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If courage intrinsically consists in the defiance of dan-ger and pâin', the life of the In-dian is a continual exhibition of it'.

I had a dream', which was not all a DREAM'.
Un-ea-sy lies the head that wears a crown'.
I rhyme for smiles', and not for tears'.

Noble Bructus
Hath told you, that Cesar was am-bi-tious";
If it were so, it was a grievous fault.
Yet Bru-tus says, he was am-bi-tious';

And' sûre', he is an hôn-ourable mân'. Remarks.-A correct enunciation of these examples, wil. show the happy effect of emphasis in controlling the inflections and modulations of the voice, and of increasing the beauty and harmony of language. This will be particularly illustrated by a proper application of the circumflex movement on the words, “died,” “pain,” the second "dream," "crown," " tears,” “fault," "sure," " honourable,” and “man.'

The Sense of a passage, dependant on emphasis. There can be but few who have not observed, that the meaning of a sentence often depends on the appropriate or inappropriate application of emphatick force.

Example.-Do you ride to town to-day'? Dou you ride to town today'? Do you ride to town to-day'? Do you ride to town to-day'?

Remarks.-The four different answers suggested by a change in the place of the emphasis, according to the italicised words in this example, are too familiar to need illustration.

If I say, “He can plead as well as any lawyer,” placing the emphasis on any, the assertion clearly implies, that the person spoken of, is a lawyer; but if I transpose the emphatick stress, and

say,

“He can plead as well as any law-yer',' the inferential meaning is, that the person referred to, is not a lawyer.

Éxample.He discourses as religiously as any Methodist preacher

He discourses as religiously as any Meth-odist preacher. He discourses as religiously as any Methodist preach-er'.

Remarks.—The first of these readings, implies that the person referred to, is a Methodist preacher

; the second, that he is a preacher, but not a Methodist preacher; the third, that he is a Methodist, but not a preacher.

Examples.-A crow is a large black bird'.

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A crow is a large black bird".
I saw a horse-fly through the window.
I saw a horse-fly through the window'.

Since the world began', has it not been heard', that a man opened the eyes of one that was born blind".

Since the world began', has it not been heard', that a mân opened the

eyes of one that was born blind', Remarks.—By looking at the connexion of this last passage, as it is presented on page 215, one will readily perceive, that, according to this last reading of it, that is, by laying the stress on “man," it implies, that he who had been restored to sight, at the time he made this unanswerable reply to the unbeliev, ing Jews, himself considered Christ to be more than man, and that he wished to intimate to them this belief; whereas, he was only attempting to prove to them that Christ was not a sinner, for he did not yet know who or what Jesus was. Again, a correct enunciation of this sentence requires the emphatick stress to fall on “ blind," on account of which, though the word closes a negative sentence, it takes the falling inflection, or, rather, the direct unequal wave, but, by laying the stress on "man," we naturally take it off of " blind," and thereby change its inflection to a rising.

Examples of this description, might be indefinitely multiplied; but these few are doubtless sufficient to call the attention of the learner particularly to this subject, and, it is hoped, to impress upon him its importance.

The author is not unaware that many will differ from him on certain points of elocution, particularly those intricate and delicate ones which regard some of the peculiar inflections and waves of the voice, (especially when under the influence of emphatick force,) as well as in regard to the various degrees and qualities of emphatick stress. It has been already hinted, that, although most things pertaining to this subject, may be regulated by fixed principles and rules, yet, on some points, we have no better standard to go by than good taste—a standard so loosely seated, that it is liable to be much justled about, according to the judgment, and fancy, and caprice of the respective individuals who lay their hands on it. But the most fruitful ground of objection to the author's views, he apprehends, will arise out of a misconception of them, or, at least, an unskilful or erroneous application of many of his directions. Doubtless many a one who will take exceptions to his directions for reading particular words or passages, would readily coincide with him, and approve of his taste and manner, were

they to hear him enunciate those exampies. But, be this as it may, he wishes it to be distinctly understood, that, in matters of taste, as well as in those higher endowments of the mind which pertain to the judgment, he by no means considers himself infallible.

QUESTIONS.

What is Emphasis ?—Explain the difference between it and Accent ?
What are the three kinds of emphasis first mentioned ?
What is the first?

Rule by which to distinguish emphatick, from unemphatick, words.Give examples.

Are emphatick words always the most important in sense ?—Examples. Give examples in which one part of the antithesis is implied.

Is a phrase or member of a sentence ever antithetically employed with a single word ?-Give examples. Repeat Rule 2.—Please

to read all the examples which follow. Please to look at the Remarks, and explain the method by which antithetick members might be supplied to these examples of emphasis of specification.

What is said of a monotonous sameness in pronouncing two or more successive members ?

Read the dialogue between Alexander and the Robber, according to the directions given, and

repeat the Remarks which follow. What is the Rule' for Emphasis of Enumeration ?-Read all the examples which follow it, according to the directions in the subjoined Reinarks.

Please to read the next set of examples, and explain them according to the Remarks subjoined.

What is the distinction between Simple and Compound Emphasis ? Please to read the examples which follow, and explain them. What is the difference between Superiour and Inferiour Emphasis ? Give numerous examples, and illustrate them.

Please to illustrate the emphasis of Radical, Median, Vanishing, and Compound Stress, and also, emphasis of Quantity.

