Imágenes de páginas

nal, and the influx of population from abroad, tions, leaving the latter to make their own always an evidence of the increased produc- terms with their customers, and to assume tiveness of labor. In this work it is shown limited or unlimited liability, as they themconclusively, that shipping grows with pro- selves may think most expedient. In a detection, because protection tends to promote tailed review of the operations of several of immigration, or the import of men, the most the principal nations, and of all the States valuable of commodities, and thus to di- of this Union, it is shown that the tendency minish the cost of sending to market the to steadiness in the quantity, and uniformity less valuable ones, grain, tobacco, and cotton. in the quality, of currency, is in the exact The question is examined in every point of ratio of freedom, while with every increase view-material, moral, intellectual, and po- in the number or extent of restrictions, litical; and the result arrived at is, “ that be- steadiness diminishes, and insecurity increastween the interests of the treasury and the es. The views contained in this work are people, the farmer, planter, manufacturer, and now adopted by some of the most eminent merchant, the great and little trader and the writers in France. They constitute the basis ship-owner, the slave and his master, the of a recent and excellent work* by M. Coqueland-owners and laborers of the Union and lin, who quotes largely from that of Mr. the world, the free-trader and the advocate Carey, declaring that our countryman has, of protection, there is perfect harmony of " in the investigation of causes and effects, interests, and that the way to the establish- succeeded better than the English inquirment of universal peace and universal free ers," and had, as early as 1838, "clearly trade, is to be found in the adoption of shown the primary causes of the perturbameasures tending to the destruction of the tions recurring almost periodically in commonopoly of machinery, and the location of merce and currency." the loom and the anvil in the vicinity of the plough and the harrow.” In addition to the works I have named,

The portrait of Mr. Carey, accompanying Mr. Carey has published two others, on the this article, is from a crayon sketch by Mr. Currency—the larger of which is entitled Collyer, and is, in every respect, one of the Credit System in France, England, and the best likenesses we have presented in this United States. Their object is to show, Magazine. It is excellently copied by Mr. that there is a very simple law which lies at Buet. the root of the whole currency question, and that by its aid, the revulsions so frequently experienced may be perfectly accounted for.

*Du Credit et des Banques, Paris, 1848. That law is perfect freedom of trade in ait publies sur le credit.- Journal des Econo

+ Un des plus beaux ouvrages assurément qu'on money, whether by individuals or associa-I mistes







OUR Sream Navy.—The following im- no inducement for the Government officer to go out portant communication was handed to us of the beaten track as long as his pay is continued by a gentleman whose long experience as to him monthly. He goes jogging on in the old a commander in the naval service of Great style; but place the same man in the position, Britain and of the East India Company,

either to improve his work and system or lose his entitles his views to the highest respect. fied“ Necessity'is the mother of invention.”... He

occupation, and you will find the old adage veriThe opinions he expresses we are obliged, will turn his attention forthwith to the most likely not only for consistency, but from a set

course to keep his time and capital continually on the tled conviction of their truth, to sustain stretch, so as to produce him the greatest amount in full. For the same reason that we gave of return. This he is obliged to study, as there our support to Mr. Whitney's plan of a are others who will outstrip him in the race if he Pacific Railroad, we give it to the plan of does not exert his utmost care and attention; and our correspondent. In a succeeding number it is thus that the greatest proficiency is to be at: we hope to lay before our readers a com- tained. munication from the same experienced

The Report above alluded to recommends, source, on the naval resources of the United

that the public yards be supplied with the States as regards steam-ships. It is a very engines for naval purposes.” Let us consider this

necessary apparatus for the construction of steamcommon error to suppose that the steam- recommendation. In the first place, the expense vessels built at private yards in New York will be enormous. I do not know the cost of the can be immediately converted into vessels Washington yard, but it must have been very great, of war, like the steam-ships of the Cunard as all enterprises managed directly by the agents line. We are prepared to show that this of Government have ever been, and will be, until is a grave delusion, wbich may lead upon oc- the end of time. An outlay like it, being added casion to fatal consequences.

to each naval yard, will greatly increase the burden on the treasury, and to what end? We have

in commission “seven steam-ships; repairing and To the Editor of the American Whig Review: equipping, five ; on the stocks and constructing,

