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CAVETO REIPUBLICÆ PARRICIDAS.
BY RUFUS HENRY BACON.
When felon hands disturb the public good,
Then, if the State be strong, the wrong is crushed,
And murderous discord into peace is hushed;
Of hungry hounds, with early triumph flushed,
Be warned in time, my country! Pirate knaves
Are swarming in thy midst! Their banner waves
When patriots dead will shudder in their graves !
POLITICAL MOTIVES FOR 1851-2.
In the December number we gave our | have been traced, not by a train of argument. readers an illustration of the frightful ca- but by the mere co-statement of admitted lamities brought upon a nation by placing facts, to the operation of English monopoly her in a relaticn of free trade and recipro- legislation, under the lying designations of city with England, whose enormous manu- free trade and reciprocity between friendly facturing monopoly, with open jaws, sucks nations. This " friendly " relationship resemin and devours the agricultural wealth of bles the friendly protection extended by a boaIreland, and is fast reducing that country constrictor to the creature it devours
. The to a desert. We have shown, by the sta- process of charming, slavering, and swaltistics of McCulloch and others, that the lowing, by“ friendly” intercourse, by a comperiods of famine in that country are ex mon“ literature” and freedom of intercourse, actly the periods of largest commercial bears a truly remarkable resemblance to the intercourse with England. We have shown operations of the great snake upon the bird. also, that if the population of Ireland is Ireland has been fairly swallowed, is undertaken to be eight millions, that country going the macerative process prior to final diproduces food enough to keep thrice that gestion; her crushed figure, buried in the belly number of persons from absolute starva- of the monster, raises a protuberance, just tion; that the surplus of Irish food, to- large enough to remind us of her existence; gether with a small portion of that of and the late Irish rebellions--strong convulNorth America, of France, and the countries sive kicks and twitches of the muscular parts of the Black Sea and the Baltic, feed the of the entombed creature—serve to remind entire mass of English operatives and us that it is still suffering the silent agonies. idlers, not one half of the fourteen millions of dissolution. of England being supported by their own It has been objected, that we ought not soil
. The horrible calamities suffered by to charge the English Free Trade Ministry Ireland-leaving four millions of her people with the guilt of wholesale homicide ; that at the mercy of a potato crop, which failing, the deaths of the four or five millions of they were reduced to beggary and starvation– miserable wretches who have perished gradu
ally, or are about to perish, of hunger in blame of our own miseries, and of Ireland, Ireland, does not lie at the door of English and all other countries exhausted by what rulers. That the crimes of men are meas- has been styled the “ power of suction” ured by their knowledge: that we must not of the English monopolizers, by which believe an English minister would willingly they draw away the wealth of other naand deliberately destroy a million of wretches tions and convert it into ships of war and by famine. Finally, that the calamities of na-other appurtenances of monarchy, upon the tions come rather by the ignorance and imbe- folly, ignorance, and selfishness of the people cility, than by the malice of men in power. of England themselves on the one side, and Were the affairs of England to fall sud- the grasping ambition and avarice of their denly into confusion, and her manufactures rulers on the other. cease, say our objectors, her own people Let us never forget, however, that in the would die for want of food, but their deaths affairs of this world there is a strict account could not be charged upon the malice of her kept by Nature, the prime minister and ministry for the last fifty years, but only on financier of the Most High. England, as a their want of foresight, and general bad nation, has not profited by the mischief management. That political stupidity and her commercial ministries have inflicted upon prejudice have perhaps killed more human the rest of mankind. The conservatives beings than even the sabres of Genghis of England stand ready to prove, by strict Khan or the bullets of Napoleon have put computation, that if the entire property to death. That a gond-natured, wrong of the country were equally divided among headed fool in power can do more harm, its population, each man would still be generally, and cause the deaths of a greater a very poor man, and would not realize. number of men, women, and children, than enough therefrom to live with decency and the cruellest tyrant. Arguments which de- comfort. A great deal has been said, too, mand a serious consideration and a deliber- about the self-dependence of England, when ate reply, and which in good time will receive it is a demonstrated fact, as shown in our both, we trust, to the satisfaction of our December number, that were an impassable readers.
hedge built about her, one half of her people It is also to be considered, that English must perish of hunger within a year. rulers are merely representative; that they The question of greatest importance before go into power with instructions, and are the world at this period, and which men of bound to maintain a certain system, or all parties must entertain alike, is doubtless, they go out. Reform comes from the whether the present governing powers of people if it comes at all, and not in any in- England shall be suffered to go on in the stance from the rulers, unless in rare cases, line of ruin which they have marked out for when ministers happen to be at once heroes us and for herself; whether we will permit and statesmen.
