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lher numerous centres, and with the nerves of of organic lise, or solar plexus. The roots of these
less you would inhumanly sacrifice the rising gen-
6. In this view of the Nerves of Respiration, (originating in the Medulla Oblongata, which is an extension of the Cerebellum, (,) or seat of Voluniary Motion, and of the Cerebruni, (a) or seat of Rationality,) may be seen the nerve (C:) that goes to the Diaphragm (,) and is concerned in the office of breathing, which generally acts without the aid of the Will; but yet is controllable by the Will, 10 a certain extent; for we may breathe fast or slow, long or short. Next above this, is the Spinal Acressory Nerve, used in moving the breast, &c., in respiration; one of its fellow roots goes to the songue (d,) and is concerned in mastication, swallowing, speaking, &c. (Some nerves are thrown back, the better to be seen.) Next in order is the 7. Here is an excellent representation of the pneumosgastric, or lungs-and-stomach nerve (f, Nerves of Voluntary Motion, and of Sense, which, g, h.) which sends a branch to the meat-pipe, la, with the nerves of Organic Life, and the Respirarynx and wind-pipe, (e,) also to the cardiac, or tory Nerves, constitute the inmos of the body; heart plexus, just above, and a little at the right also, a posterior, or back view, of the two brains, 0(g); a recurrent branch goes to the larynx, &c.; which is the seat of the Mind, the constitaenis oi other branches go to the face, to exhibit the feelings. which, are Will and Understanding. Tlie letter All interweave, and bring the vocal organs intoc, indicates the cerebrum, or large brain, where mportant relations with the heart and lungs, with the Understanding, Rationality, or thought is lofeelings and thoughts; while the main body goes cated; and cv, the cerebellum, or little brain, o the stomach, ani unies with the great centre I under, and adjoining the cerebrum, where the
Rorizontal black line is: here is the seat of the 9. We now descend to the hard part of the Will, Affections, Passions or Emotions; also the body, which have the least of life in them. This seat of the Motive power of the body; and from is a very correct representation of the Osseons these proceed the spinal marrow, (me) enveloped system, or the bony paris which may be aptly in three different membranes, lying in the hollow of the back bone, and branching off by thirty pairs of spinal nerves into a great many ramifications over every part of the body; pb, the brachial plexus, a reunion or assemblage of the different nerves distributed to the arms, or upper extremities; and ps, the plexus, or folds of nerves, that form the great sciatic nerves, descending to the legs, or lower extremities. From the spinal marrow, the nerves arise by two sets, or bundles of roots; the front (anterior,) one serving for motion, and the back (posterior,j are the nerves of feeling, or sensibility. Now, in all voluntary actions of the body, whether reading, speaking, singing, or working, there should be a pertect harmony and co-operation of the Organic Nerves, Respiratory Nerves, and Moiary Nerves; hence, the voluntary effort must be made from the abdomen, where is the great centre of Organic Nerves, in conneccon with those of Respiration.
8. Here is a striking view of the Muscuur, or fleshy portions, that form the melium of communication between the Nerves and The Bones: here are sevsral hundreds ucting on the 'yones like ropes on the masts of ships: let them be trained in perfect subjection to the Sou.
called the basis, or foundation, of the splendid ihrough th:
temple we live in; which is three stories high; Alind; so that
viz, the cavity below the diaphragm, the one above whatever 18
it, and the skull. Examine, minutely, each pari, Telt & thought,
the situation and attachment of the different bones may be bodied
of the head, the five short ribs, and the seven long forth to the life.
ones, the breast-bone, &c. In a complete human Now letusput
frame, there are 250 bones: they afford us the
means of locomotion. Do you see any analogy thuse three
between the body and language? systems, the Nerves, Mas.
