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behold a party in office, which, during a long | cannot make a man whose knowledge of opposition, had matutsed. a system of prin- arithmetic extends probably so far as "the ciples, and yet whioh: is incapable by its Rule of Three," deduce principles of politiown strength of eståblishing even one. To cal philosophy from elaborated figures. The such an administration, and such a party, Whig party, if it teach the truth, must rely but two equises of action are permitted on the newspaper editor, the book publisher, either to avow that their hands are tied, the writer, and the schoolmaster, and not on and eyado everything but silence and rest; cargoes of humanity. Popular discussion alone er, byvold moves, to start their principles can therefore preserve it in power. To this end :intes. by one upon the tribunitial battle- no opportunity should be lost ; least of all .ground, throw upon their opponents the re- that opportunity which now presents itself sponsibility of defeating them, and prove to of urging in Senate and House of Reprethe world at all events the sincerity of sentatives day after day, and hour after their professions, and that nothing but the hour, its cardinal principles, and so driving force of antagonistic majorities compelled their debate through every newspaper, magathem to exist in office without converting zine, printing office, porter-house, or family the occupation thereof to the national good. circle in the Union. It is intensely stupid By the former plan, the present opportunity for any party in a Republic, which is a Rewill be most legitimately lost, and the Whig public to rely on the de facto educated party will have the advantage of retiring classes ;" such “ classes " must be abolished, from office in 1853, without the faintest if by nothing else, then by time. They are prospect of having such honors thrust upon wearing away hour after hour, and the them again, and with the imputation of young life of the country is daily issuing having succeeded, during a short four years, forth, self-willed, intellectual, capable of arin effacing from the public memory every gument, and inclined to hold sternly to its principle it had made its own during the opinions, but with these opinions gathered campaigns of a lengthened opposition. By from humanitarian publications of the the latter, present difficulties will be used trashy kind, from excerpts of Adam Smith, as means of recruiting larger power and and clippings of Stuart Mill, and the defunct future success ; and even should defeat on Ricardo. No matter what exigencies may defeat meet us at every step, the principles arise, no matter how transparent may be of the war will lie on the ground it oc- the ill effects of the commercial and other cupied, and be indestructible mementoes of systems enacted against this country by consistent policy and strenuous endeavor. "Democratic” gentlemen of the Anglified
True as these facts are with reference to genus, Walker; the Whig party can never all parties, they are peculiarly applicable, at hope to establish a single one of its princithe present time, to that American party ples, until they are thoroughly popularized. which—by some such untoward mistake as It seems almost trite at the present day to that which befell Mr. Shandy, in the baptizing urge truths so plain. But however plain of Tristram, his son—had the misfortune to be they may be, if we examine the history of ushered into the world burdened with the our time we will find that they are neither name of “ Whig.” The principles of the party very much recognized nor very carefully so-called can only acquire strength by discus- acted on. If there be any principle more sion and education ; it is the only one of all than all others identified as Whig, if there our parties which must rely on the educated be any undeniably true, it is the principle force of the people, and not upon sectional which asserts that American industry should differences, or class interests. Discussion of be supported by Americans in preference to its principles can, therefore, alone increase its any other. Yet within a fortnight we have numerical power; for while the so-called seen a society established in New-York for " Democratic party” receives in every emi- the protection of British manufactures in this grant ship a cargo of recruits, who, pledged country, the leaders of which are “Demoto the name, will gulp down any bolus lapped cratic," and who will lead and are leading therein, and smack their lips over it in ad- the very artisans whose interests they have miration, the Whig party must attain its bartered to a foreigner. We have seen for recruits by slow endeavor and assiduous I fi hars among the federal statutes, laws teaching. You cannot reforin a fool--yor nd valorem taxes on actual American industry, because it is American, and raised from American soil, to devastate laws awarding an ad valorem premium to Hungary, or defeat the schemes of the GerBritish and Russian industry, because it is man people; and we have permitted the enBritish or Russian. These laws too were actors of the laws under which wrongs so foul enacted by men professing "free trade;" and universal were transacted, to represent and were enacted against the very artisans themselves to the "adopted citizens” and who are their most faithful followers. We emigrant population, as the “Friends of have seen, too, laws by the action of which Hungary,” the “Friends of Ireland,” the
