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one, for it relieved the directors of affairs were asserted to be the basis, was curious. from the charge of causing, or suffering, It was clear that increase of population led the poverty and wretchedness by which to famine. It was equally clear that inthey were surrounded.
crease of wealth tended to the extension of Soon after this, Mr. Ricardo attempted to cultivation over inferior soils, with constantexplain by what means the supply of food ly decreasing returns to labor. Neverthewas limited. He taught that men always less, the political economist was everywhere commenced the work of cultivation on the surrounded by facts showing that the most fertile soils, capable of yielding, say, condition of man improved as numbers inone hundred quarters for a given quantity creased and as cultivation was extended. of labor; but that as population increased, with lessened rewards of toil there should it became necessary to resort to poorer soils
, be deterioration of moral condition, and yielding but ninety quarters, and that then abridged facilities for intellectual cultivation, the owner of the first could command as but it was incontestible that men were more rent ten quarters. With a further increase, moral and better instructed than in any prelands of a third quality, yielding but eighty vious centuries. The increasing disproporquarters, were brought into use, and then the tion between the share of the landlord and first and second would command as rent the that of the laborer was calculated to increase whole difference, say, twenty quarters for the inequality of condition, and yet it was the first, and ten quarters for the second. not to be doubted that the two were nearer The payment of rent is thus regarded, in this together than they were in the days of school, as an evidence of constantly dimin- Elizabeth or of Henry VIII. The fact and ishing reward of labor, resulting from the the theory were always at variance with each increase of population, in consequence of other, and hence resulted a determination which it is necessary to extend the area of to limit the science to the consideration of cultivation. With each step of its pro- wealth alone, excluding all reference to sogress, the owner of the land takes a larger cial condition. Mr. McCulloch therefore proportion of this constantly decreasing pro- defined Political Economy as the Science of duct, leaving a smaller one to be divided Values, and Archbishop Whately desired among those who apply either labor or cap- to change the name to Catallacties, or the ital to cultivation, thus producing a constant Science of Exchanges. The whole duty of increase in the inequality of human condi- the teacher of this new science was held to tion. The interests of the landlord are in be that of explaining how wealth might be this manner shown to be for ever opposed to increased, allowing " neither sympathy with those of all the other portions of society. indigence nor disgust at profusion or at avRent is supposed to be paid because land arice; neither reverence for existing instituhas been occupied in virtue of an exercise tions, nor detestation of existing abuses ; of power, and not because the owners have neither love of popularity, nor of paradox, done anything to entitle them to it. Here nor of system, to deter him from stating we see the germ of that discord which ev- what he believed to be the facts, or from erywhere in Europe exists between the pay- drawing from those facts what appeared to ers and receivers of rent. The annual fund him to be the legitimate conclusions."* from which savings can be made is held to Such was the Political Economy then, and be continually diminishing, the poor becom- such is that which is now, taught in the ing poorer as the rich grow richer. The ten-schools of England. The consequences aro dency to increase is more powerful in popu- seen in the manner in wbich the poor peolation than in capital, and the natural result ple of every part of the United Kingdom must be that "wages will be reduced so are being expelled from the little holdings low that a portion of the population will to which they have been reduced by a sysregularly die of want."
tem of unbounded public expenditure, and The effect of the promulgation of these the contemptuous tone in which the comprinciples, upon the science of which they mon people are spoken of in all their jour
* Mr. Mill, quoted by Mr. Carey. VOL. VII.
* Mr. Senior, quoted by Mr. Carey.
500 800 1050 1200
Part du travail
500 1200 1950 2800
nals. Charity is denounced as tending to the amount of the return as cultivation is promote the growth of population. Mar- improved and extended.* So it is with the riage among the poor is regarded as a crime, and farmers are regarded as participant in crime for giving employment to * The following table of the distribution at vamen with families in preference to single wealth, will enable the reader more readily to ap
rious periods in the progress of population and men. But the system itself was an enor- prehend this : mous wrong against nature.
Mr. Carey entered the lists against it, with the earnest
.50,000...... 50,000 ness and confidence inspired by a conviction First... 100,000
.120,000, 180,000 that he contended for humanity.
.250,000..... 750,000 His book commences with a single ele- Finh...1,000,000 ....... mentary proposition, that man desires to
By the following passages, which we take from maintain and improve his condition, wheth- M. Bastiat's new work, Harmonies Economiques, it er physical, moral
, intellectual, or political: will be seen that he adopts these views as the baand the object of it is to show, that the the
sis of his political economy: “ A mesure que les ories of Mr. Malthus and Mr. Ricardo are in listes
dans les produits totaux augmente et leur part
capitaur s'accroissent, la part absolue des capitadirect opposition to the universal fact, and relative diminue. Au contraire, les travailleurs therefore cannot be regarded as natural voient augmenter leur part dans les deux sens." laws. On the contrary, he shows that food (P. 280.) ... " Ainsi le partage se fera de la
manière suivante :has always grown faster than population, and that the power to obtain subsistence
Prodret total Part du capital.