10. ZOOLOGY—(the doctrine or science of life, and
is a necessary element of education. Whose cuBone's, togeth
riosity has not been excited by the innumerable or and con
living beings, and things, with which we are surleimplate the
rounded? Is it not desirable to scrutinize their
interiors, and see how they are made, and underwhole
stand their various uses? Look at a man, a fish, unt, bound up in the skin,
a spider, an oyster, a plant, a stone; observe their und acting in
differences, in many respects, and their simları
ties in others: they all have essence, form, use obedience to its rightful owner, the Mind; while The tendency of the study of the three kingdoms that mind is subscrvient to the Creator of mind. of nature, the Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral,
is to emancipate the hunian mind from the dark- | constituting the nutritive function of which living ness and slavery of ignorance, into the light and bodies are the centre, are revealed to us by eviliberty of rational humanity. The things of the dences too plain to be misunderstood: may we have Animal kingdom live, and move from an interior power 10 appreciate them, being assured that all power; those of the Vegetable kingdom grow; truths are in perfect harmony with each other. and those of the Mineral kingdom do not live or
12. Here is representation of the Humas grow; they simply exist. 11. Three objects are designed by this engra- of Elocution. But it is necessary to enter more
Forn clothed and engaged in some of the unes ving: first, to show the body, clothed in its own beautiful envelop, the skin, which is the contisent of our most wonderful piece of Mechanism : second, to call attention to the fact, that it is full oi pores, or little holes, through which passes out of our systems more than half of what we eat
and drink, in the form of what is called insensible verspiration, which is indicated by the cloudy miss, emanating from every part of the surface; and as our lodies wear oui, by degrees, and are renewed every seven years, and the skin being into the paruculars of our subject; whien s lomu the principal evacuating medium for the worn-out in the succeeding paris of this introduction: now. particles of the system; the great importance ever, let the reader bear in mind, that only the out. of keeping it in a clean, and consequent healthy lines of subjects are given in the toos, designra condition, by daily washing in soft cold water,
for such as are determined 10 dig for truth and must be evident to every one of reflection, it be- eternal principles, as for hidden treasures; ing the safety-valve of the body: and thirdly, to whose motto is - Press On.” indicate a lugher truth, that of the passing off of
Animals and Plants endure for a time, and a subtle and invisible fluid from the mind, in ac- under specific forms, by making the external cordance with its stule ; which is often perceived world a part of their own being; i. e. they have when certain persons are present; also when the power imparted to them of self-nourishment, powerful speakers are pouring forth their highly and when this outward supply ceases they die, wrought afíections, and brilliant thoughts ; so as having completed their term of duration : hence, to give the mind a kind of ubiquity, co-extensive death, to material existences, is a necessary co'r with their tones and audible words, ruling inn- sequence of life. Not so with minerals: they ex. mense audiences with absolute sway, and de- ist so long as external forces do not destroy them · monstrating the power of truth and eloquence. and if they increase, it is simply by the juxtapo
Animals and Plants increase by nutrition : sition of other bodies; and if they diminish, il sa Minerals by accretion. In infancy, we weigh by the action of a force, or power, from with. but a few pounds: at adult age, we exceed one out. Has not every thing its circle? How in. hundred pounds. Whence, but from foreign sub- teresting must be the history of all things, anstances, are the materials of which our organs mate and inanimate! Oh that we had cyes to see, are composed? In sickness, extreme emaciation and ears to hear, every thing that is manifested proves that our bodies may lose a portion of their around us, within us, and above us! bulk, and give back to the world what was once 13. If we would have the Mind acı on ine its own. Thus, con position and decomposition, Body, and the Body reacı on the Mind, in an on
derly, and, consequently, beneficial manner, it is rience the dreadful consequences. Observe, afl necessary that the body be in a natural and up- the short ribs, from the lower end of the bre:181right position. The following engraving repre- bone, are unnaturally cramped inwardly lowara sents the Thorax, or Chest, which contains the
the spine, so that Ilean and Lungs; and reason teaches, that no or
the liver, stomach, gans should be in the least infringed upon, either
and other digestive by compressions, or hy sitting in a bent position.
organs in that vic; The Lungs are reservoirs for the air, out of which
niry, are pressed we make sounds, by condensation. All are famihar with the hand-bellows: observe the striking
in unie a small analogy between it and the body, in the act of
Il compass, that their speaking, singing and blowing. The wind-pipe is
functions are great like its nosle, the lungs like the sides, and the ab
ly interrupted, and dominal and dorsal muscles, like its handles; of
the vessels, course, to blow with ease and power, one must bones and viscera are more or less distorted and take hold of the handles; to speak and sing right, enfeebled. Cease to do evil, and learn to do well. the lower muscles must be used; for there is only one right way of doing anything.
17. This engraving,
of a bell-shaped gluss, Larynx, .....
C, C, shows how the Wind-pipe,
air gets into the lungs,
and some of its effecis. Collar bone, ..
A head is placed on Bronchia,
the cork, 'T, represent
ing the wind-pipe, and Heart & Lungs,
having a hole through
Cat. L, represents a 7 Long Ribs, . .
bladder, tied to he Diaphragm,
lower end of the cork,
to indicate a lung. Al 5 Short Ribs, .
