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There is a difference between giving and forgiving, between sen-sibility and ir-ritability.

Jesus saith unto her, Where are thine accusers ? Hath no man condemned thee? The woman answered, No man, Lord.

Remarks.— These examples are sufficient to show, that any word

may become emphatick, and even take a strong emphasis, when employed antithetically with another word. The reason of this must be obvious to him who considers, that this very circumstance of a word's being employed antithetically, renders it important in the sentence in which it thus appears: and that, therefore, it requires that distinction which emphatick force is designed to give it..

In the following examples, one part of the antithesis is im. plied.


Exereise and temperance strengthen an indifferent constitution, [as well as a good one.]

I speak in the spirit of British law; [and not merely according to the dictates of reason.)

In thy sight, O Lord, shall no man be justified: (although, in the sight of men, many may be justified.]

Proclaim it, Westmoreland, throughout my host,
That he who hath no stomach for this fight,
May straight de-part : his passport shall be made,
And crowns for convoy put into his purse.

We would not die in that man's company. Remarks.—A corresponding, antithetical member to this last line, may be supplied in the following, or some other, manner: We would not die in that man's company; much less would we fight in it." Or, perhaps the antithesis will be rendered stronger, if constructed in the following manner : would not only, not fight with a coward, but we would not even die in his company.” But, doubtless, the simplest way to explain the emphasis on “de-part' and “die," in this example, is, by applying the principle contained in Rule 2, on the next leaf-according to which, it would be styled emphasis of specification.

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And when I was present with you, and wanted, I was chargeable to no man.

On Linden, when the sun,
All bloodless lay the untrodden show,

And dark as winter was the flow

Of Iser, rolling rapidly.
But Linden saw an-oth-er sight,

When the drum beat at dead of night. Remarks. The first sight, antithetically opposed to “another sight,” mentioned in this last couplet, is described in the second line of the first stanza : “ All bloodless lay the untrodden snow.”

In the first of the foregoing examples, the word "present" is contrasted with the implied idea of St. Paul's being then absent from the Corinthians. His reminding them that he "wanted” when with them, seems to convey a tacit rebuke for their lack of liberality towards him, when he was freely devoting his time and labours for the good of their souls. An inferential, antithetical member, therefore, very naturally arises, somewhat in this manner: "I was chargeable to no man when I wanted, although I had a right to be chargeable to many, and to have had my reasonable wants supplied."

Example.--" They brought to the Phar-isees him that aforetime was blind."

Remark.-By turning to page 214, of this work, the reader will perceive that the word "Phar-isees," in the passage here quoted, is contrasted with the word “neigh-bours," which occurs in the preceding paragraph. Again, on the same page, we have the

Example :-" They say unto the blind man a-gain, What sayest thou of him ?!!

Remark.—The Pharisees had al-read-y expressed their opinion of him.

For numerous examples of emphasis founded on antithesis, the reader is referred to page 171, 214, and 266, and, indeed,

of the selections in the latter part of this work in which the emphatical words are distinguished by Italick characters.

It is worthy of remark, that sometimes one part of the an: tithesis is a single word, and the other portion, a phrase, or a member of a sentence, and that sometimes both parts consist of emphatick phrases or members.

to any


Is he hon-est; or will be se-cretly rob his neigh-bour of his good name?

To be, or not to be?-that is the question-
Whether 'tis nobler ir the mind to suf-fer
The slings and ar-rows of out-ra-geous fortune,

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Or to take up arms against a sea of troub-les,

And, by op-po-sing, end them ? Remark. It is not to be understood, that the emphatick force falls in equal degrees upon every word or syllable here italicised. Although several emphatick words frequently succeed each other, yet seldom, if ever, should any two or more words in succession, receive precisely the same amount or weight of percussive force, any more than they should receive the same modulation of tone and inflection. Of the words distinguished as emphatical, in the last of the preceding examples, doubtless the first that are contrasted, namely, “ Suf-fer” and "take up arms" require the greatest stress, and " fortune" and “ troub-les,” the least,—a stress so slight, indeed, as scarcely to raise these to the dignity of emphatical words.



In the specification of particular facts, the principal words are always emphatick.


True politeness is based upon sin-cer-ity: it flows from the heart ; is equally fascinating in the cot-tage, the court, and the camp; and is capable of soft-ening even an en-emy.

I may be re-buked ; I may be per-secuted; I may be impeached; nay, im-prisoned, con-demned, and put to the rack ; yet noth-ing shall tear from me my firm hold on vir-tue.