Premiere periode, 1000 has always increased most rapidly in those Deuxième periode, 2000 countries, and at those times, in which pop- quatrième periode, 4000 ulation has most rapidly increased, and in which cultivation has most rapidly extended
“Telle est la grande, admirable, consolante, néover those soils denominated by Mr. Ricardo cessaire, et inflexible loi du capital.” (P. 281.) inferior. The error of all these writers is ce qui concerne le partage du produit de la colshown to be in taking quantities instead of laboration, est determinée
. Chacun d'eux a une proportions, and it is the law of proportions part absolue de plus en plus grand, mais la part that constitutes the novel feature of this work. proportionnelle du capital diminue sans cesse com
parativement à celle du travail." (P. 284.) Ricardo and Malthus assert that land, labor,
Cause of value in land.—“Cette valeur, comme and capital are the agents of production, tous les autres, est de creation humaine et social.” and are subject to different laws, all tending (P. 362.). After reciting the various modes of apto produce contrariety of interests, and that plying labor to the improvement of land, he says : the reason why such is the case is that land et c'est pourquoi on pourra très bien dire par mé
· La valeur c'est incorporée, confondue dans le sol, owes its value-or power to command rent tonymie: le sol vaut.” (P. 363.) for its use—to monopoly, while capital is Land not changeable for as much money as it has the accumulated product of labor. Mr. cost.-—“ J'ose affirmer qu'il n'est pas un champ en Carey, on the contrary, shows by a vast va- changer contre autant de travail qu'il en a exigé
France qui vaille ce qu'il a coutē, qui puisse s'ériety of facts, that land owes its value to pour être mis à l'état de productivité où il se labor alone, and that its selling price is in- trouve.” (P. 398.) variably less than would purchase the quan
Cause of this._"Vous avez employée mille tity of labor required to induce its present journées à mettre votre domaine dans l'état où il condition were it restored to a state of na- raison est qu'avec huit cents journées je puis faire
est; je ne vous en restituerai que huit cents, et ma ture. It is therefore, like steam engines, aujourd'hui sur la terre à cote ce qu'avec mille mills, or ships, to be considered as capital, vous avez fait autrefois sur la votre. Veuillez the interest upon which is called rent, and considerer que depuis quinze ans l'art de dessécher, it is subject to the same laws as capital in any de détricher, de batir
, de creuser des puits, de disother form. With the growth of wealth progrès. Chaque resultat donné exige moins du and population, the landlord is shown travail, et je ne veux me soumettre à vous donner to be receiving a constantly decreasing dix de ce que je puis avoir pour huit, d'autant que proportion of the product of labor applied progrès, qui ne profite ni à vous ni à moi, mais à
le prix du blé a diminue dans la proportion de ce to cultivation, but a constantly increasing l'humanité toute entière.” (P. 368.) quantitu. because of the rapid increase in The reader who may desire to see the perfect
capitalist. The rate of interest falls as cul-, remedy was to be found in that improvement tivation is improved and capital is accumu- of political condition which should enable lated with greater facility, and the capi- | men to govern and to tax themselves, doing talist receives a smaller proportion; but which they would be disposed to remain at the quantity of commodities obtainable in peace. return for the use of a given amount of That man may be enabled to improve his capital increases, and with every change in physical condition, combination of effort is that direction there is shown to be an in- shown to be necessary, and that tends to increasing tendency to equality and to im- crease with increase in the density of popuprovement of condition, physical, moral, lation. Therewith comes increased security intellectual, and political.
