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now undertake to answer ? 319–327. Religion begins where philosophy leaves off. See James i. 5, “If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not; and it shall be given him.”

Page 228. 345. Does Emerson mean to say here that the thoughts of past ages and other nations are of no value? What is their value? (See line 352.) Emerson's statements are sometimes extreme, one-sided, for the purpose of impressing that side of the thought upon the mind.

Page 229. 383–387. What is the purpose of this paragraph ?

Page 230. 391. Compare this definition of prayer with that in the Shorter Catechism. 402. Nevertheless, “ discontent" has a certain value; what is it? 407. Compare the style of this sentence with Franklin's (Poor Richard's) saying, “ The Lord helps those that help themselves.” 414. “Zoroaster,” the founder of the Persian religion. 416. Note the irony in the word “superstition.”

Page 231. 427. “like a sovereign” — why, and in what respects ? 436. See the encyclopedia for descriptions of the ruins of Thebes and Palmyra. 446. The “Vatican” is a magnificent palace in Rome, surrounded by extensive and beautiful gardens. The palace is adorned with many of the greatest works of art by the old masters. 448. What is meant by “my giant”? Refer to line 445.

Page 232. 460. Emerson, in his essay on “ Wealth,” makes the application of the mind to nature, physical and human, the source of all wealth or greatness. 472. What is the distinction between “imitating” and “learning”? 476–478. Where, in this essay, has this same thought been expressed ?

Page 233. 488. “Phidias,” a noted Greek sculptor of the fifth century B.c. His greatest work was the decoration of the frieze of the Parthenon, fragments of which are still preserved as the finest specimens of sculpture in the world. 489. “ Dante ” (1265-1321), a celebrated Italian poet, author of “The Divine Comedy,” which was translated into English by Longfellow. 504. Show that the order of the adjectives “ barbarous,” etc., corresponds with the progress, as we say, of civilization. 516 ff. Show that these statements are extreme.

Page 234. 539. “ Phocion," Greek statesman; “ Anaxag'oras" and “Diogenes,” Greek philosophers. 544. Here again the statements made on the preceding page are modified, and the whole truth is given.

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Page 235. 558. Note the distinction between “men” and “ cultivated man.” 560 ff. The intellectual, moral, and spiritual life is imperishable; the real survives, only the accidental can be destroyed. 580. In his essay on “ Wealth,” Emerson declares that there is always a reason, “ in the man,” for his good or bad fortune, that there is no magic in success, that for every effect there is a perfect cause.

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES

Make a list of the thoughts presented in this essay that were entirely new to you.

Make a list of sentences in which the author expresses his thought in a striking or peculiar way.

Refer to paragraphs in which the author emphasizes a thought by repeating it in sentences. How is monotony avoided in these repetitions?

What is the author's thought in regard to the value of history? the customs and conventions of society ? the weakness of consistency?

What principle determines the work one ought to do in life?
What should be the supreme purpose of prayer?

Which paragraphs of the essay are devoted to a discussion of the ultimate source of self-reliance ?

What should be the relation of study to one's own thought and work?

Does Emerson contend that one should always say and do just what one wishes, in disregard of the effect of his life upon society? Refer to passages in the essay to support your answer.

What is the value of self-reliance in religion? in education ? in art? in industry?

In what ways does the craze for traveling indicate unsoundness of thought and feeling? Give particular illustrations.

What principle determines the excellence of all works of art ?
Make a written outline of the whole essay.

COMPOSITIONS “ Emerson as a Nonconformist.” Discuss passages in this essay, in which the author's thought is at variance with ideas usually held by people you know.

“ The Value of Self-reliance in Study.” Make a practical application of the author's principal thought to your own method of study; or the prevailing customs of your school ; or write an original story to show how the principle of self-reliance affected the work of some particular student.

The Gains and Losses of Civilization.” Opinions in regard to our present civilization as compared with that of past ages; how increase of comforts has caused decrease of power; whether the results are really beneficial or not.

“ The Greatness of the Commonplace.” What people usually think great in Nature, in history, in men, why they overlook the elements of greatness in what is familiar : or, write an original story to show that a common man may do really heroic deeds when the occasion presents itself. (Read llawthorne's “ The Great Stone Face.")

“ The Independence of Youth.” Take some particular child as an example — show his independence of thought when young - how he becomes bashful and self-conscious as he grows older — how he conforms to customs when he is grown.

Spontaneous Virtue.” Original story (change the title, if you think best) — two individuals - one does right because he thinks it is his duty to do so — - the other acts always from impulse — conclusion.

“Why People travel Abroad.” Show that various motives actuate those who visit foreign lands — what the true motive is.

“ The Value of Political Parties ” (or “ Religious Denominations "). Give your own ideas as to why we have a communities of opinion the work they do — whether we could get along just as well without them, or not.

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INTROD. LESS. IN ENG. LIT. – 16

TO A SKYLARK

[graphic]

HAIL to thee, blithe

spirit ! Bird thou never

wert, That from heaven,

or near it, Pourest thy full

heart In profuse strains of unpremeditated art. 5

Higher still and higher

From the earth thou springest Like a cloud of fire;

The blue deep thou wingest, And singing still dost soar, and soaring

ever singest.

10

In the golden lightning

Of the sunken sun,
O'er which clouds are brightening,

Thou dost float and run;
Like an unbodied joy whose race is just begun.

15

The pale purple even

Melts around thy flight;
Like a star of heaven

In the broad daylight,
Thou art unseen, but yet I hear thy shrill delight. 20

Keen as are the arrows

Of that silver sphere,
Whose intense lamp narrows

In the white dawn clear,
Until we hardly see, we feel that it is there.

25 All the earth and air

With thy voice is loud,
As, when night is bare,

From one lonely cloud
The moon rains out her beams, and heaven is overflowed. 30

What thou art we know not ;

What is most like thee ?
From rainbow clouds there flow not

Drops so bright to see,
As from thy presence showers a rain of melody.

35 Like a poet hidden

In the light of thought,
Singing hymns unbidden,

Till the world is wrought
To sympathy with hopes and fears it heeded not;

Like a highborn maiden

In a palace tower,
Soothing her love-laden

Soul in secret hour
With music sweet as love, which overflows her bower ; 45

Like a glowworm golden

In a dell of dew,
Scattering unbeholden

Its aërial hue Among the flowers and grass, which screen it from the view;

50

40

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