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“Bombard New York!” said an old Ca- to aggress upon Canadian independence. nadian once to the writer; "I have There is great apathy even upon the three sons there." However, a bom- subject of continental union. Many bardment of New York, if it ever was American politicians fear it as a possipossible, is so no longer, since the ble disturbance of the balance of parAmericans have set on foot a strong ties, while American Protestantism is Davy. . The British people, it may apt to feel a groundless dread of the safely be said, could not be induced to Roman Catholicism of Quebec. The go to war with the United States for question whether, if Canada taxes herany trans-Atlantic object. Brougham self for the defence of the Empire, the gave utterance, in his brusque way, to Empire could undertake the defence of the general sentiment when he said in Canada, ought to be plainly answered. the debate on the Ashburton Treaty Canada in reality needs no defence but that he cared not where the boundary peace. Of course, so long as she rewas fixed so long as there was peace. mains a dependency of Great Britain, The Americans may not in these dis- she will be a recruiting-ground for putes have conceded to Canada all that British armies and navies. It has been in strictness was her due, but in con- seen that the martial and adventurous ceding anything they paid a tribute to impulse is not wanting. international law and justice.

When the duty of contribution to Great efforts are being made to im- Imperial armaments and participation press on Canada the duty of contribu- in Imperial wars is pressed on Canada, tion to the military and naval defence note should be taken, not only of her of the Empire. Can the Empire un- military position, but of the miscelladertake the defence of Canada? Lord neous character of her population, espeLansdowne says that the only land cially of the large French element. The frontier of the British Empire facing French and the other non-British elea great military Power is that of North- ments are contented under British insti. ern India. The ex-Governor-General tutions. But they do not share British seems to have forgotten that Canada sentiments; they are not fired with bas a frontier of probably four thou- British ambition; nor do they wish to sand miles, allowing for the curves, for share the expense of British wars. the most part open, facing a Power They are here to make their bread. If which, if it does not keep a great there is to be a Canadian corps or constanding army on foot, has shown that tingent in the British Army, will there it can on short notice put into the field be a provision that it shall not be half a million of men with all possible used in a war with France ? appliances of equipment and science. In common with the other colonies, Is there any use in making a feeble Canada bas asserted fiscal as well as show of doing that which cannot effec- political self-government, and lays imtively be done? The effective defence port duties on British goods; a thing, of the Canadian frontier would prob- it must be confessed, not manifestly ably take something like the whole consistent with the theoretic unity of population of military age. Mean- the Empire. It is not likely that Catime Canada is in no danger so long nadian manufacturers will assent to as she is not involved in European the removal of those duties; in fact, wars. In upwards of thirty years in- they have pretty plainly intimated that tercourse with Americans of all par. they will not. Strong as sentimental ties and classes the writer has never attachment to the Empire may be, it heard a single expression of a desire is not strong enough to sweeten commercial competition. Canadian manu- Dingley and McKinley tariff's there facturers did not exult in the reduction well may be. If it had been the set of duties on British goods by the pref- purpose of the tariff-makers at Wasberential tariff of Sir Wilfred Laurier. ington to force into existence an anThey are now calling for an increase tagonistic nationality on the northern of protection. Their influence on Goy- border of the United States, they could ernment is great. The Laurier Gov. not have adopted a better course. ernment came into power on the plat- That Canadians, when they were exform of Free Trade, or at least of tar- cluded from the market of their own iff for revenue only, and the leading continent, must produce for a European financier among them had been the Bo- market, and that their general interest anerges of that policy. Yet the Lau- and sentiments would take the course rier Government soon formed amicable of their trade, was evident and could relations with the manufacturing inter- not be denied. But the argument made ests, and instead of tariff for revenue not the slightest impression on politionly, declared for stability of tariff. cians who were mere delegates and Sir John Macdonald, so long master of agents of district and special interests. the Government, cared little for any The French-Canadians, of course, have economical questions. But his person- a little nationality of their own. al leaning was probably to Free Trade. Nobody who has lived both in a naWhen he adopted Protection, under the tion and in a dependency can have alias of National Policy, it was for the failed to feel the difference in spirit purpose of winning an election. Taxed between them. The colonial politician with his inconsistency on the subject, looks beyond the country for his highhe jauntily replied that, Protection est rewards. The Imperial title is an having done so much for him, he was honor above any which his own felbound to do something for Protection. low citizens can confer. The social

It is affirmed by some that the senti. aspirations of the wealthy class generment of Canadian nationality and of ally point to the aristocratic and fashrecoil from connection with the Amer. ionable centre of the Imperial metropicans bas of late been on the increase. olis. Rarely does the wealthy colonist General sentiment is a thing difficult aspire, as not a few Americans do, to to gauge, and opinions about it are apt the character of a great citizen. The to be formed from a personal point of lot of a colonial dependency as a memview; which personal point of view ber of a mighty Empire may be higher again is apt to be in cities, which are than that of a nation of the second specially British centres, and not per- order, but its character cannot be the fect representations of the whole coun