of person and property, and increased reAccording to the system of Mr. Ricardo, spect for the rights of others, tending to the interests of the land owner and laborer, promote the further increase of wealth, and the capitalist and the employer of capital, to enable men to devote more time to the are always opposed to each other. Mr. Ca- cultivation of mind. Improved mental conrey, on the contrary, proves, and we think dition enables men to apply their labors most conclusively, that the interests of the more productively, and thus obtain better capitalist and of the employer of capital are subsistence from a diminished surface, facilthus in perfect harmony with each other, as itates combination of action, and increases each derives advantage from every measure the growth of wealth. With its growth that tends to facilitate the growth of capi- the proportion of the laborer increases, and tal and to render labor productive; while that of the landlord or other capitalist deevery measure that tends to produce the creases, and the power of the former to opposite effect is injurious to both."* govern himself
, and to tax himself, grows The entire novelty of these views rendered steadily with the growth of wealth and popit necessary that they should be supported by ulation; and thus we have physical, moral, a great body of facts, and Mr. Carey there intellectual and political improvement, each fore furnished an examination of the causes aiding and aided by the other. which have in various countries, particularly
It will be seen from this brief summary India, France, Great Britain, and the United that the field occupied is a most extensive States, retarded the growth of wealth one, more so than that of any similar work demonstrating that they were to be found in that has been written. The views are prethe great public expenditure for the support sented with great distinctness and force, and of fleets and armies, and the prosecution illustrated throughout by numerous facts of wars, the natural results of a state of drawn not only from the four countries printhings in which the few govern the many, cipally referred to, but from Italy, the Nethtaxing them at their will; and that the erlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, &c.
It is one of the chief distinguishing merits
of the work that each part of it, while comcorrespondence of these views with those published by Mr. Carey, as far back as 1837, may do plete in itself
, has that relation to the other so by a glance at Chapters II., III, IV., and VII. which belongs to the divisions of a whole, of his first volume, where he gives a great number in which all things are so interblended and of facts in support of ideas then so new, and of harmonious as to produce a cumulative and course so heretical.
finally perfect effect; while in the various A remarkable fact, to which we now desire to call the attention of our readers, is, that m. systems presented to us by Europe, every Bastiat has thus adopted the views of Mr. Ca- part is in conflict with every other. rey, without, so far as we have been able to sce, In denying Mr. Ricardo's theory of the alteration or addition. His name never occurs in occupation of the Earth, Mr. Carey did not the work, except as authority for one of his quo- undertake to present any by himself, but tations, which 'M. Bastiat has copied, while the this he has done in his more recent performnames of Ricardo, Malthus, Senior, Scrope, Considerant, and a host of others are found in almost ance, The Past, the Present and the Fuevery chapter. It must be highly gratifying to ture, published in Philadelphia in 1848. In Mr. Carey to see his views obtain so entirely the this original and masterly composition he approbation of a man of the reputation of M. has shown that the law is in direct opposiBastiat, that he should be willing to give them to tion to the principle announced by Mr. Rithe world as his own. * Vol. I, p. 339.
cardo and since adopted in the English school,
and to some extent in France and in this of constantly decreasing powers; and that, country. In the infancy of civilization man therefore, manufactures and trade, steamis popr and works with poor machinery, and engines and ships, are more profitable than must take the high and poor soils requiring agriculture; whereas, Mr. Carey shows that little clearing and no drainage; and it is land is a machine of constantly increasing only as population and wealth increase, that capacities, and that the only manner in which the richer soils are brought into cultivation. machinery of any description is beneficial, is The consequence is, that in obedience to a by diminishing the labor required for congreat law of nature, food tends to increase verting and transporting the products of the more rapidly than population, and it is only earth, and permitting a larger quantity to by that combination of effort which results be given to the work of production. The from increasing density of population that earth is the sole producer, says Mr. Carey, the richer soils can be brought into activity, and man merely fashions and exchanges her The truth of this is shown by a careful and products, adding nothing to the quantity to particular account of the settlement of this be converted or exchanged, and the growth country, followed by a rapid sketch of the of wealth everywhere is shown to be in the occupation of Mexico, the West Indies, South ratio of the quantity of labor that can be America, Great Britain, France, Italy, Greece, given to the cultivation of the great machine India, and the Islands of the Pacific, illus- bestowed on man for the production of food trating and confirming the position that the and wool. This leads to an examination of poor lands at the heads of streams, or the the British system, the object of which is small and rocky islands are first chosen for cul- shown to have been that of compelling the tivation, while the lower and richer soils are people of every part of the world to bring left unimproved for want of the means which to her their raw products to be converted come with growing wealth and population. and exchanged, thus wasting on the road a Mr. Ricardo's theory is then examined in all large portion of them, and all the manure its paits, and shown to be entirely opposed that would result from their home consumpto the whole mass of facts presented in a tion, the consequence of which is shown to rapid review of the course of events in the be the exhaustion of the land and its owner. different portions of the world, while the The broad ground is then taken that the exceptions made by him for the purpose of products of the land should be consumed providing for the infinite number that could upon the land, and that nations grow rich not be brought under his general law, are or remain poor precisely as they act in acshown to be themselves the law; and that cordance with, or in opposition to, that view. such is the case is now admitted by some of Mr. Carey is a free-trader. In his first book the most eminent economists of Europe. he advocated the British doctrine of dimin
With the downfall of Mr. Ricardo's hy- ished duties, as the means of bringing about pothesis of the occupation of land disap- free trade. In his Past and Present he adpears the base on which rests the celebrated mits his error, and shows that the protective theory of Mr. Malthus-a theory which has system was the result of an instinctive effort been largely discussed in this country by at the correction of a great evil inflicted upon Mr. Everett and others, and which is exam- the world by British legislation, and that ined at length from his point of view by Mr. the only course towards perfect freedom of Carey, who shows that everywhere increase trade is to be found in perfect production. of population has led to the cultivation of The effect of increasing wealth and popthe lower and richer soils, followed by in- ulation resulting from the power to cultivate crease in the facility of obtaining food, while the richer soils, in bringing about the dividepopulation has everywhere been marked sion of land and the union of man is then by the retreat of cultivation to the hills ; a shown, and illustrated by examples drawn truth which he illustrates by numerous in- from the history of the principal nations of stances.
