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fulness, and the like. Hence it is often heard in the complaints of children, and of peevish persons. It is also distinctly marked in hiccough, as well as in that peculiarity of the Irish pronunciation of the English language, vulgarly called “ Irish accent."
COMPOUND FORCE OR STRESS. When force is applied at both ends of a sound or syllable, it is called Compound Stress.
MEDIAN STRESS. When the sound of a long syllable, swells from its opening to the middle of it, and then diminishes to its close, the force applied, is styled by Dr. Rush, Median Stress.
This kind of stress may be illustrated on the words hail, sole, name, heel, or on y, o, or I, and so forth, in the following manner :-let the voice open upon these syllables with moderate force, and gradually swell in volume as it proceeds till it becomes full and conspicuous, and then let it diminish in the same gradual manner until it dies away in the ordinary vanish.
This kind of stress may advantageously be practised on the direct wave of a second. "Words emphasized with it, acquire an agreeable smoothness of sound. It is the appropriate emphasis for syllables of long quantity, and, consequently, is much employed in all subjects of a dignified character. In the management of this element, great delicacy is required, for, when naturally displayed, it is but slightly marked.
ASPIRATE ELEMENTS. Those consonants called Atonicks, p, t, k, f, s, h, wh, th, and sh, are denominated Aspirate elements, because they are uttered by a sort of whispering explosion of the breath, and with little or no sound in the throat.
Some of the consonants, as well as the vowel elements, are commonly exploded without any aspiration. It is possible, however, to mingle aspiration, in various degrees, with all the vowel sounds; and, indeed, to aspirate them completely by whispering them.
Aspiration is much employed in expressing scorn, contempt, excessive, anger, earnestness, and the like. What could be more expressive of scorn than the hissing employed in the theatre? Aspiration increases the mystery of a passage designedly mysterious, as the following example will illustrate:
Then first, with amazement, fair Imogine found,
His air was terrifick; he uttered no sound;
ACCENT. Accent implies that peculiar force or stress of the voice which is given to a particular letter or syllable of a word, in order to distinguish it from the other syllables, and render its articulation more distinct and audible; as in the word
promote, the stress must be laid on the letter
which gives to the second syllable, mote, the accent.
Every word of more syllables than one, has one of them accented. With few exceptions, the placing of the accent on one syllable in preference to another, is determined entirely by custom.
To promote euphony and distinctness in the utterance of a long word, a secondary accent is frequently given to one or two other syllables besides that which takes the principal accent. The acute accent- (the character employed in this work to denote the rising inflection of the voice) generally points to the vowel or syllable which takes the primary or principal accent; and the grave accent—' (which is employed to denote the falling inflection) points to the vowel or syllable which takes the secondary accent: thus, as ton' ish 'ment, tes ti mo' ni ‘al.
Mere force or stress gives accent to short syllables; as in the words tem-pest, crim'-inal, hat'-tery.
But the accent given to long syllables, includes not only the effect of force, but also, the idea of time ; as in the words hope'ful, stran-ger, fee'-lingly.
As accent relates to the pronunciation of words, or parts of words, taken singly and separately, it does not legitimately come within the province of elocution, which has been defined to relate chiefly to the pronunciation of words taken successively and collectively, and considered according to their relative dependance on each other for sense. The study of elocution presupposes, on the part of the student, a knowledge of accent, as well as of orthography, and so forth. This subject, therefore, will be closed, by noticing two or three circumstances under which the accent of words is controlled by secondary causes, and thereby transposed. First, a change in the meaning of a word, sometimes changer
the place of its accent; as, con'jure, to practise enchantments; con jure', to entreat ;-des'-ert, a wilderness ; de sert', merit or demerit.
Secondly, the place of the accent is sometimes changed by the change of the word from one part of speech to another. The nouns min'ute and com'pact, become mi nute and compact when employed as adjectives. The nouns ab'stract, com'pound, con'duct, di' gest, ex'tract, in'sult, ob'ject, reb'el, and so forth, change their accent when employed as verbs ; thus, abstract', com pound', con duct', di gest', ex tract', in sult', ob ject',
Thirdly, ačcent is sometimes deposed by its rival sister emphasis; as in the following examples, in which the former has to give place to the latter. In these and similar examples, the words in which the accent is transposed, have, it will be noticed, a partial similarity of form, and are used antithetically.
