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Hannibal was patient; but it was left for Washington to blend all these great qualities in one, and', like the lovely masterpiece of the Grecian artist, to exhibit', in one glow of associated beauty', the pride of every model, and the perfection of every master'. As a conqueror', he was untainted with the crime of blood'; as a revolutionist, he was free from any stain of treason'; for aggression commenced the contest, and his country called him to the command'Liberty unsheathed his sword, necessity stained', and victory returned it'.

Shall I', too', weep'? Where', then', is fortitude ?
And', fortitude abandoned', where is man?
Place me where winter breathes his kêênest âir',
And I will sing', if lîberty be there'.

And what is friendship but a nâme'?

A charm that lulls to sleep'?
A shade that follows wealth or fâme' ?

But leaves the wretch to weep'?
Oh, who can tell', save he whose heart hath tried',
And danced in triumph o'er the waters wide',
The exulting sepse', --the pulse's maddening play',
That thrills the wanderer of that trackless way ?
Nor yet for the ravage of winter I mourn';

Kind nature the embryo blossom will såve';
But when shall spring visit the mouldering ürn' ?

Oh', when shall day dawn on the night of the grave'?
See truth', love', and mercy', in triumph descending',

And nature all glowing in Eden's first blôôm';
On the cold cheek of death smiles and roses are blending',

And beauty immortal awakes from the tômb'.
At the silence of twilight's contemplative hour',

I have mused in a sorrowful mood'
On the wind-shaken weeds that imbosom the bower,

Where the home of my forefathers stood'.
All ruined and wild is their roofless abode',

And lonely the dark raven's sheltering tree';
And travelled by few', is the grass-covered road',

Where the hunter', and deer', and warriour trode'.
If nature's revolution speaks aloud',
In her gradation', hear her louder still.
Look through nature'; 'tis neat gradation all'.
By what minute degrees her scale ascends!
Each middle nature joined at each extreme',
To that above it joined', to that beneath.
Parts into parts reciprocally shot',
Abhor divorce'. What love of union reigns'!
How beautiful is all this visible world!
How glorious in its action and itself!
But we', who name ourselves its sovereigns', w&',
Half dust', half deity', alike unfit

To sink or sôar', with our mixed essence make
A conflict of its elements', and breathe
The breath of degradation and of pride,
Contending with low wants and lofty will
Till our mortality predominates',
And men are'-what they name not to themselves',
And trust not to each other'.
Ah, me'! the laurelled wreath that murder rears',
Blood-nursed', and watered with the widow's tears',
Seems not so fôûl', so tainted', and so dread',
As waves the nightshade round the skeptick's head'.
What is the bigot's törch', the tyrant's châin'?
I smile on death', if heavenward hope remâin';
But', if the warring winds of nature's strife',
Be all the faithless charter of my life',
If chance awaked', inexorable power'!
This frāil and fēverish being of an höūr';
Doomed o'er the world's precarious scēne to wěēp',
Swift as the tempest travels on the dečp',
To know delight but by her parting smile',
And tôil', and wish', and wèēp a little while',
Then méit", ye elements'! that formed in vain'
This troubled pulse and visionary brâin'!
Fåde , ye wild flowers'! memorials of my dôôm';
And sink', ye stars'! that light me to the tômb'.



FORCE. The terms loud and soft, strong and weak, are employed to express the various degrees of force.

Particular care should be taken not to confound these terms with high and love. The latter are properly applied to the tones, or, more accurately, notes, of the voice. A mistake of this sort, might, therefore, lead one, when he designs to increase the force of his voice, merely to raise it to a higher pitch; and thus, instead of producing the intended, louder and stronger sound, he would only give one more shrill.

The term force, as applied to the utterance of syllables and words, has a meaning distinct from the term loudness, and, also, from that peculiar stress which is denominated emphasis. Force is nearly synonymous with energy. Energy in delivery, may not only be given to single syllables, like accent, and to single words, like emphasis, but unlike accent and emphasis, it may be extended to whole sentences, and even to paragraphs.

