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or able man. Animal faculties are the hunt- | in the United States. On the eastern slopes er's faculties, and it is easy to apprehend, of the Southern Andes, the cattle-breeders that men without these faculties would di- have a habit of attaching a bell to the neck rectly or indirectly be destroyed, and all of a mare. From three to four hundred those growing to manhood would be of one horses of one color follow this mare wherevtype or race. How such a race could attainer she speeds, and one proprietor frequently to civilization it is difficult to understand. It has a troop of grays, another of blacks, and would be the leap from spontaneous food to another of duns. The internal lakes of artificial food, from the hunter to the bus-Chili are usually inhabited by swans with bandman, and that means individual prop- black necks. The captain of an Australian erty in the earth's surface. An individual trader presented a pair of the “ rara aves in of powerful mind might spring up into pow- terris," the black swans, to the proprietors er and produce a change, but probably it of one of these lakes. No sooner were they would be

placed on the water than they were sur“ With Epaminondas and Pelopidas, the glory of

rounded by the black-necked race, as a neThebes rose-and fell.”

gro might be surrounded by an European

mob, and ultimately the male negro swan In a mild or warm climate, where vegeta- was killed, and the female left to drag out ble food is spontaneous, and more natural to her widowhood as best she might. man, the transition would be more easy. Where circumstances are favorable to a Manco Capac in Peru, and the ancestry of type, that type will increase, though in miMontezuma, in Mexico, are cases in point; nority; but where the mass of the commuand from thence, probably, came what is nity is of one type, though surrounded by found of civilization amongst the red men of unfavorable circumstances, they will merely the North, whose traditions tell that their continue to degenerate till extinguished, withancestors came from the warm climates-out permitting a stronger race to grow up probably driven thence by the pressure of near them, unless laws and customs are fapopulation against the means of subsistence. vorable to the stronger race. Many of the In these climates the race of men would vary. ancient people of the earth have doubtless The vegetable food would induce a milder thus disappeared. Thus will the French type of men. At this day, the races of men population of Canada disappear; thus will vary in the eastern and western portions of the Celtic population of Ireland disappear, the American continent—in Chili and La unless they mingle with the Saxon and EngPlata. In Chili the people are fed chiefly lish races. on dried beans, with a portion of bread. Dr. Knox argues that there is a tendency Their temperament is hilarious, their faces in mules and mulattoes to die out, in human round, their figures plump, and of a Sancho beings as well as in the animal races. That Panza tendency. In La Plata, on the con- is to say, there is a tendency in man to retrary, the everlasting food is animal-chief- turn to his original types, to his normal state ly beef—and the men are savage-looking and of wild man. Very probably; but so also lank-loined. Chili overflows with popula- is there a tendency to improve all breeds by tion ; La Plata is scant. The stomach of the crossing. The farmer understands this in Chilian is distended, like that of a potato- his cows, and sheep, and pigs, and also in eating Irishman. The stomach of the La his corn, and turnips, and potatoes. It is Plata rider is like that of a hungry tiger. sometimes regarded as an institution of Prov

The general circumstances which surround idence, that different lands have been made a particular community are favorable to the to produce different commodities, in order to growth and increase of a particular type of induce alliances between their inhabitants. man, and less favorable to others.