Perhaps there is some feeling try. National sentiment in the proper of this sort in the minds of those who sense of the term is out of the ques- pine to change the present status for tion, Canada not being a nation but a that of Imperial federation. colonial dependency; unless, indeed, The writer brought with him to Canthere is an anticipation of indepen- ada the opinion of her destiny and that dence. Anti-American feeling is cul- of the other British Colonies generally vated, as was said before, in certain accepted in those days, which was that circles; but of actual shrinking from they were in training to be free nations association with Americans, social, and encircle their common parent with commercial, or industrial, there is no offspring the images of herself in all · visible sign. Resentment of the treat- that had made her happy, glorious, and ment of Canada by the framers of useful to humanity. This surely was

same.

as

soon as

not a mean idea, or one which at all such as seems requisite for the basis partook of the sentiment of Lord Bea- of nationality, geographical or commerconsfield, who confidentially called the cial, was thus destroyed, while a conColonies millstones round the neck of nection was formed with territories in England, and continued to speak of the North-West certain, them in the same strain in private, as Minnesota and Dakota overflowed, to his great friend Sir W. Gregory tells be settled, as they are now being setus, to the end of his life. A new-comer tled, by Americans. was naturally drawn to what was There is, however, no danger of vioalled the “Canada First” party, a par

lent or precipitate changes unless ty consisting chiefly of young men Great Britain should be induced to dewarmly patriotic and looking forward clare war against the United States. more or less definitely to independence. What is wanted certainly, and without It seemed a good thing to have two ex- delay, by all but the monopolists on periments in democracy, the more so either side, is the renewal of commercial as ilaws have been clearly revealed in reciprocity, which involves no political the American Constitution. An inde- change. For this a strong movement pendent Canada would, as has already is now on foot, initiated, strange to say, been said, have been perfectly safe by New England, the mother of Profrom molestation on the part of her tection, but extending also to other powerful neighbor. If one

or two

and especially North-Western States. "tail-twisters” in Congress have said Any British statesman

who may violent things, probably to catch the succeed by proclaiming commercial Irish vote, their words have had no war against the United States is weight. But the “Canada First” party, defeating this movement;

and

at at the crisis of its course, was deserted the same time in depriving Canby its leaders. There followed the

ada, even for two or three years, deaths of its two most active members, of the bonding privilege, while and the party melted away. Then he taxes her for Imperial armaments came the Canadian Pacific Railway, and wars, may chance to find that he extending the Dominion to the Pacific has played over again the part of Mr. so as to interpose between its two ends Charles Townshend as a consolidator a distance greater than the width of of the Empire. the Atlantic. Every vestige of unity,

Goldroin Smith, The Monthly Review.

THE GARDENS OF ANCIENT ROME,

AND WHAT GREW IN THEM.

From archæological experiences of the city and Campagna di Roma one may say that, wherever stucco-relief or actual fresco-work comes to light, one finds depicted not only amorini or grotteschi, but, with more or less skill, birds, flowers, garlands of fruit, or sometimes large shrubs, or even tall

leafy trees. Now, these representations as a rule are not merely formal leaves and flowers, not conventional foliage, such as we frequently see in Roman or early English architectural work; they are often actually identifiable with this or that species or vari. ety of plants, which was sometimes familiar, sometimes historic, and some- their gods and goddesses may be retimes positively sacred in the eyes of ferred to the “powers” of the Vegetable the ancient population of this city. world, not, as we should perhaps ex

What is even more to the point in pect, to the Military spirit. They were view, these beautiful objects are de- gods of the corn, the wine, the fruits picted with such vivid grace, and they and flowers; sylvani, or tree-spirits; betray, by form or coloring, such skil- Saturn, the sowing god; and Flora, ful observation on the part of the ar- goddess of the flower-world. And tist, that we may reasonably conclude there, surely enough, we find (what at the people for whom they were painted first may rather surprise us) Venus to must at least have delighted in gardens be the garden-goddess (not the fatal and the things which grew in them; temptress Aphrodite, of "a later dispenin fact, were a people who loved Na- sation') to whom the myrtle is sacred, ture as their mother, rather more deep- and with it the Vallis Murcia-the site ly than other sides of their known of the Circus Maximus. Moreover we character would lead us to conjecture. find Mars, the early god of Vegetation,