Illustrate some emphatick Inflections.

Are the inflections of the voice ever controlled by emphasis ?-Illustrate by examples, some of the emphatick Waves.

Give examples in which the meaning depends on the emphasis.
What is the standard of accuracy in elocution ?

Please to read the numerous examples which follow, and apply the rules for the emphasis and the inflections adopted.

It may be proper to remark, that, in answering these questions, as well as those in the foregoing chapters, the learner will be permitted (more or less, according to the discretion of the teacher,) to make use of the book.

EXERCISES.

The teacher cannot be too urgent in cautioning the pupil against the very common errour of not exploding emphatick words with sufficient energy and force. A bold, full, and strong emphasis adds more than any thing else to expression and effect in delivery.

Con-fidence is a plant of slow growth'.
The young are slaves to nov-elty', the old', to cus-tom.

To improve the golden moment of oppor-tu-nity, and catch the good that is with-in our reach', is the great art of life'.

In order to know a man', we should observe how he gains his object', rather than how, he los-es it'.

That an author's work is the mirror of his mind', is a position that has led to very er-ro-neous con-clu-sions. If Satan him-self were to write a book', it would be in praise of vir-tue'; because the good would purchase it for use', and the bad', for osten-ta-tion'.

All who have been great and good with-out christianity'. would have been much greater and better with it'.

The opinions prevalent in one age', as truths above the reach of controversy', are confuted and rejected in an-oth-er', and rise again to reception in re-mo-ter times. Thus', on some subjects', the human mind is kept in mo-tion without prog-ress'. Thus', sometimes truth and er-rour', and sometimes contra-rieties of errour', take each other's place by reciprocal in-va-sion'.

Jesus saith unto him', Thom-as', because thou hast sêên me', thou hast be-lieve-d': blessed are they that have not seen me', and yet have believed'.

Simon', son of Jo-nas', lor-est thou me'?
Yea', Lord', thou know-est that I love thee'.

It is safer to be at-tacked by some men', than to be pro-tect ed by them!

Oʻ, you hard hearts', you cruel men of Rome'!
Knew ye not Pom-pey'?
. And do you now strew flowers in his way
Who comes in triumph over Pompey's blood' ?
'Tis hard to say', if greater want of skill?
Appear in wri-ting', or in judg-ing', ill':
But, of the two', less dangerous is the offence'
To tire our pa-tience', than mis-lead our sense';
Some few in that, but num-bers err in this',
Ten cen-sure wrong for one who writes amiss':
A fool might once him-self alone expose';
Now', one in verse makes many more in prose'.
Some place the bliss in ac-tion', some', in ease';
Those call it pleas-ure', and con-tent-ment', these':
Some', sunk to beasts', find pleas-ure end in paino;
Some', swelled to gods', confess even ViR-tue vâin':
Or in-dolent', to each extreme they fall',
To trust in ev-ery thing', or doubt of alt.
Who thus, define it', say they more or less'
Than this', that hap-piness is hap-piness'?

you
say',

Antonio.-Well", Shylock', shall we be beholden to you'?

Shylock.-Seignior Antonio', many a time', and oft',
In the Rialto you have ra-ted me
About my mon-eys', and my w-sances':
Still have I borne it with a patient shrug';
For suf-ferance is the badge of all our tribe'.
You call me'... misbe-lie-ver', cut-throat DÔGo,
And spit upon my Jewish gabardine';
And all for use of that which is my own'.
Well, then, it now appears' you need my help'.
Go to', then, you come to me', and
“Shylock', we would have môn-eys:

Yoủ say so';
You', that did void your rheum upon my beard,
And foột me', as you spurn a stranger cur
Over your threshold":... môn-eys is your suit'.
What should I say to you'? Should I not say',
'Hath a dôg'. .Mõn-ey'? is it pos-sible',
A CUR.. can lend three-thou-sand duc-ats' ?' or',
Shall I bend low', and in a bond-man's key',
With 'bated breath', and whis ng hum-bleness',
Say this,
"Fair, sír', you spit on me on Wednesday last';
You SPURNED me such a day'; another time
You called me'... DOG'; and for these coûr-tesies
I'll lend you thus much môn-eys'.”
I conjure you by that which you pro-fess',
(Howe'er you came to know it',) an-swer me';
Though you untie the winds and let them fight
Against the church-es'; though the yesty waves
Confound and swallow navi-ga-tion up';
Though bladed corn be lodge-d, and trees blown down';
Though castles topple on their warder's heads';
Though palaces and pyramids do slope
Their heads to their foun-Da-tions'; though the treasures
Of nature's germins tumble alto-geth-er',
Even till de-struc-tion SICK-en'; an-swer me

To what I ask you'. This last passage, the sublime and terrible adjuration of Macbeth to the witches, is marked agreeably to the direction of Mr. Walker, as in accordance with the manner of pronouncing it adopted by the inimitable Garrick, namely, to adopt the falling inflection at the close of each member except the last but one, and to give the inflection a degree of emphatick force, increasing in strength from the first member to the sixth. By such an enunciation, the whole climax will be most beautifully diversified, and its effect greatly heightened.

Before taking leave of this subject, the author deems it proper to caution the learner against the danger of his attaching either too much, or too little, importance to the rules laid down in this work. Of the great advantages resulting from a clear

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