Why may not man himself fall under the “Like follows like throughout this mortal same category? The strong and hardy white span :” thus, the horse in Flanders becomes races of the north cannot thrive in warm an unwieldy monster, and in Shetland a southern climates, neither can the inhabitant dwarf; and there is a tendency in animals to of the torrid zone thrive in the north; and associate together from external resem- the mixed race, apparently fitted for neither, blances, and to persecute those who are dis- may thrive but in the temperate climate. similar or strange. In the Falkland Islands Gradation is the general law of nature. there are cattle of four different colors, form- Violent changes produce hurricanes and ing separate herds in distant districts as ex-ear hquakes. Man is partly creature and clusively as white men separate from negroes partly a creator of circumstances. In the far north he is white, and his skin gradually | viz., the possibility of making grass produce darkens as he goes southward, till at the large seeds, as wheat, barley, oats, or rye, a equator he becomes black. In his highest larger population may be provided for; but civilized state he approaches the forms of property in land must first be established, classic beauty. In savage life his mouth be- and human industry or human drudgery comes a muzzle, and he degenerates nearly called into action. In the sweat of thy to a monkey. It is all gradation, and we brow shalt thou eat bread.” But when thus see no reason why the elements in the savage far launched by nature on the ocean of proshould not grow up into the sage or saint, or gress, man is still but a savage clad in the why the color of the negro should not change skins of beasts. In his ever-teeming brain, to that of the white, or vice versanot in that hive of the whole world's progress, and our time, but in the lapse of ages, taking ad- by the aid of that wonder-working sceptre, vantage of favorable circumstances. It is his hand, nature has provided for his everwithin the bounds of possibility that English- returning wants; the spindle and distaff and men might once more become savages; but loom spring forth; animal and vegetable before that takes place, they must forget all yield their spoils, and lo! he is clad in purthe powers of nature they have pressed into ple and fine linen. He and his, but not ihey. their service to do man's drudgery, and re- Men have become the drudges of their felturn to their ancient state of ignorance. low-men, who by the sweat of their brain

Race, then, we believe to be the result of have left the sweat of the brow to the mass, especial circumstances, acting for a long pe- while they become a leisure class, removed riod of time on an especial body of people, from bodily drudgery. Metals have been unfavorably in certain types, and favorably scantily wrought, palaces of stone have been in others, till they have all grown similar. built, groves have been planted, and Greece Such a race may remain in the same circum- has become possible with her heroes and stances unchanged forever; but if they poets, artists and philosophers. Yet all is change these circumstances, as for example, based on a hollow dream. There are two if they make a conquest of a new land where orders in the nation, freemen and slaves; the circumstances are unfavorable, they will and though the time has not come for Christ decline and disappear; and thus it is that a to proclaim men's universal equality, amongst race of conquerors usually disappears from a that crowd of slaves arise a fresh generation conquered nation by process of time, unless of heroes, poets, artists, and philosophers, the numbers be kept up by fresh importa- and it gets to be perceived that it is an imtions to replace those dying off. Man differs possible thing for any class of men to be not from the animals in these particulars. happy in luxury while other men are unhapThe same race of bees still flourishes in Hy-py in misery. Men must not "grind at the mettus; neither lion, nor tiger, nor elephant mill forever, that other men may eat of has degenerated in their native regions, and white wheaten bread. they are never voluntary emigrants. Man In a very temperate climate, men may inalone, aided by his reason, tries new circum- crease in number up to the supply of food; stances, and sometimes blunders in misfitting but in the cold hy berborean regions, other himself to his climate.

things are required besides food, clothing, Physical man, in a warm climate, requires and lodging. An abundant supply of fuel food chiefly of a vegetable kind, with water is also essential, not merely for individuals, for drink; in short, his wants are as simple but for the mass. A cold climate, therefore, as those of the lower animals. In such a with only timber for fuel, can never be very climate there are commonly diseases enough densely populated. Where timber is not, to keep down the pressure of population; if savage people use oil lamps to warm their not, wars take place, for the torrid zone is dwellings, and their lives are shortened and favorable to the development of vicious pas- their numbers lessened, by breathing mephitsions. In cool or cold climates, physical man ic air. Those who cannot do this, gradually requires food, fuel, clothing, and lodging; burn up their timber and migrate. And and some of it must be strong food, as animal now man unfolds another page in his brain, food and flesh, to keep up heat and the waste and another of nature's secrets is laid open of the body. If he be a hunter, his food, to him. On the surface, and below the surand the skins of beasts for clothing are easy face of the earth, he finds a fuel stored up to get, provided population be sparse. If for him by nature before he was born, ready he has, moreover, discovered the secret of for his gradually developing faculties. It nature provided for his first step in progress, would have been useless to him while in a

