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a different elementary sound; and of a sound slightly different again in the word n-o-r; to which may be added a fourth elementary sound in m-o-ve. Similar remarks might be extended to e in m-e, imp-e-rative, m-e-t, to i in p-i-ne, p-i-n, to u in l-u-te, h-u-t, f-v-ll; but these variations in the sounds of the vowels, are familiar to every one, although every one has not noticed, that these five vowels are employed, without combining them, as the representatives of fifteen, distinct, elementary sounds of the voice. Th in th-ink, has a different sound from th in wi-th, th-is. Ch in ar-ch-angel, represents the elementary sound commonly denoted by k, but quite a different sound in arch-er. As these graphick characters called letters, then, are employed to represent, not only the sounds which denote their names, but, also, other elementary sounds which enter into the pronuncia. tion of syllables, the aspirant for excellence in elocution, should deem no attention too minute—no course of labours too arduous, which may be found requisite in order to obtain a complete mastery of all their elementary sounds.

There are many elementary sounds for the representation of which we have no single letters

. To make up this deficiency in our alphabet, these sounds are represented by two or more letters combined. By pronouncing the words th-ump, brea-th, brea-the, so-ng, sh-ut, wh-at, ch-ur-ch, ou-t, in a slow and drawl. ing manner, it will readily be perceived by those who have not heretofore attended to the subject, that the combinations th, the, ng, sh, wh, ch, and ou, express each an elementary sound which is not represented by any single letter in the alphabet.

The same letter is not only employed to represent different elementary sounds, but the same elementary sound is often ex® pressed by various letters, or by various combinations of letters. In the words s-o-n, d-o-th, d.o-es, the letter o, is employed as the representative of an elementary sound commonly expressed byu, as in s-u-n, d-u-th, d-u-z. "In the words p-u-pil

, n-ew, l-ieu, v-iew, b-eau-ty, the letters w, ew, ieu, iew, and eau, are employed to represent one and the same elementary sound, a sound commonly denoted by w. The e in th-e-re, ei in th-ei-r, and ai in ai-r, have the same sound as a in sn-å-re.


To be answered by the learner.
What are the six general divisions of elocution ?
Of what does chapter I, treat ?
In what does a good articulation consist ?
What forms the basis of good delivery?
Is articulation a primary beauty in elocution ?

Repeat Rule 1.

How many elementary sounds are employed in pronouncing the words of the English language ?

By what are these sounds represented ?

Do letters ever represent any other sounds than those which denote their names ?

Give some illustrations of the various sounds of a, o, e, i, u, th, ch, sh, Give examples in which o, ew, ieu, iew, and eau, are pronounced

ng, and the.

like u.


Explode the elementary sound of a in a-te, a-im b-amall, h-a-ll, p-awa-t, m-a-t, b-at-f-a-r, c-a-r, a-rt:-of o in o-at, m-o-te, n

on-o-t, g-ot-o-r, n-o-r—m-o-ve, pr-o-ve :--of e in m-e-m-e-rit, m-e-t:-of i in l-i-ne, b-2-nd.

Give the separate sound of th in th-is, wi-th-th in brea-th :of ch in ar-ch, ch-ur-ch-ar-ch-angel :-of sh in wa-sh:-of ng, in lo-ng :-of wh in what :-of z in a-z-ure:-of ou in our :and of oi in oi-1.


Among the wonderful contrivances of nature in directing the operations of the vocal powers in the production of speech, in no one thing has she displayed greater wisdom than in that which relates to the simple elements called by Dr. Rush, the Radical and Vanishing movement of the voice. To this philosophical inquirer, the world is indebted for the following analysis of these important functions.

If the vowel a be pronounced without intensity or emotion, and as if it were a continuation, and not a close, of utterance, two successive sounds will be heard : the first, the nominal sound of the letter a, issuing from the vocal organs with a certain degree of abrupt fulness; the last, a feebler sound of the element e, which gradually diminishes until it terminates in silence. Example: "He proved that a—is a diphthong.'

To the unpractised student, the diphthongal character of a will be more clearly demonstrated, if its sound be protracted, and uttered with an emotion of surprise, at the close of an interrogation : thus, 'Do you call that a ?'

The character of this opening fulness and feebler vanish, may be still more clearly manifested by pronouncing the element in the following, various ways: let the opening be strong and full, and the vanish less forcible, with a pause between the opening sound a and the vanishing sound e, and then a shorter pause, and then a shorter still, and so on, until both the opening

and the vanish become blended into one sound: thus, A- -e, A-, A-e, a-e, a.

Similar experiments may be practised upon the diphthongs, i as heard in i-sle, y in dr-y, and ou in ou-r; and upon the simple elements, e as heard in ee-l, o in oo-ze, and

so forth. This opening fulness of sound here described, Dr. Rush has denominated the Radical movement, because the following or vanishing portion of the elementary sound, rises in the rising vanish) concretely from it as from a base or root : and the last portion he calls the Vanishing movement, on account of its becoming gradually weaker, until it finally dies away into silence.