(New-York Herald, 27th Dec., 1850.) For Sie :-In perusing the Report from the Bureau this existing force the Washington yard must be of Construction, Equipment, &c., contained in the sufficient. The number of vessels is at present New York Herald of the 21st instant, I was much small, but the necessary increase in this departsurprised to find that the knowledge so dearly ment of the national strength will soon be such as bought by experience here and elsewhere has had to put it in a position to vie with all other powers. no effect upon the authorities in this department. Since the actual necessity of looking to this branch It is a well-determined fact, from the experience of the service has been impressed on the Governof the past, that all Government work is worse ment, rapid progress has been made in the right done, and more expensive, than that which is open direction; and ere long the steam navy of the to the competition of the whole country.

United States must become sufficient for the de. The specimens of naval architecture turned fence of our immense coast line, and to punish agout of the Government yards will not compare gression abroad, should necessity arise for such a with some turned out of private yards, either for course. Our private foundries are sufficient for the speed or economy. The late attempts of Govern- manufacture of machines for almost any number of ment men in England, where they have had every steam-ships that may be required, without estab. opportunity and inducement to remove the “pres- lishing an expensive Government monopoly. If tige” against them, has proved the inefficiency of they are not, they will easily and rapidly increase the system. Some of the most abortive attempts when the necessity for them arises, for depend on have been made at a vast cost of treasure, produit, our enterprising citizens will not allow any cing the most useless craft that can be found afloat, such opportunity to escape their vigilance, and while some of the most efficient and beautiful we have seen during the present year a most ex. vessels for war purposes that have ever been traordinary increase in the production of steamLaunched were constructed in private yards. engines from our foundries-an increase, indeed,

There is no inducement from increased emolu. scarcely credible. At the present time there is to ments or business, arising from superior attainments be seen on the banks, and at the wharves of the East in work or model; no rivalry or cause for emulation. River, a sight such as no other port in the world " The models already made have satified the Gov. can offer, and which gives an astounding idea of -- ment. whuthen should we alter them?” There is the enterprise and power of the United States



You may there see together thirteen ocean | able for marine purposes ; the development of steamers, (all new,) of large size, advancing rap- which would be exceedingly improbable while idly to completion. These are

pursuing the one object of marine engines only.

The reason alleged for the recommendation of The Humboldt, Havre packet, about - 2700

the Bureau is, the great desay that has arisen in North America, for Chagres,


the manufacture of engines in the several founWinfield Scott,


dries. To whom is the blame of this delay to be Brother Jonathan, for Pacific,


attached? To the parties who entertain the conMexico, Gulf of Mexico,


tract, for if they do their duty strictly and Alabama, Savannah line,


impartially, there can be no delay without its Independence,


appropriate penalty; and if the penalty be duly Golden Gate, Pacific Co.

enforced, there will be no delay. "If the penalty Golden Age, Pacific Co.

be merely a matter of form, why put it in at all? La Fayette, Havre line,

If it is not to be enforced leave it out altogether, Pioneer, Havre line,

and leave the parties 1o take their own time to Large Propeller, for Philadelphia and Liverpool. complete their work; it will be no worse than A Steamer, for Charleston line,

I trust that having shown that the machine Besides these, there have already been com

shops of New-York alone are sufficient for the purpleted and gone to sea –

poses of supplying steam-engines, independently

of foundries and manufactories in other States, of The Atlantic,

The Franklin, which there are a great many, it will lead to a Pacific,


full and perfect examination of the policy and Baltic,

Columbia, necessity of such a system as that of making a Arctic,

Prometheus, great Government monopoly at so great an outlay New World,

Sea Bird,

as it will require of the public funds. New-York,


Let our machinists in private foundries benefit The Louisiana.*

legitimately by the wants of the Government, and

at the same time let the Government reap the It is reasonable to think that the present excess advantage and benefit accruing from the united of demand for steam communication cannot last skill and experience of our land and marine engine long; like all other rages, it will have its day, and mechanics.