British speculators have been enabled to Friends of Universal Freedom, and so forth. stay the mill-wheels of our factories, and Nay, we have conversed in work-shops with extinguish the furnaces of our smelting- artisans, and out of doors even with idle Amehouses; we have seen writ after writ of rican artisans, who have propounded to us as ejectment issued by British hands against true and good, the stereotyped defence of the New-England factory-girls and Pennsylvania very falsehood by which their right hands workmen; we have seen them driven from were rendered unproductive of life. Such their shops and work-rooms by the hand of things could not be, were any means taken to Britain, as nakedly displayed as it is on the inform these men of the true nature of the banks of the Ganges or the San Juan; and delusions practised on them, and of the true the laws under the protection of which these and necessary effects of those theories to schemes were effected, were enacted and are which, through a virtuous love of democracy, defended by that party which declaims they have blindly pinned their faith. In the about non-interference, and professes eternal artisan population of America, largely Amedevotion to the "adopted citizens” and rican, largely too of foreign birth, and from Bunkum. We have seen markets of profit- the essentials of their craft possessing acuter able export destroyed, * and markets of minds, larger comprehension and a superior ruinous import forced into existence by the knowledge to any other class of workmen, same professors of “enlightened commerce," the party which identifies itself with the and of the philosophic principle of “every support of native industry has resources of man for himself.” We have seen, by the same infinite power. It was the policy of the hands, the entire American nation, with its earlier period of the Democratic party to variable climate, its many climates, requiring abuse and despise them as a mob, and of for every degree of latitude a different de- the later and present periods to hoodwink gree of thickness of cloth, reduced to a state them with Jesuitic phrases and plausible of complete dependence on British looms generalities taken from the English economic for even a shirt or a coat. We have seen vernacular, and so use them. The natural the wages of the American artisan reduced instinct of a German or Irish artisan coming or stopped ; we have seen him compelled to to these shores, is hostility to all schemes submit to the plunder of slop-employers on for the protection of British manufacturis, the London system, or revolt; we have seen whether conceived in London or propounded him driven to beggary or prison; and yet we by an " Union Safety Committee” in Newhave permitted the artisans so foully plun-York. And all that is required to fasten dered to believe that they who plundered firmly this allegiance to American industry, them were “ Americans” and “ Deinocratic.” is to display fully to them that the party We have seen these highly American and called here Democratic” is precisely the thoroughly Democratic statesmen drive the same party which, by plundering their native produce of America into the hands of British countries, has driven both to these shores. aristocrats
, sending to their shop American Yet we do not know of a single book pubagriculturists with food, American cotton- lished in these United States, calculated to growers with cotton, American gold-diggers inform an artisan of his real necessities and with gold, to get them clothes, barring up those of the country of his adoption. The our own shop doors the while, and thus af- “ free-traders," relying on blind faith alone, fording to the mainstay of European tyranny lead by blind faith-the supporters of Amethe power of loaning million after million, rican industry relying on the educational
developments of the people, use no means
whatever to create these educatiop • Vide Report of Secretary of Treasury. opments.
On the contrary,
rostrum in the land, the possession of which question falsely called of " free trade," but has been for two years in the hands of the really that of protecting by federal authority " anti-free-traders,” has been permitted by the trade of one interest or section in another, them to remain totally disused, while they and to the injury of the whole. Were the could have made it every day of the past Federal Constitution to be again formed, it and present session an engine of discussion, would probably be the wisest and soundest forcing their theories and facts through Democratic course, to leave every State of every publication in the country, to the de- the Union free to establish its own customfeat of their adversaries, and the great dis- houses and pay for them, to enact its own comfiture of agitators and disunionists of tariff laws, and take the consequences, reevery grade and color. For two years, we quiring the Federal Government to depend say, the Whig party has been in possession for its resources solely on direct taxation. of office—and though since its infancy it But under our present system, the good of has been pledged to the support of native the whole can only be obtained by comproindustry in all its branches against all odds, mise, by kindly exposition, and by enacting though it has staked its existence on the those laws only which are good for the practical success of its theories, and the sin- whole, and not for an interest. Did the incerity of its professions, yet in that time (if juries, even under the present system, which we except the Secretary of the Treasury's result from the wholesale exportation of raw Report) not a single effort bas been made produce, result only to the States which exin either House for the support of Ameri- port the raw produce, other States would can labor, unless indeed the reading of the have no right to interfere. Were Carolina ridiculously impertinent letter of Sir Henry alone injured by the export of raw cotton, Lytton Bulwer against it.