them to enlarge and fortify a monopoly by “ Where then," continues our temperate which they keep several millions of their own and discreet objector, “Will you lay the people in danger of famine, and by which they blame of this awful calamity, and of all exhaust the resources of every nation with similar calamities greater or less, impend- which they have had the art or the fortune to ing over nations who hold open and un- establish relations of unprotected commerce. guarded intercourse with England ?" In Of all people, (next to those of Ireland,) we reply, many answers occur to us. We may of the United States are the most deeply lay it if we please upon Providence, and interested in the reply that shall be given to suggest as a remedy days of fasting and this momentous question, beyond all comprayer. But as the God of Israel favors parison the greatest and the most important only those who act and think while they that has ever yet come up. pray, it is needful to admit that the consola- We, the people of the United States, are tion of our answer is but trifling.
alone able to answer it effectually. If we Fate is a convenient and broad-shouldered value our own country we must answer it; recipient of all blame. We may lay the fault if France, or Germany, or Ireland, then, for upon fate if we are so inclined, were it not their sakes, we must answer it. Nothing that in our next sentence we may be fated in our own, or in the world's service, can to lay it somewhere else, and impose the how be done while we continue the odious controversy that has so long cursed Calhoun argued that Congress had no power and stupefied us. Men are crazed with ab- of legislation over the territories, and was stractions, and seem to have lost all taste for then extremely indignant with the people realities. The confusion of party that is of California because they did not wait for said to prevail at the present moment, (we the legislative action of Congress. Now, need not say crisis, every instant of our polit- the people of California merely illustrated ical existence being a crisis, if some are to the fundamental position of the great chambe trusted,) is occasioned by uncertainty as pion of State sovereignty. to whether the people, or any considerable Other Senators from the South, equally portion of them, will continue to favor those warm in the defence of fundamental popular agitators who advise open disobedience to rights, insisted on the adoption of a line on the laws, or their effectual evasion by illegal either side of which it should be lawful or methods. Now, without opening the ques- unlawful, by act of Congress, to own slaves. tion, whether the method advised by Con- These profound legislators argued, nevergress for the recovery of fugitive slaves is theless, violently against the legislative power thoroughly the best and most agreeable to of Congress over the territories. the spirit of our fundamental laws; it is, All things considered, the people of the nevertheless, held to be absolutely necessary South, in the final establishment of territorial for the peace of the Union, that the law as governments without pro-slavery or antiit stands should be obeyed while it stands, slavery proviso, have gained a great victory and if its application is to be evaded, that for their darling and essential principle of the evasion be thoroughly constitutional and State sovereignties, -and the North will, in legal. We beg to remind those who nullify good time, have cause to be thankful for it on the plea of its supposed unconstitu- that too. It would be childish to quarrel tionality, that they are themselves much with the North about territories after such more unconstitutional in their use of an an admission. illegal remedy. While the present Sec- Equally injudicious would it be for Southretary of State was still by comparison a erners to engage in scandalous experiments young orator in the Senate, the people of upon the temper of the Northern people, by South Carolina attempted to nullify the sending persons to reclaim fugitive slaves, revenue laws, because they seemed to them not for their value, but for that avowed purto be very unconstitutional. The people of pose. It is a very popular and plausible Massachusetts will do well to recollect with excuse for the people of Massachusetts that what a fine legal and moral enthusiasm they they understood a hostile intention in those hailed the successful enforcement of those persons who came into their State in search laws, so offensive to their Southern fellow- of fugitive slaves. If the reclamation was citizens. South Carolinians insisted at that undertaken merely to try the temper of the time that the sovereignty of the State was people, to be made afterward a topic of jest infringed by the execution of the tariff—that among Southerners, the result was natural, it was a direct attack upon the rights of and should have been expected. In South States, which are by all men held sacred— Carolina itself, were Northern men to enter Union or no Union. But South Carolinians that State armed for the recovery of free have had a fine revenge upon their Northern negroes confined there as aliens, the same friends, and can throw back the charge of conduct might be expected on the part of nullification upon certain citizens of Massa- the people in South Carolina. chusetts, who are engaged in agitating diso- On a certain occasion the State of Masbedience.