F. P. WEBB. will be followed by a stagnation in that particular branch of manufacture. What then will become

New-York, Dec. 28:h, 1850. of our machinists? When the fever abates there will be a state of inanition ; and then would be the time for the application of the remedy, in

“The Pilgrim Fathers."--Perhaps there is not employing the machine shops for the work of the in American history an event more memorable, or Federal Government, and for the good of the large

one more calculated to revive a national spirit masses of citizens who will otherwise be thrown among Americans, should that spirit occasionally out of work just at the time they have attained fade, than the landing of the crew of the Maythe greatest experience and skill. Such a body flower at Plymouth. The history of that event of men as now exists

, (gathered from among the and its consequences has been served up in too skilful of all nations,) being once scattered and many styles, at too many public dinners, to render otherwise occupied, it will be a difficult matter to fragments of it warmed up here at all delectable collect again; and even should it be possible, they to the palate of our readers. But nevertheless it will have lost that efficiency which arises' from will be acknowledged that the celebration of the constant practice, and which that alone can give.

Pilgrim landing is about the last occasion which It is true, a portion of them would find work in should be used by men of intellect or citizenship, the Government yards; but why should the State or which could be used by men of decency or be put to the expense of the yards, when the taste, for the exhibition of national flunkeyism, or private ones are all ready for the work required ? Sword drove the Pilgrims from their homes. * this dinner; and, singular enough to relate, there Is he an American-does he belong to the flag of came on too an honorable individual whose whole the country-does it protect him-is he under the diplomatie dexterity seems to be employed in protection of the eagle and the stars and stripes? keeping on the heels of Mr. Webster, and crush- If he is, all other conditions are regarded as subing himself into every society where that gentleman ordinate and not worthy of mention. Let it be appears* Into the same conveyance which our duty to cherish this American principlex-to brought Mr. Webster from the capital, Sir Henry spread it over the whole continent- to carry out Lytton Bulwer had got himself conveyed, and he singlish principles. I mean, sir, (addressing Sir squatted himself down at the Pilgrim dinner!! Henry Bulwer, the British Minister,) the Angloopposite the former. There were also present, too, Sacon American principle (loud laughter, in which M. G. P. R. James, (owner of two imaginary Sir Henry Bulwer joined) over this whole contiborsemen, and author of “a story without a name," nent—the great principles of Magna Charta-the de..

the glorification of the power that with fire and The yard at Washington being already in existence, if it is efficient as it should be, it must be Nevertheless, at a recent dinner given in this city equal to the present wants of the Government. by the New England Society, some scenes occurred The repairs of existing steam-vessels would be of so remarkable a character, we feel compelled to the principal work allotted to it, and it will soon

notice them briefly..

Moses H. Grinnell occupied the chair. “On his and quite sufficient occupation for a small establishment in that liue.

right,” we are told, appropriately sat Mr. Webster, One principal reason why private enterprise is who came on from Washington to be present at more desirable than a Government establishment, is the constant call upon it for various styles and

Was any festival instituted by the Prophets for the descriptions of machines for numerous purposes, glorification of the Pharawh? Or were those who hankin the construction of which many great improve ered after the flesh-pots (the free-traders of those days) ments are suggested, perfected, and made avail- permitted to give three times three at the Passover for the

reigning Pharaoh? If we celebrate our fathers, should we

not celebrate the spirit? A prayer for England, begging As I give trase lists from memory only, there may that the hearts of kings might be set right, and that God be two or three leit out Taese are iud pendent of any on would avenge his starving people, would have been approthe North River,


) flanked by others not celebrated for Ameri- principles of the American Revolution—the Engcanisin.

lish language, so that our children may recite We pass over the early toasts. The first Shakspeare and Milton on the shores of the Pacispeaker was a reverend person, who indulged fic. Before that, our American ideas, which, in the largely in praises of the Bible and other matters main, are English ideas, will penetrate Mexico."* of a less sacred character, from which we extract Our opinion of Mr. Webster is too high to pera little. Having produced an old Bible, and mit us to believe that he, as an American, serioushanded it about in the order of brandy, wine, ly identified the spirit of the Norman monarchy Word of God, and cigars, he gave its history in with that of the American Republic, or that he this fashion :

seriously desires to see English principles,” by * Let us, then, hold to our ideal, and hold it up whatever name they be called, extended over this to the sight of all men-(here he held up the old continent. The supposition of its possibility,--the Bible)--and demand that everything shall be necessity of making this wretched explanation, squared by the law of God. This Bible belongs calls into our face a blush of shame, and a sickento Mr. J. Čoles of this city, who preserved it safe ing sense of disgrace. Surely, surely it was the during his stay in Georgia, and brought it back to complimentary spirit of the occasion, and nothing New-York."