or Ohio alone injured by the export of raw Let us hope that for a little, at all events, food, the people of New-York, Pennsylvathe slavery agitation is at an end. Two nia, or Massachusetts, would have no right years of the Whig term of office have been to prevent the exporting States from politialready wasted in considering “ the condi- cal suicide. But the fact is, that since the tion of the planter-down-South question." | Declaration of Independence the interests of Let some of the remaining moiety of the the manufacturing States have been made official term of the present administration subservient to those of the exporting States, be disposed of in considering the more im- so that, under the action of federal authority, portant question of the condition of the the amount of raw exports have been in an white republicans of the North and West, inverse ratio to the prosperity of native whose slaves are their two hands only, and manufactures—or, in other words, the nomiwhose property is being daily and hourly nal wealth of the Carolinas has been increasspirited away by the machinations of “ Dem- ing with the absolute poverty of New-Engocratic statesmen,” and the Syren wiles of land. That this result must follow from our the arch goddess of abolition of every trade present system the student of sound econbut her own-England. The principle of omy, or even he who will open his eyes to State-rights against Federal usurpation, or facts, will at once see. We have ourselves more properly the principle of co-equal in- endeavored to simplify these truths in papers dependence in each of all the States, against intended for the more general reader; and any attempt made by one to use the federal if anything were needed to substantiate authority for its gain and the injury of its them, we have but to turn to the Report of sisters, is one which, in our political exigen- the Secretary of the Treasury. The policy cies, must for ever recur; and it is not im- which the British Government has always 1 robable that the slavery question, in all its practised, and to which it is as steadily ataspects, may finally assume the character of tached at this day as it was a hundred years a question connected not with negroism, but ago, is that of breaking down the manufacwith white freedom. The State of Vermont turing energies of every country with which has already, by a declaratory act with refer- it has come into connection, and reducing it ence to the constitutional right of habeas to the position of a mere grower of raw corpus against the recent act of Congress, produce. Had the present tariff been enplaced one phase of it upon that issue. acted by British hands it could hardly be And to a similar issue may be redissed the better avised to that end. A premium is
given by ad valorem duties to the importer native manufacture, we find them locked up of British goods to undervalue the amount and idle, and their artisans crowding in idlein value imported; and even taxes are laid ness the purlieus of our great cities. upon the application of American industry So of iron and other manufactures--we to certain articles needed in American man- are deliberately sacrificing our own populaufacture. Were these "free trade” men par- tion to maintain that of England. And not donably consistent, one might be excused for only that, but we are daily running in debt credulously believing them; but with the to England to a vast amount-giving her declared intentions of England on one hand, our railroads for iron rails, and our banks, and the figures of the Secretary of the canals and public works for loans of her capTreasury on the other, one cannot doubt but ital to carry out this stupendous waste. that this country is by the unseen agency of Every interest in the country, save only the economic laws firmly under the control of raw-export interest, is perishing; debts are England. One hundred and fifty years ago daily contracting, and the means to meet (A. D. 1719) the British House of Com- them daily decreasing, so that it requires no mons formally declared "that the erecting foresight to prophesy a financial crisis of no of manufactories in the colonies (i. e. of ordinary character, whenever our European North America, now the United States) creditors, by war or other causes, may be tends to lessen their dependence on Great compelled to call upon us for the payment Britain.” And lest it should be supposed of our bonds. that the spirit and policy which dictated The friends of native industry in Congress such a declaration was at all changed in our should therefore lose no time in pressing day, this present year, Anno Domini 1850, these manifold questions upon the attention was not three days old, ere Sir Henry Lytton and discussion of the country. Their enerBulwer, by direction of his Government, ad-gies should be directed not so much to the dressed a letter to Mr. Clayton, in which enactment of a protective as a preventive he declared, with reference to “ the erecting tariff. Productive tariffs are unjust in prinof iron manufactories” in Pennsylvania, that ciple and unsound in theory. They involve " higher duties in America (on iron manu- a denial to the poor of luxuries, and the factured in Great Britain) would produce a protection of the appetites of the rich to the very disagreeable effect upon public opinion injury of the whole. Such duties, therefore, in England.” And that "public opinion in as may be altered, should not be altered for England” has been very agreeably affected the purpose of producing more revenue, but for some time at the total decline of not only of preventing the admission of the article our iron but our cotton and other manufac- taxed. Our whole commercial and monetures, we have but to turn to the Report of tary systems should be thoroughly examined, the Secretary of the Treasury recently pre- and brought before the people, that thus, sented to Congress. There, among many though defeated up to 1853, the supporters other examples, we find these figures, show- of native industry may have thereafter some ing the vast increase in raw cotton exported chance of success. to Great Britain, and decrease in cotton One subject in particular we recommend manufactures exported to the same :- to anti-free-traders in Congress to begin with ;
the subject of international copyright. The To GREAT BRITAIN. principles upon which are grounded the Cot. Wool. Cot. Man. right of American literary men to protec.$27,707,717 $9,607
tion against the wholesale importation of the 1847 35,841,265 6,765
British manufactured article, are precisely 41,925,268
which are founded the rights of
upon 47,444,899 2,591
all other American industry to similar pro48,884,453
tection. And as far as their interests go, Total...... - $201,803,592 $19,041 literary men, almost without an exception,
have accepted and will sustain these princi.. Our entire export of manufactured cotton ples. They are, besides, the intellectual this year amounts only to $23,013,762—of rulers of the people, and their services are raw cotton to $296,563,066.