D, is seen the diaDorsal and
phragm. The carly
of the bell represents Abdominal
the inside of the thorax, where the heart and lungs Muscles...
are: there is no communication with the external 14. This is a view of a well developed and air, except through the hole in the cork; air, en. naturally proportioned chest; with space for the tering through that hole, can go oniy mio the bloud lungs, the short ribs thrown outwardly, affording der. Now, when the centre of the diaphragm is ample room for the free action of the organs: it is raised to D, the bladder will be flaccid and devoid me true model of the form of one who would live of air; but when it is dropped, to the stuation or to a good old age.
the doited line, a tendency 10 a vacuum will love 15. Tight DRESSING. No one can enjoy good
the consequence, which can be supplied with air, health, or perform any kind of labor with ease, or only through the hole in the cork; the air expand read, speak, or sing, when the thorax is habitual- ing the bladder to its full extent, is shown by the ly compressed. Il diminishes the capacity of the dotted circle, around L; and when the diaphragm. lungs, for receiving the necessary quantity of air
is elevated again, the air will be forced from the io purify the blood, and prevents the proper action bladder; thus, the lungs are influed and exhaus of the diaphragm. The following engraving shows ted by this alternate operation of the diaphragin, the alarming condition of the chest, when com- dominal muscles; hence, the comparison between
and of the contraction and elongation of the alrpressed by tight lacing; a practice that has hurried, and is now hurrying, hundreds of thousands the vocal organs proper, and a pair of bellous, in 10 a premature grave; besides entailing upon the
distinctly seen. offspring an accumulation of evils, too awful 10
MUSCULAR ACTIOX. Tlics contemplate. What is the difference between
two engravings represent some killing one's self in five minutes with a razor, and
muscular fibres in iwo stales: doing it in five years by țighi lacing, or any other
the upper one at reai, with a re, bad habit? Our clothing should never be so tight laxed nervous filament rainifica through the fibres, as to prevent the air from coming between it and as seen under the microscope ; and the lower one in the body.
a state of contraction, and the f. 16. Here follows an outline of the chest, or
bres in zigzag lines, willi a s'mthorax of a female, showing the condition of the
lar nervous filament passing over bones of the body, as they appear aller death, in
them: apply the principle to all every one who has habitually worn stays and muscles. The subject might be greatly extended; corsets, enforced by light lacing. But,' says one, but for further information, see the Author's largo
I do not lace 100 tight. If you lace at all, you work on Physiology and Psychology, which will most certainly do, and will, sooner or later, expe- l be published as soon as convenient.
18. Here is a representation of the Air Cells / viscera and diaphragm upwards: the lungs co in the Lungs, laid open and highly magnified. operate with the diaphragm and abdominal mus. The body is formed by Blood, which consists of the cles; or rather, the soul, mind, nerves and mus nutritious portions
cles act unitedly, and thence with ease, grace and of our food, and
effect. Observe, the Stomach, Liver, &c. are beis in the form of
low the diaphragm, and are dependent on i, in a very small glob
measure, for their actions. ules, or
little round balls: a representation of which is here presented as scen through a microscope, magnified one thousand
19. Here are two attitudes, sitting, and stand 21. Here is a view of the Heart, nearly suring, passive and active. Beware of too much rounded by the Lungs, with the different blood
vessels going to, and from them: these organs are shown partially separated ; tho' when in their nai. ural positions, they are quite compact together,
siiffness, and 100 much laxity, of the muscles; be natural and easy. Avoid leaning backwards or forwards, to the right or left: and especially, of resting vour head on your hand, with the elbow ou something else : by which practice, many nave caused a projection of one shoulder, indured spinal affections, &c. Beware of every thing and wholly fill up the cavity of the chest: every hat is improper : such as trying how much you one has two hearis, for the two different kinds of can list with one hand, &c.
blood, and each heart has two rooms: a, right 20. Here follows a representation of the position auricle, that receives all the blood from every part of the diaphragm, and illustrations of its actions, of the body, through the vena cava, or large vein, in exhaling and inhaling. Figure 1, in the lent which is made up of the small veins, e, e, €, €, e; engraving, represents the diaphragm in its greai- it thence passes into the right ventricle, i, thence est descent, when we draw in our breath : 2, inus. into both lungs, where it is purified; after which cies of the abdomen, when protruded to their full) it passes into the left auricle, and left ventricle, extent, in inhaling: 1, in the right engraving, the then into the aorta, o, and the carotid and subcla. diaphragm in its greatest ascent in expiation: 2, vian arteries (u, and v.) to every part of the body: the muscles of the abdomen in action, forcing the returning every three or four minutes.