said corporation until said sums due to the said Commonwealth for taxes, as aforesaid, shall have been fully paid, with interest and costs, unless the said sum is paid by said defendant within thirty days from the entry hereof."

The effect of this injunction, if obeyed, is to utterly suspend the business of the telegraph company, and defeat all its operations within the State of Massachusetts. The act of Congress says that the company accepting its provisions “shall have the right to construct, maintain and operate lines of telegraph through and over any portion of the public domain of the United States, over and along any of the military or postroads of the United States.” It is found in this case that 2334.55 miles of the company's lines, out of 2833.05 on which this tax is assessed, are along and over such post-roads, and of course the injunction prohibits the operation of the defendant's telegraph over these lines, nearly all it has in the State.

If the Congress of the United States had authority to say that the company might construct and operate its telegraph over these lines, as we have repeatedly held it had, the State can have no authority to say it shall not be done. The injunction in this case, though ordered by a Circuit Court of the United States, is only granted by virtue of section 54 of chapter 13 of the Public Statutes of Massachusetts. If this statute is void, as we think it is, so far as it prescribes this injunction as a remedy to enforce the collection of its taxes by the de cree of the court awarding it, the injunction is erroneous.

In holding this portion of section 54 of chapter 13 of the Massachusetts statutes to be void as applicable to this case, we do not deprive the State of the power to assess and collect the tax. If a resort to a judicial proceeding to collect it is deemed expedient, there remains to the court all the ordinary means of enforcing its judgment - executions, sequestration, and any other appropriate remedy in chancery.

Syllabus.

That part of the decree of the Circuit Court which awards

the injunction is, therefore, reversed, and the case is remanded to that court for further proceedings in conformity to this opinion.

MR. JUSTICE BRADLEY was not present at the argument of this case and took no part in its decision.

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The plaintiff sued the defendants in a state court and recovered judgment.

The highest appellate court of the State, reviewing the case decided the points of law involved in it against the plaintiff, set aside the judgment for error in the ruling of the court below, and sent the case back for a new trial. The plaintiff then became nonsuit, and brought the present suit in the Circuit Court of the United States on the same cause of action.

Held, that he was not estopped. The provision in Rev. Stat. $ 721 that“ the laws of the several States, except

where the Constitution, treaties, or statutes of the United States otherwise require or provide, shall be regarded as rules of decision in trials at common law in the courts of the United States in cases where they apply” is not applicable to proceedings in equity, or in admiralty, or to criminal

offences against the United States. The courts of the United States adopt and follow the decisions of the high

est court of a State in questions which concern merely the constitution or laws of that State; also where a course of those decisions, whether founded on statutes or not, have become rules of property within the State; also in regard to rules of evidence in actions at law; and also in reference to the common law of the State, and its laws and customs of a

local character, when established by repeated decisions. The Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts having, in a cause between

the same parties litigating in this action, arising out of the transaction herein litigated, and on the facts herein established, held; (1) that the plaintiff when injured by the negligence of the defendants' servants was not travelling " for necessity or charity” within the meaning of those terms as used in the General Statutes of Massachusetts, c. 84, $ 2; (2) that the provision in those statutes, c. 84, § 2, that whoever travels on

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