requisite to the creation of any popular imTurning then our eyes to the factories of pressions. It would be a wise policy to m.
mence with them, and to afford to their in-1 Our system of banking, based on notes conterests that support, and to their just rights vertible into gold and silver, is one which that necessary protection, without which as a before fifty years must abolish itself; and class they must continue poor and dependent, indeed the time may not be so distant when, at the mercy of every cheap publisher of to compel a man to buy gold with his indusBritish trash. Once their minds have been try, and then to buy his dinner with the led to consider the question of native indus- gold, will be looked upon as an antiquated try with reference to their own interests, they folly. The currency of the country should will not be slow to apply it to the interests be based on the national industry alone, of the cotton spinner, the leather manufac- without the intervention of a more evanesturer, the moulder and the smith.
cent and more variable standard. Gold and In an article like this, merely prefatory all other metals should be thrown into the to the principal subjects of sessional discus- market, to be bought and sold at their real sion, it is impossible to notice every subject value for use or export, and not kept serewed which may be worthy of the attention of up to a congressional value, in a state unCongress, or thoroughly exhaust any. In productive to all but the bill-broker and the connection, however, with the sustentation sweater of coin. We urge upon our finanof national industry, there are other questions ciers the necessity of looking to this subject of almost equal moment, to which we would at an early period; for in the uncertain state direct attention.
of our creditors in Europe, with the falling 1st. It would be an irresistible argument manufactures and increasing poverty of the against the present system, to produce in country, there is no prophesying when the figures from the books or evidence of the national industry may be driven into still companies themselves, the amount of stock greater difficulties, and the very existence of representing the ownership and profits of the industrial classes imperilled. our railroads, canals, aqueducts, harbors, 3d. Immediate steps should be taken to public buildings, &c., &c., now owned in make such roads of communication between England. “ Absenteeism”is the worst com- the Atlantic States and the Pacific coast mercial evil to which a country can be sub- as may be adjudged best for the general jected; and the system of government must good. Three plans have been proposed--the be vicious and inherently bad which permits inter-oceanic canal, the plan of Mr. Benton, any country to fall under a system so ruin- and that of Mr. Ása Whitney. The first ous to every industry, and so perilous to the and the last have our entire approval. very existence of the nation. We believe 4th. The public lands have been so fearthat at the present day, English absenteeism fully plundered from the people, that we is drawing from the produce of American fear it is hardly worth while to speak of any industry, an amount not less than fifty mil- which may remain unsold or unbartered. lions of dollars per annum.
Reserving such as may be needed for public 2d. Considering our ruinous extent of improvement, let the rest, at all events, be imported manufactures, and our equally made free to actual settlers. ruinous export of raw produce ;' considering We trust the members of the Whig party this yearly drain of absenteeism, and the im- in Congress will urge these topics on the mense yearly addition of gold to the cur- public ear. When thoroughly understood rency of the world, and that of America in and appreciated by the people, the party particular, it is manifest that a commercial which sustains them will rule the United and monetary crisis of no ordinary extent is States, at hand. It is well to be prepared for ita