QUESTIONS. Please to illustrate the diphthongal character of a, by pronouncing it in such a manner as fully to display its radical and vanishing movement of sound.

Explode i, y, ou, e, 0, &c. so as to illustrate the radical and vanish of each. Why are the radical and vanishing movements of the voice so styled ?


Explode the following vowels in such a manner (that is, by protracting or lengthening them) as to show their diphthongal character in the radical and vanishing movements of the voice, namely, a in a-te, p-a-y, d-a-ta-i in i-sle, i-tem—o in o-men, Cat-o-ou in ou-nce.

Express the following italicised vowels with a protracted, rising vanish: Did he call it a ? Did she say i? Shall I pronounce o? Can you sound ou ?

The same examples with a stress on the radical.
The same with a stress on the vanish.
Explode the same with a stress on the radical and vanish..
Explode them with the downward, protracted vanish: thus,
He called it a. She said i. I pronounce it 0. You can sound ou.

In the same manner with stress upon the radical—upon the vanish-upon the radical and vanish.

DIVISION OF ELEMENTARY SOUNDS. The hoary division of the letters of our alphabet into vowels and consonants, handed down to us from the Greek and Roman etymologists, does not seem to be strictly philosophical, nor fully

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descriptive of their relative characteristicks. A consonant is not only capable “ of being perfectly sounded without the help of a vowel,” but, moreover, of forming, like a vowel, a separate syllable.

Dr. Rush has judiciously adopted a division and classification of the elementary characters of our language, in accordance with their use in intonation, as follows:

The elementary characters of our language, are divided into three sorts, the Tonicks, the Subtonicks, and the Atonicks.

The Tonick elements are those whose sounds display the properties of the radical and vanish in the most perfect manner. There are twelve of them; and they are heard in the sounds commonly given to the separated italicks in the following words:

A-te, a-rk, a-ll, a-t, ee-l, e-rr, ešnd, i-de, i-t, o-ld, 00-ze, ou-t.

The tonick sounds consist of a distinct vocality, or raucous quality of voice, by which they are contradistinguished from aspirate or whispering sounds. They have a more musical quality than the other elementary sounds, and may be uttered with greater abruptness and force. They are also capable of indefinite prolongation; and admit of the concrete and tremulous rise and fall through all the intervals of pitch.

The Subtonick elements possess, variously, but in an inferiour degree, properties analogous to those of the tonicks. Whilst they admit of being intonated, or carried concretely through the intervals of pitch, they are inferiour to the tonicks in all the emphatick and elegant purposes of speech. There are fourteen of them; as,

B-oat, d-are, g-ilt, v-ice, z-one, y-e, w-o, th-at, a-z-ure, so-ng, l-ate, m-ate, n-ot, r-oe.

Of the subtonicks, b, d, g, ng, l, m, n, r, have an unmixed vocality; v, z, y, w, th, zh, have an aspiration joined with their vocality. M, n, ng, b, d, g, are purely nasal elements; the rest of the subtonicks, are partly oral.

The Atonick elements are mere aspirates, or currents of whispering breath. They are not properly vocal sounds; have but a limited power of variation in pitch; and supply no part of the concrete movement when breathed among the constituents of syllables. There are nine of them,

, as heard in the words,

U-p, a-t, lar-k, i-f, thi-s, h-e, wh-at, th-in, blu-sh.

Although the aspiration of the atonicks, is both significative and emphatick, yet it has no musical quality in its sound, and affords no basis for the functions of the radical and vanish.

Three of the subtonicks, b, d, and g, and three of the atonicks, P, t, and k, possess the explosive character in an eminent degree, as in uttering them, the breath bursts out after a complete occlusion.

These seven of the tonick elements, a-te a-rk, a-ll, a-t, 2-de, o-ld, ou-t, have different sounds for the two extremes of their concrete movement;

but the other five, ee-l, e-rr, e-nd, oo-ze, i-t, have each, one unaltered sound throughout the same movement;—which fact the student is requested to demonstrate by experiment.

The tonicks are divided into Diphthongs and Monothongs.

The seven tonicks, a-te, a-rk, a-ll, a-t, i-de, o-ld, ou-t, are Diphthongs, because the sounds of the radical and vanishing movement are different ; but the remaining five, ee-l, e-rr, e-nd, oo-ze, i-t, are called Monothongs, as their radical and vanish are alike in sound.

A-ll has for its radical, the sound of a in all, and for its van. ish, a short and obscure sound of the monothong e in e-rr.

A-te has for its vanish, e in the monothong ee-l.

I-de has its radical followed in like manner by a vanish of the monothong ee-l.

Ould has for its vanish, the monothong oo-ze.
Ou-t has for its vanish, the same monothong oo-ze.

For a farther illustration of this subject, the reader is referred to Dr. Rush's “ Philosophy of the Human Voice," page 59

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