EXAMPLĖS. There is a difference between giving and forgiving. He must increase, but I must decrease. What fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness ? He that ascended, is the same as he that descended.
In some kinds of composition, plausibility is more essentie than probability
Cometh this blessedness, then, upon the circumcision only, or upon the uncircumcision also ? Some appear to make
little distinction between decency and indecency, morality and immorality, religion and irreligion.
QUESTIONS. Of what does chapter 4, treat ? By what terms are the various degrees of force expressed ? What powers of the voice are referred to by the terms high and loro? Explain the difference of meaning between force and loudness. What should be the first object of him who speaks or reads to others ? How is this to be effected ?
In order to be distinctly heard in reading, what pitch of the voice ought generally to be adopted ?
What is said respecting a rhetorical pause ?
Please' to enunciate the examples which follow, agreeably to the di. rections given in the margin.
How may force be manifested at the beginning, middle, and end of syllables, &c. ?
What is meant by the term Radical Stress?
What three circumstances sometimes transpose the accent on words? Read the examples which follow.
EMPHASIS. By EMPHASIS is meant that still more forcible stress of the voice which is given to syllables, in order to distinguish the words to which they belong from others in the same sentence, than that stress which is denominated accent.
Emphasis, in order to distinguish it from the less forcible stress which falls on single letters or syllables, called accent, is generally defined to be a forcible stress laid on words; but the following illustrations will show, that the peculiar percussion of the voice which goes by the name of emphasis, is generally given, like that called accent, not to several successive syllables of the same word, but to only one syllable. Its effect, however, when properly applied, is to render more significant and impressive the words to which such syllables belong, than are the other words of the sentence.
Although every one knows what is meant by emphasis, ac. cording to the common acceptation of the term, yet few possess that nice discrimination, that clear conception of an author's meaning, and that sound judgment, which are requisite in order to distinguish emphatical words from others, and to give each just such a degree and quality of force as will convey
the meaning of what is uttered, in the most lively and striking manner. A few plain directions, therefore, which are calculated to assist the learner on these important points, will now be given : and first, in order to enable him readily to distinguish emphatical from unemphatical words, the following rules, if carried out in practice with discrimination, will be found far more serviceable than any others that can be formed.
I. Emphasis is sometimes divided into the three following kinds, ANTITHETICK EMPHASIS, EMPHASIS OF SPECIFICATION, and EMPHASIS OF ENUMERATION.*
* Professor Goodrich.
Almost every emphatick word may be known by its being contrasted, that is, used untithetically, with some other word or phrase, either expressed or implied.
Many persons mistake the love, for the practice, of virtue. We ask ad-vice, but we mean appro-ba-tion.
Sir, you were paid to fight against Alexander, not to rail at him.
He that cannot bear a jest, should not make one.
'Tis with our judg-ments, as our watch-es; none
Go just a-like, yet each believes his own. Remarks.—These examples clearly illustrate both the utility and the easy application of the foregoing Rule. The italicisea words or portions of words, show, that, when both parts of the antithesis are expressed, it requires but little discrimination to ascertain, for a certainty, to which words the emphatick force should be applied. Very often, however, it happens (as will soon be shown) that one part of the antithesis is understood, in which case it frequently requires no inconsiderable exercise of judgment to ascertain the emphatick word.
Many mistake the emphatick word or words of a sentence by labouring to distinguish it or them from others, upon the false principle of laying the stress on such words as they conceive to be the most important in regard to meaning. A little examination of the foregoing, or, more especially, of the following, examples, will convince any one, that any such test of discrimination between emphatical and unemphatical words, will generally prove unavailing; for the emphatick words are often (apparently, or abstractly or separately considered) the least consequential words in the sentence.
One should be careful not to apply and, instead of or.
He had the assurance to tell me that he could do it, when I very well knew he could not.