savage state, unacquainted with the use of too powerful to submit to work for task-mastools, and therefore timber was provided. ters. The wealth and power of England are The timber consumed, and the tools ready, sustained by the powers of nature without the coal is found; and now timber trees may cruelty inflicted on man, and therefore they be left to grow up in their beauty to gladden may be permanent. But England has not his eyes while they stand, or be cut down been working for herself alone. She has only to build his ships and dwellings. A been the workshop of the world, and all namighty boon to the earth was this of coal, tions have profited by her labors. She has wondrously enhanced by the iron lying by its spun and woven cotton, and flax, and silk, side, the Castor and Pollux of this our Eng- and wool, to clothe them, and she has given lish Argo, freighted with the world's deliver them machines and taught them to do likeance from thraldom, and manned by such a wise. She has built them ships till her timcrew as the world never before beheld, ber has been consumed, and she has opened whose memory shall never die while the firm yet again the inexhaustible book of man's earth shall endure, or the ocean tides rever- brain, to build ships of iron, moved by iron berate.

rowers—incombustible, and like the axe of When coal, and iron, and lime, and artifi- Elisha, unsinkable; ships that will carry incial food in abundance, are thus combined to creased cargoes with less cost for materials gether, surrounded by a vigor-giving healthy and labor, materials inexhaustible, and labor climate, then may the races of men thicken, growing lighter, and capable of indefinite inand combine for progress. When, in addi- crease. tion, a watery highway is ready on all sides Suoty and begrimed nation-gnomes of to waft them and their wealth there congre- the north, artisans and not artists—thus we gated, even to the furthermost parts of the are called by the races whose leisure we have earth, there must be ever a fountain-bead of earned, and that, too, is to have an end. the world's power. Such is this our Eng. Again has the human brain been searched land-such has it ever been by its island that the sweat may be wiped from the brows form: such has not been the interior of Eu- of the cleansers of clothing and buildings, rope, and therefore has its progress been and those who walk in high places. It is slower. But when the coal and iron were still puzzling its way at smoke-consuming, found side by side in England, still was the forgetting that the true way is to abstain world far from their free use. The work of from making the smoke; that though nature the world was done by the drudgery of the made coal for man's uses, she did not make slave-like many, chiefly for the benefit of the it all fit for perfect combustion. It is the lordly few. Food might be plentiful, sur- work of the manufacturing chemist to do face coal might easily be had for them who this. lived near it; but alas ! for those at a dis- If we put ripe fruit into our stomachis we tance; and the skins of beasts were still the can digest it; but if we put therein raw poclothing of many, while houses and other tatoes or cabbage, we shall require some things were scarce;

kind of chemical solvent, called physic. To

obviate the necessity for this, we cook the "In clouted iron shoes and sheepskin breeches :" vegetables before eating them. Now, the

food of fire is coal. Cannel coal is analoso wrote Daniel Defoe, of the English labor- gous to ripe fruit; it will digest or burn withers of his day. Clothing by day and by out smoke : Newcastle, Leicester, or other night were rags and straw. But another coal, is analogous to the raw potatoes ; it leaf of man's brain was unfolded, and again will not digest without smoke. Chemists was the sweat wiped from his brow. The well know that combustion is the exact mixwind and the wave were first set to grind his ing, in certain proportions, of certain gases. corn, and pump his water, and spin his If the proportions be incorrect, the surplus thread; and last came steam to proclaim the portions produce smoke and vapor. There" beginning of the end” of human drudgery, fore, to get rid of smoke from coal fires, we that the time should indeed come when men must mix our coals artificially—thus manumight be equal in circumstances to their facturing a fuel which will contain the several biri hright.

