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ivory'; made it the seat of smiles and blushes'; lighted it up and enlivened it with the brightness of the eyes"; hung it on each side with curious organs of sense'; given it airs and graces that cannot be described'; and surrounded it with such à flowing shade of hair as sets all its beauties in the most agreeable light'.

Many of the tyrants that opposed the christian religion', have long since gone to their own place'; their names have descended upon the roll of infamy'; their empires have passed', like shadows', over the rock'; they have successively disappeared', and left not a trace behind'.

But they that fight for freedom', undertake
The noblest cause mankind can have at stake':
Religion', virtue', truth', whate'er we call

A blessing'-freedom is the pledge of all'. Remarks.—In enunciating the foregoing examples, the reader has a fine opportunity to display his skill in modulation. In the first place, let him enter deeply into the meaning and spirit of his author; and, secondly, let him remember, that, whenever several successive members are inflected alike, it would be monotonous and insipid to modulate any two of them in the same

In reading such sentences, the voice should gradually increase in energy and fulness as it advances from one member to another, and continually vary in its intonation, so as to produce a sort of climax.

At the words “minor," " then," " improving," " touched it," “in it," "enlivened it," and "shade of hair,” a slight pause (called a Rhetorical Pause) is absolutely necessary to a happy and forcible elocution. The same kind of pause also occurs after the words “ His part," "land," " ocean," "power," " fame,"; "riches,” “itself," "Conquerors," "Belief," " reason," and "Or," "Or," "Or," in the following exercises. 138.- -For an explanation of the Final Pause at “undertake" and "call," in the example immediately preceding these Remarks, see page 144.

EXCEPTION 1. When a sentence consists of only two affirmative members, the first generally takes the falling inflection if it end with an emphatick word; as, “ His part was invented by himself, and was terribly unique!" "He would have enslaved the land to make the ocean free'; and he wanted only power to enslave both'" "The idol of to-day', pushes the hero of yesterday out of recollection"; and will, in turn', supplanted by his successors of to-morrow."

EXCEPTION 2. When the sense of any member or members

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of a sentence, is suspended, and depends for its completion on a succeeding member, such incomplete member or members generally require the rising inflection—and the suspending pause; as, “As we cannot discern the shadow moving along the dial-plate', so the advances we make in knowledge', are perceivable only by the distance gone over'.", " If thy brother offend thee', thou shalt forgive him.”

But the principle contained in this exception, though generally correct, and, so far, very important to the oratorical student, is sometimes reversed by the controlling power of emphasis ; as is illustrated by the following examples:—“One who frequently associates with the vile', though he may not become actually base', is sure to gain an ill name'." "" The man who is in the daily habit of using ardent spirits', if he do not become a drunkard', 'is in danger of losing his health and character'."

EXERCISES—Exceptions 1 and 2. As the pupil reads the examples in the following, and other, exercises, he ought to be interrogated by the teacher, in regard to the application of the Rules and Exceptions for inflecting, and thus be enabled to commit the Rules to memory by applying them in practice.

Out of the nettle danger', we pluck the flower thistle!

As in water face answereth to face', so doth the heart of man to man'.

As fame is but breath', as riches are transitory', and as life itself is uncertain', it becomes us to seek a better portion'.

If riches corrupt thee', thy virtue is blasted'.
Thy virtue is blasted', if riches corrupt thee'.

Whatever tends to promote the principles of virtue', and strengthen the bands of brotherhood'-—whatever tends to calm the ruffled feelings', and regulate the passions', is undoubtedly a source of happiness.

Franklin', the sage whom both worlds claim as their own', whose name is recorded with equal honour in the history of science and of governments', is justly entitled to be reckoned among those who have done the greatest honour to our species'.

Conquerors are a species of beings between good kings and tyrants, but partake most of the qualities of the latter'.

The weakness of mankind', causes them to look with admiration upon personages distinguished only for mischief"; and they are better pleased to be discoursing about the destroyer', than the founder', of a nation'. As belief is an act of reason', superiour reason may

dictate to the weak'.

Belief is an act of reason'; and', therefore', superiour reason often dictates to the weak'.

If we have no regard for religion in youth', we seldom have any respect for it in age'.

Remark.-- In this last example, that " we have no regard for religion in youth," is entirely supposititious; but in the following construction, that fact is conceded, and the inflections of both members are reversed.

If we have no regard for religion in youth', we ought to have some respect for it in age'.

This demonstrates the necessity of a constant exercise of good judgment and correct taste, in order to make the

proper inflections.

Example.— The solicitude about the grave', may be but the offspring of an overwrought sensibility, but human nature is made up of foibles and prejudices'.

Remark.—If, in reading this sentence, the superiour em. phasis be allowed to fall on made up, and the inferiour, with a circumflex, upon "foibles and prejudices,” the sentence will close with the rising inflection, in accordance with the Excep tion to Rule 1.