else, that brought forth such expressions. We Showing that “ Mr. J. Colcs” is like the King have been advised that in the conduct of a public of France, celebrated in an everlasting doggrel for journal or a Review, a single injurious expression, marching up a declivity with a large army, and or that has not the right spirit, will undo the work performing the memorable feat of marching down of years. How much more then of the first of again, with the same all safe and right side up. public men. Ought not the head of this mighty

The peculiar duties of the clerical order, and of people, (we say head, as it is the popular belief course of himself, were thus shown by the reve that the government centres in him,) ought not the rend gentleman:

head of this grand Republic carry himself with The c'ergy were the lungs of the country, and the demeanor of the mightiest representative of their busiuess was to bring the people into con- men,-with the consciousness of twenty millions tact with the pure air of God.”

of freemen at his back,--who, if he but evince the Had the reverend speaker claimed the honor of spirit and give the word, will make him their the brains, instead of the lungs, his comparison leader, but whose eyes are now blinded to his would have been more acceptable to his own or surpassing genius and unequalled fame, by the der, though it must be confessed, if on that occa- intervention of a polished opacity, from whose sion he rightly represented them, we are ready to diplomatic buttons the glory and the power of concede him the comparison.

Great Britain flash into their eyes, and not the An effigy of the Mayflower, made of sugar and glory of Daniel Webster, or of the nation whom singlass, lay on a clean plate on the table, and he represents ? to this the orators in turn most solemnly addressed Nor are this American people wholly of Engthemselves. Streams of affection, and a flow of lish descent. Not one fourth of them have Engoutpoured rhapsody deluged the litile sugar bark. lish blood in their veins, and not one tenth of them

Among others Mr. Webster and Sir H. L. Bul- but would feel injured by having attributed to wer addressed the guests.

them Euglish principles, or principles identified Mr. Webster said: * “We know that with these. If we have been, or are ruled by we are Americans. (Vociferous applause.) It is English principles, or their like, the Declaration of as Americans that we are known all over the Independence was a farce, and the War of Indeworld. Who asks what State a citizen of the pendence an extravagant folly. On English prinUnited States is from, in Europe. Africa, or Asia ? ciples some of our best Republicans should be

hanged forthwith;--it is better to let these gentle

men know at once where they are. Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, and S-n came also

The affable and flattering Mr. Bulwer rose to among them. And the Lord said 'nnto sn, Whenco speak after Mr. Webster. The complimentary cotest thou? Then 5-n answered the Lord and said, words bestowed on himself and his government From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and its principles were of course assumed as litethou considered my servant J-b, that there is none like rally true, and fully appreciated. A toast was him in the earth, a perfect and an upright man, ono that fearth God, and eschewoth evil?

Then Snanswered the Lord and said, Doth J-b

• Herald.

given, exhibiting singular effrontery in itself, as Well, we rather think not, to all these quesfollows:

tions; but it is well to know that Sir H. L. B. "Old England and Young America.—Bound to loves our country because it is among the eargether by a common language and a common liest and most favored of England's children; and lineage, &c."

therefore, inasmuch as it is not English, he doth “Young America" must feel very proud of its not love it; and the proportion being one fourth distinguished ancestry; and the Times newspaper to three fourths, we conclude the quarter of love is must moreover feel deeply gratified at this ac- negatived by the quarter of hate, and the remaining knowledgment of paternal authority and blessings half of his feelings is hate unalloyed. So of Touchfrom its lately rebellious infant. But to this toast stone in the forest: it was good for certain reasons, Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer, having probably first and not good for certain reasons ; and the whole written to Chatfield and Palmerston about the reason of his liking forest life was, that he was agreeable sport of humbugging the Yankees, de- in the forest, and wished to make the best of it. livered the following large quantity of self-glorifi So of some great “ University” in New England: cation:

it was good because it was the genial daughter “ He said he had made a point of attending that of his own alma mater;" and Americans are great meeting, since he knew that gentlemen there pres- and good, because they are “ Albion's transatlantic ent did not expect in him the buttoned-up diplo- children !" matist, but the Englishman with the open hand It is hardly needful to particularize more at and heart, who would state to them what the feel- length the extravagant flattery of individuals, ings and thoughts of Englishmen were."

