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vide a “ bow of Love” we are wholly unable | heretofore, to make it altogether a condescento divine ; nor can we tell what earthly sion to scrutinize and test its merits. The connection a "scarlet thread” can have with admirers of Mr. Willis cannot expect to so the figure.

venalize others of less susceptible and, perThe same poem furnishes another specimen haps, less indulgent temperaments, as to of labyrinthal composition :

extort universal concessions in favor of their

poet's claims to the laurel wreath. It has “He who wept with Mary-angels keeping been, all along, their good pleasure and his

Their unthank'd watch, are a foreshadowing interest to cry up and extol these feeble offer-
Of what love is in heaven.”

ings to the shrine of the Muses. Nobody

has felt any pleasure, or taken any interest, It would require, we think, a ball of our in crying them down. But we think that author's "scarlet thread” to wind through this indifference has been carried quite far this foggy complicity of words at all under- enough; while leniency may become culpastandingly.

ble in view of Mr. Willis's vaulting ambiWe next get something of an ethereal tion and excessive vanity, as well as of the adventure :

extravagances of his admirers; and espe“O conscious heart!

cially in view of the very serious fact that

American literature, and not its counterfeit Number thy lamps of love, and tell me, now,

votaries, has to pay the penalty of all this How many canst thou re-light at the stars, hapless amiability and indifference. For And blush not at their burning ?”

nothing is more certain than that by thus

clogging the avenues to eminence with This is decidedly of the Swedenborgian swarms of rampant, vain-glorious, elbowing cast—so refined and so spiritualized as to pretenders, the doors are effectually closed bully conjecture and frighten fancy. We against such as may really deserve to enter. would be pleased, moreover, if Mr. Willis Men of real talent disdain to resort to unwill explain the aptness of the allusion, worthy devices, or to join in urbecoming when, speaking of the heart, he asks if it scuffles. Their mushroom competitors, on will blush?

the contrary, are none too proud to stoop We decline, for the present, to notice to any or all species of what may now be “Lazarus and Mary,” and must here close termed Barnumania, to attain a sickly and with our excerpts from the "Sacred Poems." an ephemeral notoriety, and to pick up We trust that the admirers of Mr. Willis those scanty“ present gains” to which Mr. may pardon to candor much that has seemed Willis so candidly alludes in the preface to bitter and harsh in the foregoing review. his book. We have been led to undertake the task But we would not be understood as meanless from any exalted opinion of our author's ing to class Mr. Willis with that herd of merits as a poet, than with a view to set despicable and disgusting scribblers who, before the reader, fairly and undisguisedly, despite their blathering and nauseous excresthe nature and quality of that poetry which, cences, have so subsidized penny presses as in certain circles, has lifted Mr. Willis to that to crowd out, temporarily, all genuine literpedestal of favor which he so modestly ac- ary votaries, and to infect the country with knowledges in his preface. It has been daily emissions of noisome nonsense, alike perceived, doubtless, that we do not concede baneful to the encouragement of merit, that unhesitating and redoubtable supremacy and to the development of national literary to which our author has so flippantly laid resources. On the contrary, we desire to claim. On the contrary, we must frankly say that whaterer contempt we may enterdeclare that we consider Mr. Willis a very tain for Mr. Willis's verses, we have yet ordinary and indifferent writer of poetry, seen much from his pen in a more approand can only wonder how he became so priate and dignified department, that indigrossly possessed as to suppose that he could cated, to our humble and imperfect judgconjure with a true wizard's rod, or sweep ment, talent of a very high and enviable arp with a minstrel's grace and skill. order. But while entertaining a very high

hoetry, such even as it is, has been opinion of much of his prose writings, we

the theme of undisputed laudation. I are vet constrained to sav. that our author

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would, to our judgment, have better con- | task of examining his entire book of " sacred, sulted his self-respect by abstaining from all passionate, and humorous”. poems; and that adventurings in the way of poetry. although we have chosen to select linn, first,

We shall now dismiss Mr. Willis and his as the expiatory offering to the offended poems, for the present; promising, by-the- literary genius of America, he shall not be by, that we design to resume and complete the last. in some future number, our contemplated Longwood, 1850.

HENRY C. CAREY:

THE APOSTLE OF THE AMERICAN SCHOOL OF POLITICAL ECONOMY.

BY RUFUS W. GRISWOLD,

HENRY C. CAREY has been recognized fact that he was a consistent and ardent through continental Europe as one of the friend of protection. master thinkers of our generation. It is time Ricardo left his doctrine of Rents ; Malfor him to be known in his own country: In thus his principle of Population; their books Political Economy he has applied the methods are little read now, and they themselves of the Positive Philosophy, and his works would have been long since forgotten, but exhibit the chief advances the science has that they taught what had been taught by made since Adam Smith published his no others. Of the hundreds of their country“ Wealth of Nations.” They are text-books men, who have since written, scarcely one in the colleges even of Sweden and Norway, has furnished a new idea; or if such an idea while at the University in the street next to can be found in the books of any one, it will that in which the author has his residence, not bear investigation. Many have collected books are adopted composed of ideas from facts, that are useful, and all of them have empirical and nearly obsolete systems: Say talked and written about their facts and and Ricardo are regarded as expositors of theories; but only as empirics. One man the last and ultimate discoveries. Let us contended on one side and another on another, see if this law respecting prophets cannot be and there was no standard by which to judge changed; or if not changed, confirmed, by an them. Ricardo and Malthus gave laws exception in the case of our philosopher. that would not fit the facts, and the facts