O solitude', romantick maid'!
Whether by nodding towers you tread',
Or haunt the desert's trackless gloom',
Or hover o'er the yawning tomb',
Or climb the Andes' clifted side',
Or by the Nile's coy source abide',
Or', starting from your half-year's sleep';
From Hecla view the thawing deep',
Or’, at the purple dawn of day',
Tadmor's marble waste survey',

You', recluse', again I woo',

And again your steps pursue'.
Should man through nature solitary roam',
His will his sovereign', everywhere his home',
What force would guard him from the lion's jaw'?
What swiftness wing him from the panther's paw'?
Or', should fate lead him to some safer shore',
Where panthers never prowl', nor lions roar',
Where liberal nature all her charms bestows',
Suns shine', birds sing', flowers bloom', and water flows" ;
Fool', dost thou think he'd revel on the store',
Absolve the care of Heaven', nor ask for more'?
Though waters flowed“, flowers bloomed', and Phoebus shone',
He'd sigh', he'd murmur that he was alone':
For know', the Maker', on the human breast',
A sense of kindred', country', man', impressed

Remarks. For the sake of a more pleasing variety in modo ulation, it would be no unwarrantable liberty to depart so far from the rule for inflecting this last example, as to give the falling concrete to the words “tomb” and “roar."

Many more rules for regulating the various inflections of the voice, might easily be given; but an unreasonable multiplicity of rules on this

, or any other, subject, tends to embarrass and perplex the learner, and, in a measure, defeat the object secured by a less number, judiciously selected and arranged. Notwithstanding that the happy application of the foregoing rules, requires no small degree of judgment and taste, both on account of their liability to be misconceived, and in consequence of the numerous exceptions (besides those already pointed out) which ought to be, and which, without detriment to a good elocution, might be, made to them, it is believed, that a careful observance of them will prove highly beneficial to such as are anxious to attain an elegant and an accurate style in reading and speaking

In elocution, as in every other department of science which pertains to ianguage, there are not wanting, at least, a few, leading, fixed principles, which may be laid down as landmarks in the form of rules, and prove highly serviceable to the novitiate, to guide him on his way to excellence in this department of learning: but because rules have their exceptions, it is no good reason why they should be rejected. There are few rules in any science (except the exact sciences) which have not their exceptions. Therefore, to reject them, on this ground, would be to do away all science. But an unnecessary and an unreasonable multiplicity of rules, is an opposite extreme, equally to be avoided.

QUESTIONS. Repeat and explain Rule 1, without looking into the book. What is the Exception to this rule ?—Illustrate it by examples. What is Rule 2?-Can you illustrate it by examples ? Repeat and explain Exception 1st, to Rule 2. Repeat and explain Exception 2d, and the Remarks which follow.

What is Exception 3 :- What is the second part to it?—Please to read the examples which follow it.

When judiciously applied, what is the effect of the rules of elocution?

Please to read the exercises which follow, and explain the inflections by applying the Rules and Notes.

What is the design of the rules and principles of elocution ? Repeat Rule 3.-Will you illustrate it by appropriate examples ? What is Rule 4?_Please to read the examples to Rules 3 and 4. Repeat Rule 5, and read the Examples under it, and show how they illustrate the rule.

What are Exceptions 1, 2, and 3, to Rule 5 ? Have the goodness to illustrate them by examples.

Will you enunciate the Exercises under Exceptions 1 and 2, and ex. plain the application of the Exception to the inflections of each example ?

What is Rule 6 ?Please to read and explain all the examples under it.

What is Rule 7?–Illustrate it by numerous examples.
What is the 1st Exception to Rule 7?–What, the 2d ?

What Exception is there to the principle contained in Exception second? Read and explain the numerous Exercises which follow Rule 7.

The following rules being deemed of minor importance, and admitting, also, of a greater number of exceptions than the foregoing, it has been thought most appropriate to present them in the form of NOTES.

A SERIES A SERIES denotes a succession of similar or opposite particulars, words, or portions of a sentence, following each other in the same construction. A series may be single, double, triple, or compound. It most frequently occurs either at the commencement, or at the close, of a compound sentence.

By Mr. Walker, the various kinds of series are reduced to three general divisions :


3. The SERIES OF SERIES. In the delivery of almost every separate portion of a sentence, a chaste and an appropriate elocution requires, that the tones and the inflections of the voice should be varied; but far more necessary is this variation where the sentence is so constructed that perfectly similar portions succeed each other to a consid-, erable extent. To attempt to lay down rules by which to regulate the voice in all its appropriate modulations and inflections—by which to mark the definite character of every tone, the exact direction of every wave or concrete vanish, or the precise extent of every upward and downward slide, would be worse than idle; for such directions, as far as they would produce any effect, would prove highly pernicious, as they would lead to a stiff, formal, artificial enunciation—an enunciation the most execrable that scholastick dulness could invent. But notwithstanding the absurdity of such an extreme as the one here alluded to, something may be effected by the observance of a

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