gases in due proportions. The wealth, and power, and philosophy, This accomplished, we may go on for some and artistic ease of Greece, came from her time in increased comfort; but with the slaves; that ,

of Rome, from conquered na-process of the suns” a new difficulty will tions. They fell because the slaves grew arise. Wood is of limited extent, but it is


reproducible. Coal is also of limited extent, or the flesh of deer, is the most digestible of but it is not reproducible; therefore the ex- all. Such deer as can procure abundant food haustion of coal, which must sooner or later of this kind, and shelter from the weather at take place, would have a tendency to dimin- their own pleasure, produce the best food. ish population. But it will be a gradual Cattle and sheep follow next, and they form process; and as coal increases in cost, the the wholesomest food for man in proportion chemist's brain will again discover that na- as they are in the fullest enjoyment of their ture has provided a remedy for this stage in animal spirits. Deer, and sheep, and cattle man's progress also; and ihe gases of com- fed in stalls, are unhealthy and deteriorated. bustion will be artificially abstracted from The writer once traveled in a wild country many natural substances, to support light where cattle were driven with the caravan as and heat: the electric light, imperfect as it food. They were in good condition, but ocis, but dimly shadowing forth the results casionally they traveled till they were weary that will obtain as the years roll on, chang- and footworn. If killed in this condition ing the miracle of to-day into the daily oc- they were flavorless, as food. “Tired Meat" currence of the morrow.

was the name given to them. The meat apThe physical food of man in the savage peared not to nourish at all, and the appetite state is roots, wild fruits, and wild animals. could not be satiated with it. There is little He is omnivorous. Nature made him thus doubt that the osmazome of the chemist, and to provide for his wants in the absence of the flavor of the butcher, are synonymous

The food was prepared by nature with “ animal spirits.” The animal when in of these various kinds, ready for him to as- its healthiest state—in its state of the greatsimilate. He was no chemist, and would est enjoyment—is fittest for the food of man. have starved had not his food been ready But not the flesh of all animals. Veal, prepared. As roots and wild animals be- and lamb, and fish are less digestible than came scarce, or, in other words, as popula. venison, beef, and mutton. The reason seems tion increased, he made wheat from grass, to be that the former are more animal, beand tamed the goat, and sheep, and black ing fed on animal substances--milk and the cattle in inclosed pasture-lands.

As his flesh of other animals. We are not aware knowledge increased, he crossed the races, that it has yet been tried to feed fish artifiand suited them better to his purposes of cially on vegetables. Venison, beef, and food. Man became what is called civilized; mutton, fed on aromatic herbage, are partly but, in this process of civilization, he engen- antiseptic. The proof of this is that they dered many physical disorders by ignorance. may be eaten and relished partly decomposWhen he took to living out of the open air, ed, while the smallest taint renders veal, he created in-door diseases. When he took lamb, and fish disgusting. We commonly to artificially feeding and housing his ani- apply the term carrion to the flesh of land mals, he created diseases in them also. animals that feed on other animals. The Smithfield-club-cattle men assumed that the vegetable-fed animals we consider wholetrial and test of cattle was—masses of fat. some food for ourselves. With fish we do Liebig had not then taught, and it was not not make this distinction. understood that man needs fat as food as a The practice of feeding on the flesh of ancandle needs tallow, or a lamp needs oil, to imals, entombing their bodies within our own, keep up his heat, and that otherwise it is of has something in it repugnant to refinement. little use to him ; just as bears live on their Many individuals there are who wholly abown fat, and bees on their honey, to keep stain from this food, and confine themselves them warm while hybernating. As knowl- to vegetables. Some there are who abstain edge grew it was discovered that fat was not even to the injury of their own health. We the only essential, but no distinct ideas seem are not counselors of this species of martyryet to prevail on the subject.