Sir, we have done every thing that could be done to avert the storm which is now approaching. We have pe-ti-tioned; we have re-mon-strated; we have sup-plicated; we have prostrated ourselves before the throne, and implored its interposition to arrest the ty-ran-nical hands of the ministry and of parliament. Our petitions have been slight-ed; our remonstrances, have produced ad-di-tional vi-olence and in-sult; our supplications have been disre-gard-ed; and we have been spurned with con-tempt from the foot of the throne.

Remarks.-In the first of the foregoing examples, antithetick members might be supplied in the following, or some other, manner : " True politeness is based upon sin-cer-ity, and not upon pre-tence: it flows from the heart, and not from the head," and so forth. In the second example, we might say, ** Instead of being praised, I may be re-buked ; instead of being

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pro-tect-ed, I may be per-secuted," and so on. But, as this method of supplying one part of the antitheses, may appear a little strained, or far-fetched, it will doubtless be more judicious, and, certainly, far more easy, to test the emphatick' words in constructions of this description, by the application of Rule 2.

In reading the foregoing examples, the pupil should be very careful not to pronounce any two successive members with a monotonous sameness, as that would render his elocution feeble and insipid; but a correct and spirited enunciation of them, or, at least, of the second and third examples, requires him to proceed with an increased degree of emphatick force, and a varied modulation, upon each successive member, so as to produce a sort of climax.-Similar directions are applicable to the reading of the following


Alexander.-WHAT! art thou the Thracian rob-ber, of whose exploits I have heard so much ?

Robber. I am a Thra-cian, and a sol-dier.

Alex. A sol-dier !—a thief, a plun-derer, an as-sas-sin! the pest of the coun-try!-I could honour thy cour-age; but I de-test, and must pün-ish, thy crimes.

Robber. What have I done, of which you can complain?

Alex. Hast thou not set at de-fi-ance my au-thor-ity; vi-olated the publick peace; and passed thy life in in-juring the per-sons and property of thy fellow-sub-jects ?

Robber. Alexander, I am your cap-tive: I must, therefore, hear what you please to say, and en-dure whatever punishment you may choose to in-flict; but my soul is un-con-quered: and if I reply at all to your reproaches, I will reply like a free man.

Remarks.-In these examples, the emphasis on "honour, cour-age, de-test, pun-ish, and crimes," "you," "hear, say, endure, and in-flict," "soul, all, and free," is antithetical; on the other italicised words, it is emphasis of specification.

You,” is contrasted with other men, understood: thus, “I know that other men may justly reproach me for my vile deeds; but what have I done of which such a blood-thirsty tyrant as you can complain ?" The last example may be rendered thus: “I know you

hold my bod-y in bond-age; but my soul is un-con-quered.""

Remark. It frequently happens, that several words in succession, are emphatick, though in different degrees.

Example.—"I now boldly proclaim it to this house as my



deliberate opinion, that, if that law Pass, our country will be RU-ined: yes, ru-ined for-ev-er."



Words used in counting or numbering, and, indeed, all others, when repeated in a list, or as a set of examples, are emphatick.


1. The Cardinal Numbers; as, One, two, three, four, five, twenty, one-hundred, one-thousand, eight-hundred, and thirtyfive, and so on.

The Ordinal Numbers : st, second, third, and so forth. 3. Adverbs of Number : Once, twice, thrice. 4. Adverbs of Order: First, secondly, thirdly, lastly. 5. Adverbs of Time: Now, already, before, hereafter, not yet. 6. List of Prepositions : Of, to, for, by, with, in.

7. Descartes, Stahl, Cabanis, and Bichat, Cuvier, Blumenbach, Reil, and some others, admit of sensibility without consciousness.

Remarks.-By pronouncing the words in the foregoing examples, slowly and very distinctly, the reader will perceive that each requires a degree of percussive force, amounting to what is termed emphasis.

Emphasis of Enumeration is likewise legitimately employed in the following, and similar

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If one man can do much good, if two men can do more, and if three can go far beyond two, what may we not expect threehundred thousand to accomplish.

In this work, I shall treat of the functions of man as divided, first, into vegetative, secondly, affective, and thirdly, intellectual.

In the first chapter, I shall speak of sensibility; in the second, of the relation between the affective and intellectual manifestations of the mind; in the third, of the dependance of the affective and intellectual faculties on the brain; in the fourth, of the plurality of the organs; and in the fifth and last chapter, of the intellectual faculties and their organs.

Part first, chapter fourth, section eighth, page twenty-ninth. Remarks.—In these examples, the emphatick force which

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