sachusetts sent an envoy to South Carolina No nation had ever a body of laws that to test the laws of that State in regard to were satisfactory to all alike. Unconstitu- free blacks, confined for entering Charleston, tionality, inhumanity, violation of rights, and who were also citizens of Massachusetts. can be charged by remote construction, it The envoy was ordered to depart in peril of some of their effects, upon almost every law, his life, though he came there only for the and indeed have been so charged. The Con- trial of a legal remedy. stitution, like Holy Writ, has its sects ; its Massachusetts and South Carolina, or High Church, its Low Church, its heretics rather a certain irritable portion of the peoand its martyrs. To recall but one example, ple of those States, the free blacks, and
the innocent admirers of English free-trade cal motive of the present time. The most lecturers, and female orators of one, and the careful and extended inquiry serves only gallant disunionists of the other, have over- to show, that, in every particular, the presstepped a little the line of courtesy, and ent policy of England results of necessity of the Constitution. The body of sensible in our own disgrace and impoverishment. and discreet citizens of the South and North Our free spirit, the nationality and the just are not involved in this reproach. Because and natural jealousy of the people--all those a few are refractory, the country is not masculine traits that distinguish them from thereby wholly shattered, but still retains the servile masses of Europe, demand an some little faith in the "great experiment," open and manly opposition, as it is naïvely called, of constitutional re- The most powerful means of deception publican government that is to say, a used to stifle this antagonism is doubtless government by the discretion, common the abuse of significant names. Every forsense, and brotherly feeling of the people. eigner who lands upon the shores of the
In view of the disastrous effects upon our- North American Continent, unless he be an selves of the policy pursued by the Govern- agent of despotism, inquires for the party of ment of England, in their attempts to appro- the people, and is immediately enlisted in priate the profits of all employments, raising the ranks of " democracy and free trade." up among ourselves two destructive factions, The name of Democrat and free-trader in between whom there is no choice of evils, America, like the name of Whig in Engbut whose hostility to each other is embit- land, carries a body of well-meaning people tered and intensified by a rivalship in the within the pale of a party hostile and hatefavor and protection of a Power whose ful to republicanism, and whose entire policy, purposes they serve, we arrive involuntarily at this day, is to make a few men in Engat the conclusion that opposition to the land, and their wealthy agents in America, commercial and diplomatic policy of the min- India, Ireland, and China, the sole managers istry of England, and to the influence by of the world's business, and in very truth the which they endanger our Union, impede our masters of men. industrial progress, and stifle every sentiment Out of the dull ignorance of the people, of nationality, has become the leading politi- flow a thousand mischiefs :
Would to Heaven we dared say, that in to have effectually and hopelessly corrupted the year 1852, the motives of enlightened us. democracy will actuate a majority of the It has even become a question of much people; but we dare not hope for so much. speculative interest with some far-looking perThe flood of foreign opinion that for the sons, whether the tide of popular sentiments last few years has deluged the land, seems I created by foreign and uncongenial influence will not finally extinguish the respect of the is compelled to lie inactive and yield an people for their own institutions: a moneyed unhoped victory to its antagonists. aristocracy created by alliance with foreigners, This paralysis of a great democracy is through an open and unrestricted commerce, certainly the most remarkable phase of it is said, must inevitably corrupt the demo- national politics since the Revolution. The cratie sentiment, and introduce elements of industrial classes of the people cannot enconfusion which must finally break up the gage in any new enterprise because it may common grounds of union.
be displeasing to the present English GovernAt this very moment, this powerful and ment, and because the idea that any other almost irresistible influence of a purely people beside the English should supply foreign literature, and foreign trade, has the themselves with clothes, books, and utensils effect to produce a complete paralysis of of their own making, is pronounced by travelparties. The grand national division of the ling English gentlemen to be a humbug, American democracy, named Whig, cannot and a proof of ignorance. This state of act out its full intentions, so completely things may perhaps be better comprehended paralyzed is it by the touch of England. It by the reader in a tabular form.
That the Union will continue.
A humbug. That Monarchy will profit by its dissolution.
A constitutional humbug.
quoted for this. ) That the abolition of slavery will place the Southern States, the West Indies,
and the cotton lands acquired, or in process of acquisition by Great Britain on the Southern part of this continent, on an equality,
A certainty. Thai the American people have any nationality, or policy.
A humbug. That foreign opinion ought to govern America.
A certainty. That America will benefit by such government. -
A first-class humbug. That the commercial prosperity of America will finally prove to be that of foreigners alone, and not of the American people.
A supreme necessity.
A divine fact.
A question. That they despise themselves.
A certainty. That they will ever be treated with consideration and respect by the other first class powers of the earth.
A doubt. That they will ever develop a distinct national opinion and polity.
A sublime humbug. That they are a civilized people.
A prize question for the next Cam
bridge graduates. That they bave any men among them who have a true national pride, that needs no fostering from foreign travelling eulogists.
A droll absurdity. That they have moral courage.
To be answered by their Ambassadors. Whether the American democratic governments are not in fact serviceable tools of English Whigs. .
The less said the better.
(Invertigation suppressed.) Whether a shrewd diplomatist cannot twist an American politician into any shape it pleases him.
To be tested by the event. Whether the republican rule of non-interference may not be made a pretext
by Great Britain to work her sovereign pleasure with the weaker nations of the continent.
A question to be whispered about,
and replied to by winks and nods. To this list, an hundred others might be the opening of unrestricted intercourse, added, but those given will serve to illustrate commercial and literary, than the passivity the spirit of that foreign opinion which and inaction of the people in regard to paralyzes parties in the United States. Central America. The fact that no popular
Nothing, however, can be imagined more movements have been made in that matter, powerfully illustrative of the influence of discovers to our waking senses with what a foreign opinion on this continent, through millstone our necks are encircled. On th