Mr. Carey was born in Philadelphia, in were altered and suppressed to suit the laws.* December, 1793. His father was the late McCulloch taught that transportation and eminent Matthew Carey, memories of whose exchange were more advantageous than provirtues preserve about his name a thousand duction, and Cobden that it was better to go delightful associations. Matthew Carey was to colonies in which rich lands were to be a political economist also. He wrote much, had cheap, than to stay at home where landand he wrote effectively, because he taught lords charged high rents for the poor ones that that which was in accordance with the were necessarily cultivated : and therefore feelings and interests of his readers; but he was of the old school, dead now, with its

* Thus we see by a correspondence published in professors. He disliked abstract ideas or the London papers that Mr. Horace Mayhew, au, principles, and did not trouble himself much thor of the metropolitan “ Labor and the Poor” with their investigation. The consequence

articles, bas ceased to write for the London Morn. was, that he made no addition to politico-ing Chronicle, the conductors of that journal wish

ing him to suppress, in his reports on the condition economical knowledge, and left nothing by of the working classes, facts opposed to free trade. which he should be remembered except the + See Carey's Past, Present and Future, p. 128.

that imported food would be cheaper than | mere anarchy. Ricardo had to leave a place of that which was grown at home. The result escape for difficult facts,* and his successors has proved that he was wrong. Food is now have since found themselves obliged to open obtained with more difficulty than before ; so many new ones, that his laws are now emigration is necessary, and the late decision like sieves. in Parliament shows that Protection will be The period was propitious for a discoverer. restored : as the ministry could command The opinion of D'Alembert that the steps of only the mean majority of 21.

Civilization were to be taken in the middle A few years hence McCulloch will be of each century, was to be confirmed by a remembered only as the compiler of a few new illustration. indifferent books of reference, and Cobden as Mr. Carey's father was a practical man; the author of much ill to the people of Eng- all his children were trained to affairs ; thus land. Many of these men have ideas that they became observers. The students of are sound; but they know nothing of the books are rarely creators in science. Truth principles of the science they undertake to is most likely to be evolved in the school of teach; and so they are continually making experience. From the age of seven years blunders. Of all the French writers of the until he was twenty-one, Mr. Carey was in first forty years of this century, only one, his father's book-store. From 1821 to 1838, Jean Baptiste Say, has lived to the middle he was a partner in the important publishof it, and his work is only a mass of error ing house of Carey, Lea & Carey, and Carey in an imposing form.

& Lea; but in this period he passed one This may be called sweeping criticism ; season abroad, we believe immediately after but time will prove that it is just. We need his marriage with a sister of Leslie, the principles, as the astronomers did, before Co- painter. The determination of his mind pernicus, Kepler and Newton gave them was already fixed, when his retirement from the laws which govern the movements of business enabled him to devote his faculties the universe. Others observed facts and entirely to the science with which his name wrote treatises, but only these names have will for ever be associated. lived. Ricardo and Malthus furnished what Mr. Carey's first book--- An Essay on the they believed to be the great natural laws in Rate of Wages-was published in 1836, regard to land and the sources of its value; and was soon after expanded into The Printhe relation of the laborer and the capitalist; ciples of Political Economy, which appeared and of population. Their names are still in three octavo volumes in 1837—1840. familiar, but their theories are shattered by Before proceeding to give an account of the assaults of critics; they will be forgot- this performance we will more particularly ten, and their places will be occupied by show what was, at the date of its publication, those of the great author of whose works the condition of the science it was designed to we propose to write. Ricardo and Malthus illustrate. Mr. Malthus had taught that will be to Carey as Ptolemy to Copernicus. population tended to increase faster than

From 1803, a period of almost fifty years, food, and that so irresistible was this tensince Ricardo published his doctrine of Rent, dency, that all human efforts to restrain the there has not been even an attempt, except number of men within the limits of subsistCarey's, to add anything to political econ- ence were vain. It was a great “law of omy. Senior, Whateley, and a thousand nature," and it was of little consequence, others, have been disputing about words, therefore, how fast food might be increased, while as many others have been attacking since the only effect must be to stimulate Malthus and Ricardo; but no one has at- population, which, in the end, was sure to tempted to discover laws, to take the place outrun the means of living. The impresof those which were assailed. Of the sup- sion which this work produced has been porters of these writers, every one has been briefly noticed in what we have written in compelled to admit that their laws did not connection with Mr. Alexander H. Everett's cover the facts, and to interpolate accommo- reply to it, printed in London and Boston dating passages. John Stuart Mill, in his re- in 1822. The doctrine was a convenient cent work, has done this even more largely than his 'cessors, and so furnished addi

* The Past, the Present and the Future, pp. tiona'

heir laws were not laws, but | 70, 71.

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