In regard to a proper loudness of voice, the first object of every person who reads or speaks to others, doubtless should be, to make himself easily and distinctly heard by all to whom he addresses himself. To effect this, he must fill with his voice the space occupied by the auditory. The volume and power of voice necessary to fill a given space, depend much on a proper pitch, as well as on the force and loudness; but far more, still

, (as heretofore intimated,) on a clear and distinct ar. ticulation. It is a great mistake to imagine, that in order to be easily heard, and clearly understood, by those in the remote parts of a large room, a speaker must raise his voice to a high pitch. The variety of loudness, softness, energy, and feebleness, requisite for good delivery, falls within the compass of each key. A speaker may, therefore, render his voice loud or soft without altering his key: and by observing a distinct articulation, he will always be able to give the most body-the most volume of sound-to that pitch of voice to which he is accustomed in ordinary conversation. Whereas, by setting out on a

higher key, he will allow himself less compass, and be likely to strain his voice before he closes his discourse; and thus, by fatiguing himself

, he will speak with pain: and " whenever a person speaks with pain to himself, he is heard with pain by his audience."

In the exercise of the voice, great economy should be observed in regard to the volume or amount of sound exploded, particularly by those whose vocal organs are impaired or enfeebled. One ought, therefore, never to utter a greater quan. tity of sound (if it is scientifick so to speak) than he can afford without any extraordinary effort. By keeping within these bounds, the organs of speech will be able to discharge their various functions with ease and

energy." Attention to the following direction, will likewise be highly serviceable. If, before we pronounce a word or phrase which we wish to express in a very forcible manner, we make a pause, (generally a rhetorical pause,) and during the pause, draw into the lungs, a full inspiration, it will enable us to accomplish our object with great ease and effect.

Our enunciation should be loud or soft, energetick, forcible, or feeble, according to the nature and design of the word, phrase, or passage delivered.


Soft-Soft is the strain when zephyr gently blows,

And the smooth stream in smoother numbers flows.
Loud-But when loud surges lash the sounding shore,

The hoarse, rough verse should like the torrent roar.
Energetick- Him the Almighty Power

Hurled headlong from the ethereal skies
With hideous ruin and combustion, down
To bottomless perdition, there to dwell

In adamantine chains and penal fire.

But I am not now
That which I have been—and my visions flit
Less palpably before me—and the glow
Which in my spirit dwelt, is fluttering, faint, and low.


The Force or Stress of the voice displayed in the utterance of syllables, consists of various qualities or characteristicks. It may be manifested at the commencement of a syllable, by an abrupt percussion, violently impressing the ear with a sudden loudness of sound; or it may commence with moderation, and advance with an increased swell of the voice to the middle of

the sound or syllable, and then diminish to its close; or the sound may be particularly marked with force at its termination, or at both ends, or equally throughout its whole length. To the suddenness with which a vowel element may be exploded, to the gradually diminishing volume of voice that may take place in pronouncing a vowel with extended quantity, and to the final termination of its sound in a delicate vanish, the attention of the reader has already been called. In order to gain a clear understanding of the various kinds of force or stress, some knowledge of these elements, is indispensably necessary.


The term Radical Stress, is given by Dr. Rush to that stress or sudden force that is frequently applied to the opening or commencing portion of sound given forth in pronouncing a syllable.

Please to read again the illustration of radical and vanishing movement, and so forth, given on pages 25, 56, and 68.

This kind of stress is much employed in expressing the angry passions, and all others associated with them; and, also, the emotions of hope, joy, exultation, positiveness, and so forth.

Force, when appropriately and effectively employed, is a symbol of energetick feeling. It gives life and animation to discourse; and, on many occasions, becomes a powerful agent

The following words of Edward to Warwick, require a high degree of

Radical Stress.--Guards, seize
This traitor, and convey him to the tower :
There let him learn obedience.

of oratory;


As force is often applied at the beginning of a sound, so it is sometimes given at, or near, the termination of the sliding vanish: and when thus applied, it is styled by Dr. Rush, a Vanishing Stress.

A striking exhibition of this kind of stress, will be made, if the student pronounce a vowel, or a consonant that admits of quantity, with moderate force, and protract the sound through the interval of a rising third or fifth, by observing, just at the termination of the vanishing movement, to give the sound, as it were, a strong and sudden jerk.

This stress is frequently employed to make the concrete intervals of thirds and fifths in interrogation, more conspicuous, and is expressive of impatient ardour, surprise, complaint, fret

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