and thorough British offensiveness of the entire Was there ever such an ambassador ? He ac- speech. Let us add that it was followed by the tually unbuttoned his waistcoat, and presented band playing “God save the Queen,” amid the to them his whole heart and soul, at the first out- most rapturous enthusiasm ; and that we would set. Then, after having favored “the beautiful have not one word to say in defence of Sir Henry females behind the Corinthian pillars at the back Lytton Bulwer, but for a pointed remark delivof the hall” with the second long simile with ered in his speech with singular acuteness and prewhich they were that evening presented, and turned cision, showing what an opinion he had formed of over American literature, science, and art, he ad- his audience. dressed Mr. Webster:

There are few examples," he said, “ in history And if I extend my inquiry still further, if I of men staying their footsteps in so unpromising a wish to discover a man whose young imagination spot; but he guessed (great laughter and cheering) was ripened amongst the solitary scenes of border that the ancestors of those present were plucky life, and whose manly judgment was formed amidst fellows." the daily and active business of great communi- More a good deal than some of those present ties, can you not point out to me such a man-one could say of themselves. “God save the Queen!" whose eloquence is poetry held in chains by rea- Vide Rabelais, Book I., Ch. xxxviii.: “ How son? whose statesmanship is philosophy reduced Gargantua did eat up six pilgrims in a salad." to practice? who stands second to none of Ameri- The pilgrims bid themselves in a garden among ca's children-I should say superior to all, if the the lettuces, and the giant King Gargantua, plucktall and venerable figure of an absent friend did ing the lettuces, carried them home and ate them; not rise up before me, whose star shines from the and, says our satirical historian, “ They were all the West, as yours, sir, (bowing to Mr. Webster,) fills while in so great fear they dared not speak nor the East of the hemisphere, radiant on all sides cough. If we speak, said they, he will kill us with intellectual light." (Three cheers.)

for spies.” There is a cabbage garden we wot After the praise of its head, follows the glorifi- of, in which several millions are hid away for cation of the country itself:

fear, and they dare not speak nor cough for fear “Gentlemen, I love your country: it is amongst of being killed. And the giant daily carries away the earliest and most favored of England's chil- the cabbages and eats the pilgrims in them. Vide dren; and methinks I can still trace the character. American Review for December, article, “Who istic features of the parent in the lineaments of the Feed England ?” offspring. I do not, indeed, believe that the mag- But one gentleman present had the manliness netic influence of a common origin is yet extinct ; or decency to break this swollen bubble of Flunand when I stood with you but recently, mourning keyism, the Rev. Dr. Bethune. We are glad to by the grave of the gallant Taylor, did you not be enabled to say that there was even one

Amershed with me a sympathizing tear over the fate of icau to utter such common truths as these:the illustrious Peel Aye, and if the spangled " Rev. Dr. Bethune, in reply to the toast, of the banner should be again unfurled on the ocean or · Hospitality of the Hollanders to the fathers of the field, on the one scene of action will not your New England demands the everlasting gratitude sons remember the glorious words of Nelson, * of the sons,' said, with all respect for some speakers on the other, will not the name of the great warrior who had preceded him, this country was not altoveteran, who has borne the old banner of Wolfe gether a daughter of England. Americans were and Marlborough aloft and victorious through a not the descendants of any particular nation, but hundred fights, rush to your recollection and in- of every nation in the world.” spire your ranks ?”

We ask pardon of our readers, in connection * The words are curiously apt for Americans, and should that the novelist of the two horsemen did not

with matters so serious, for mentioning the fact be emblazoned on the star-spangled banner“ England speak, which was a loss. As a descendant from one expect


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