the world, ancient and modern; and bere He next surveys the circumstances at the European system of primogeniture is extending the progress of wealth. It is held amined, with a view to show that it is purely by the English economists that capital, ap- artificial, and tends to disappear with the plied to lar', must necessarily bring dimin- growth of wealth and population. This ishing profi i, because applied to a machine leads to the discussion of the relations of man to his fellow-men, which are shown to cultivation on the poorer ones. "With each tend to the establishment of equality wher- step in the progress of concentration, his ever peace is maintained, and wealth and physical condition would improve because population are allowed to
grow; and to ine- he would cultivate more fertile lands, and quality, with every step in the progress of obtain increased power over the treasures of war and devastation.
the earth. His moral condition would imMan himself next appears on the scene. prove, because he would have greater inMr. Malthus, Mr. Ricardo, and all others of ducements to steady and regular labor, and the English school, represent him as the the reward of good conduct would steadily slave of his necessities, working because he increase. His intellectual condition would fears starvation. Mr. Carey, on the contrary, improve, because he would have more leisure shows him to be animated by hope, and for study, and more power to mix with his improving in all his moral qualities, precisely fellow-men at home or abroad; to learn what as by the growth of wealth and population they knew, and to see what they possessed; the results of peace—he is enabled to clear while the reward of talent would steadily and cultivate the rich soils of the earth. increase, and that of mere brute wealth
Thence we pass to the relations of man would steadily decline. His political condiand his helpmate, which are shown to im- tion would improve, because he would acprove precisely as do those of man to his quire an increased power over the applicafellow-man, as the rich soils are brought tion of his labor and of its proceeds. He into cultivation. Man and his family follow, would be less governed, better governed, and the same improvement, under the same and more cheaply governed, and all because circumstances, is shown to take place in the more perfectly self-governed.” relations of parent and child.
The field surveyed by Mr. Carey in the Concentration, or the habit of local self- Past and Present is a broad one-broader government, so strikingly illustrated in New- than that of any other book of our timeEngland, is next examined in contrast with for it discusses every interest of man. The centralization, as exhibited in England and ideas are original—whether true or not, they France, and its admirable effects in tending are both new and bold. They are based to the maintenance of peace are fully ex- upon a great law of Nature, and it is the hibited. The various systems of coloniza- first time that any system of political econotion next pass in review, and give occasion my has been offered to the world that was for an examination of the various causes so based. The consequence is, that all the that brought negro slavery into this country, facts place themselves, as completely as did and the reasons why it is here alone that the planets when Copernicus had satisfied the race has increased in numbers. India himself that the earth revolved around the and Ireland, and the devastating effects of the sun. colonial system, Annexation, and Civiliza- More recently, in his Harmony of Intertion furnish the materials for the succeeding ests, Mr. Carey has published a full examichapters, and give occasion—the last par- nation of the great question of commercial ticularly— for the expression of opinions policy, with a view to show that protection, much at variance with those taught by as it exists in this country, is the true and Guizot and others of the most distinguished only road to free trade. He has brought men of our day. Such are the Past and to the illustration of this important doctrine Present. The closing chapter is the Future, a mass of facts, greater, probably, than was and contains an examination of many re- ever before displayed in support of any pomarkable facts now presented to our view sition in political economy. It commences by our own country, produced by the exist- with an examination of our whole commerence of the unnatural system fastened upon cial policy for the last thirty years, and the world by England, and to be remedied shows the effect of protection in increasing by the adoption of an American policy, the sum of production and consumption, the having for its object that of enabling men means of transportation, internal and exterto live togther and combine their exertions, instead of flying from each other, leaving
* This work has been much read abroad, and behind rich lands uncultivated, and going we perceive that it has recently been translated to Texas or Oregon to begin the work of linto Swadish, and published at Stockholm.