When we go over an ancient house, the lord of the wheatfields, and having whether in Rome or at Pompeii, we his first temple among them in the are tempted to criticize the narrowness Campus Martius, and to whom the first of the windows and the restricted area month of the Roman year—the budding of their sleeping-rooms, for to us they month-is sacred. His priests, or derappear "poky," or quite impossible. vishes, were called Salii, or leapers; But perhaps we ought to allow liber- and they had their meeting in chapterally for the fact that the owners passed houses on each of the hills of Rome. much more of their lives out of doors On the first of the new year they tban within them; in the sunny streets, danced, singing their hymns, around in the airy porticoes, in the beautiful the Palatine, and the height which they gardens; and, therefore, we should not leaped was regarded as indicative as translate these untoward evidences for to the height to which Mars would alproof of a dislike of fresh air. It low the new grain to grow. seems more probable that when these Venus, we find, had a temple dediartists are found, as at Livia's Villa, cated to her in 293 B.C. and yet anrepresenting these realistic leaves, flow- other in B.C. 265, upon the feast-day ers, and trees, instead of other orna- of the Vinalia Rustica. Moreover, ments, they are following, as it were, April was considered to be her month, a line of least resistance, and are ex- therefore very respectable authorities pressing some of that constant delight have considered that, besides being the in the open-air life which they led, goddess of gardens, vineyards also and in the things of nature which they were regarded as being under her promost loved to observe and have about lific surveillance and protection. But them.

in any case she was the divinity to Again, if we clear for ourselves an whom the owners of gardens and orimaginary path through the throng of chards paid their vows. imported divinities and cults (wor- And this brings me to the considerashipped by the later Romans with so tion of the word "hortus.” For in much sumptuosity, but so little sincer- early days it seems to have signified ity), and go to the primitive deities an orchard or a garden indifferently. adored by the early Latian peoples, we And perhaps no argument is needed to have no difficulty in arriving at the persuade us, that, with an agricultural conclusion that a large proportion of people such as the ancient Romans,

were

the garden was for a long period a The semi-volcanic soil of Rome pospurely practical adjunct to the resi- sesses innate genius for growing good dence; the necessary and increasingly vegetables. For variety of salads, no important companion to the house city in Europe should excel Rome; which it supplied; and the refuse of though it may be thought that the howhich fed the dog and the pig. We tel-keepers might, rather oftener than may thus at the same time take for they do, permit their guests to expericertain that this humble position was ence these pleasant possibilities. Yet fulfilled by it long years before it be- it is certain that, in the early days to came so matured as to give birth to which I am referring, the number of the separate flower-garden. What fruits and vegetables was strictly limflowers, sacred and others,

ited, as compared with imperial and grown, probably grew as strips in what modern days, when importations from we should call a kitchen-garden.

all parts of the then known world conThe villa, of course, had no being as

tinually arrived to enrich both garden yet. Plinyi states that he finds no

and cuisine of the Roman house or mention of a villa in the XII. Tables,

villa. It is perhaps impossible now to "nusquam nominatur villa,” but only determine precisely all the strictly inthe word “hortus," signifying the “bina digenous vegetables which the early jugera,” or two acres inheritable by Romans used-I mean in those days the heir to the house.

when the meat-meal occurred but once In those early times of this city, the

a day, and when libations were made, woodlands, with their dark ilex shad- not yet with wine, but with milk or ows and gnarled trunks, were not re

honey. garded as places of delight and attrac- Referring to those days of simplicity, tion; they were not yet "vocales" or

Varro says "avi et atari nostri, cum "venerabiles," so much as dangerous, allio ao cæpe eorum verba olerent, tamen black, and oracular, as were our own for

optime animati erant”: i. e., vigorous ests to the mediæval mind; they were

folks as they were, our forebears flalooked upon with awe and fear, as

vored their speech with onion and gar"selve oscure," "caligantes nigra formi- lic; and if we turn for a moment to the dine.” In them you would be likely origins of some of the most aristocratic to meet ild beasts, bandits, or appari

names in Roman history—the Fabii, tions. But, besides these, there were

the Cæpiones, the Lentuli, and the Pimany strips of woodland, or at any sones—we shall find that they rather rate preserved portions left over from

corroborate the suggested homeliness clearings, which were consecrated to

of the national beginnings. one or other divinity, which might nei.

It can scarcely be said that if one ther be cut nor utilized for "mast" hears a person addressed as Mr. Bean or fuel, by man or pig, without due the fact necessarily impresses us; yet, and formal act of expiation. Such

if in Cæsar's day a Roman had heard were the “nemus" and the "lucus"-a

one of his neighbors addressed as “Fasubject for separate treatment.

bius," he would have become aware So, too, in the garden, there came to

that the person so addressed was be cultivated plants which, besides be

member of the most aristocratic of the ing good for food, were raised for

clans; albeit in that period the harmritual uses, garlands, decorations, and

less, necessary bean had come to be sacrificial fuel, and also, no doubt, for

considered as food only fit for peasants salves and medicines.

and gladiators. In the Louvre-or was * H.N. lib. xix. cap. 19.

it in the Hermitage?-I once saw a

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