dom, but nevertheless think it desirable that The truth is, that vegetables, generally the practice of eating animals should disapspeaking, are not a sufficiently stimulating pear from civilized communities so soon as food for intellectual man. Irishmen live on other means of maintaining their physical potatoes, East Indians on rice, but they are energies can be obtained. We think that not usually men of intellectual energy. A nature has provided for this also, as another portion of animal food seems essential to phase of man's existence, when his brain healthy stimulus. The most digestible is shall be set to work upon it. We will enthe flesh of wild animals fed on vegetables, deavor to analyze the subject. especially of the aromatic kind. Venison, Grass and plants are organized bodies, endowed with life and feeding on earths and sumption of animal food is simply a remnant minerals, in short aggregating together va- of savage life, a custom doomed to vanish rious chemical ingredients. Some of these under the light of human reason. All the plants we eat directly, others we eat indirect- animal food artificially bred by farmers or ly, by feeding animals on them, and then others, is, with little exception, unwholesome. feeding on the animals. All this is simply Consumption, measles, dropsy, liver coman indirect course of gathering together plaint, and other diseases abound in the anichemical ingredients in our own bodies. The mals we eat, and have a tendency to proproblem then to solve is, how shall we ac- duce those diseases in our own bodies. The complish the task of gathering the chemical in- poison we take in by the lungs in the gaseous gredients together, and applying them to our form, is not the only poison we imbibe. We bodies, from inorganic and not organic matter? make an outcry about cleansing the sewers

We shall doubtless be here met by the of our cities, and yet make sewers of our hackneyed remarks, that nature intended us bodies. We cleanse our outer skin and polto feed on the lower animals—created them (lute our inner skin. If the pressure of popfor man's use, and what a surplus of animals ulation is to continue, rendering it essential to there would be in the world if we did not devour unwholesome meat, our ch lists and eat them. We may meet this argument by sanitary officers should at least take order to the converse, and say that nature made man divest it of its poison, and convert it into for the food of lions and tigers, who were another form, just as putrid game is made intended to keep down man's too rapid in- sweet by carbon, or acid fermented liquors crease. It is certain that lions and tigers are rectified by alkali. have some purposes assigned them in crea- All human food consists only of certain tion, and that may be one of them. gases and chemical ingredients, present in

Hunters have assuredly a propensity to the atmosphere and in the earth; the vegekill and eat, from the time of Esau, or be tables are assimilated inorganic matter—the fore; and in Peter's dream he was bidden to animals are assimilated vegetables — "all “rise, kill, and eat.” But the great major- flesh is grass.” “ Give us corn and grass, ity of mankind abhor killing, save under the and what shall we want for food ?” In the pressure of passion or hunger; while even infancy of our race it was needful that nathe cannibal mothers of the Feejee Islands ture should assimilate our food for us, just will exchange children, in order not to de- as the infant needs its mother's milk. The vour their own. But they who hunger for reason of man has now outgrown his earlier animal food in civilized life, rarely like to kill necessity, and he may change his earlier the creatures they eat; and when killed, food. He must prepare his food without none like to eat the flesh of pet animals they the use of animals. In examining the qualihave themselves domesticated—as pigeons, ties of vegetables, we find that some are oily, fowls, rabbits, lambs, or kids. To get rid of some sugary, some glutinous—as the olive, the distasteful operation of killing, we em- the sugar-cane, and many plants and trees ploy butchers—helots of the modern world, yielding gum. There is yet another variety, whose very name we employ as a term of vitu- seeming to constitute the midway mixture peration. This is not Christian to say the least of the animal and vegetable—the mushroom. of it. We have no right to degrade any human These vegetables seem to point out to us our beings, or regard as inferiors those who pre-course. Could we produce a new vegetable, pare the materials that enter into the most or cross some old vegetable, so as to unite intimate combination with our own persons. the three qualities of wheat, olives, and suThere is something humiliating in the idea gar-cane, we should have attained a species of a delicate person who faints at the sight of vegetable flesh, no doubt of highly nutriof blood or a butcher's shop, and then sits tious quality. down to eat of the carcasses that have there Charcoal and diamond are chemical idenbeen cut up. If the employment be in itself tities; so are attar of roses and naphtha. abhorrent to our sensations, it argues little The bulk of the food we eat is soluble into for our humanity, that we have our poorer gases, which gases we can procure in abunfellows to do what we consider degrading dance—which we can separate from our work. If the employment of a butcher be, food—but which we cannot combine to form of necessity, the work of preserving human food. Our analysis is nearly perfect, but life, the butcher is entitled to honor as well our synthesis is yet in embryo. as the physician.

There several remarkable circumBut we believe that the still obtaining con- stances connected with the assimiliation of



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