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What fountain of ethereal energy,
'Tis said the powers that built the ancient sun
Here gaze we, as from some forbidden door,
But moments are there when, we know not how,
R. H. Laro.
THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT AND SOCIALISM.
The attitude of the Government in and at another attempting to repress Germany towards the socialists has al. the socialist party; or, as it has been ways, since Bismarck tried repression, doing during the current
army and been uncertain and apparently inconsis- navy debates, taunting, reproaching, tent. It seems extraordinary to many and going near to insulting its leaders. Englishmen when they read at one time The antagonism depends on methods of the Government promoting measures rather than on aims; and the Governof an exceedingly socialist character, ment has been disappointed and angered not because it objected to social- terests of democracy as the preliminary istic measures, but because the social- necessary to the complete socializing of ists cannot be persuaded to leave their the state. It is a proposition not capadevising and execution to the Govern- ble of being maintained that socialism ment as at present constituted. Poli- would proceed pari passu with the tics that is to say and not economics democratizing of the Government, but has been at the bottom of the whole the German socialists seem to act on history since Bismarck persecuted, and the assumption that it would, That the Emperor William patronized, and is part of the original book theory of subsequently lost patience with the socialism as it may be called which exparty. It is in this latter phase that the perience has not confirmed. Socialists socialist question stands in Germany; have found, as many have in England and in proportion as the socialists gain for example, that the political moveground, they are at present the largest ment is an embarrassment to the sosingle Parliamentary group, the more cialistic. At first they were the allies does the political divergence cause irri. of Radicalism but this subsequently tation to the Government. In economics proved to be not only a superfluous but the Government has no objection to a positively damaging alliance. The pose as the ally of the party; but the fact socialist propaganda they decided ought that the socialists are not thereby to be to be economic for the simple reason persuaded into acquiescence in the that the amount of socialism to be got present political system accounts for its out of a Government has to be meashatred of them. As a theory socialism ured not in proportion to its democratic is accepted more deliberately in Ger- or aristocratic elements but by the demany than it is in any other country, gree to which economic socialism has and the Government has responded permeated public opinion. In Amermore readily to the pressure put upon ica and in France the form of governit than have the Governments of other ment per se did not advance socialism countries. Yet Germany is the most one extra step: and they saw that the autocratic and aristocratic of all question of what was to be the ultithe European Christian nations with mate form assumed by the state under the exception of Russia. None of the a régime of complete socialism might nations who claim the distinction of be deferred until that epoch had arpossessing representative institutions rived. in the most complete form, England, Socialism in Germany has not yet France, the United States, has done so reached this point: and in this respect much towards carrying out many of it is less purely socialistic than the the ideas of socialism as Germany has corresponding movements in England done. The men who are returned to their and France, where the more intellecParliaments belong to classes who are tual socialists have detached them. more opposed in principle to the eco- selves from the revolutionary and Radinomic control of the State than those cal or Liberal parties. Their plan is classes in Germany whose influence in now to develop socialism within the the Government is not derived from ambits of the Governments under their representative but from their which they happen to find themselves: aristocritic, character-using this word and to adopt in politics an opportunist politically as the antithesis of democ- in place of an irreconcilable attitude. racy.
. The German socialists however In Germany however it has happened bave believed that it is this very aris- that, while Liberalism and Radicalism tocracy that they must fight in the in- in the narrow political sense have been declining, the socialist party has been disclosed in a series of German novels, growing. The two movements have that is not because they are socialists gone on together proportionately; until but because they belong to social now the most embarrassing party to classes similarly to those in our own the Government is that of the socialists country who with no tincture of socialwho have taken over the political prin- ism have always been anti-military. ciples of Liberalism and Radicalism. Jealousy of the military element in a What we are hearing now in the Reich- nation as necessarily involving the idea stag from Count von Bülow and Gen- of aristocracy and autocracy is one of eral
von Einem recalls the bitter the oldest stories in party politics; and speeches of Bismarck against the lead- has perhaps been oftener told in Engers of Liberalism in which he charged land than elsewhere. Herr Bebel the them with want of patriotism for very socialist leader was without doubt as similar reasons to those now alleged sincere as he was eloquent in affirming against the socialists. It is very nat- this patriotism of socialists and their ural and implies nothing more deadly loyalty of service in the army and against socialism than against Liber- navy; and certainly there is nothing in alism. There is not the slightest ad- socialism which is synonomous with ditional point given to the sarcasms of the theory of quakerism. Whether the the German Ministers because their an- German socialists are right or wrong in tagonists are socialists instead of Lib- opposing the military proposals of the erals. One side may accuse the other Government, the reproach that socialof want of patriotism and nickname ism is inconsistent with patriotism is it the peace-at-any-price party and as- as unjust, and as meaningless at the sert that its principles lead to the de- same time, as party accusations usualstruction of the fatherland. The other ly are. Socialists in all countries mas retorts with “Jingo" and the rest of it be accounted unpatriotic by those who and neither means exactly what it think that the replacing of individual says. In England we have accused proprietorship and industry by the doour Radicals of loving all countries but minion of the State means national de. their own; and the monstrousness of struction, But that is entirely differcosmopolitanism has been demonstrat- ent from the general charges that have ed and the virtues of nationalism ex- been made against the German socialalted as fiercely as is now being done ists. They are by no means danger. in Germany by Count von Bülow and ous to the state in the sense which the General von Einem a propos of the so- early Christians were understood to be cialists. In France it is just the same; to the Roman State by Marcus Aure. and the Nationalists have made fierce lius. They will fight even now if need attacks upon the "Intellectuals"—the be like the ordinary German for GerCosmopolites—as the betrayers of their many; because they want to own the own country. We
no mystery, fatherland in the future, and must though some newspapers have imag- therefore meanwhile help to defend it; ined there is, in the recent proceedings otherwise there would be no use for in the Reichstag. If the socialists are their socialism. The charge of antiopposed to the Army and Navy Bills, patriotism except as merely party comand if they have a keen scent for mon form has no significance. abuses in the army such as have been
The Saturday Borlew.
Politicians, and, indeed, thinking men the Concordat, which for nearly a hun. generally, all over the world are watch- dred years has been the basis of Ultraing the new Pope with unusually keen montane authority in France, must be interest. They see that he is a thor- denounced, and the Church, without oughly good man, devoted to his work, any State revenue, be left at the mercy and with an intolerance for vice and of a Legislature more or less agnostic. corruption which strikes dismay into Leo XIII., though not perhaps so canthose who profit by abuses, always a did as Pius X., was a great diplomanumerous class in very ancient and tist, and would almost certainly have widespread organizations. They see evaded this great and dangerous conthat he is quite fearless, that he habit- flict. He had the power, for it is clear ually speaks out, and that he does not from successive votes in the Chamber hesitate, as Austria saw in the remark- that French politicians cannot reconcile able case of the Archbishop of Olmütz, themselves to the idea of France ceasto use his supreme power in the Church ing to be the protector of Roman Cathwhen necessary against the very high- olic Missions throughout the transmaest in the ecclesiastical hierarchy. They rine world. Leo XIII. would have expect him, therefore, to be popular, threatened to transfer that position, the world estimating Popes very much with its control over an agency that as it estimates Judges,—that is, by char- covers the world, into other hands, and acter for uprightness and goodness so have compelled M. Combes to pause, rather than by knowledge of law. But if not to retreat. So envenomed has they see also elements of danger to his the dispute become that it is believed Church, considered as a powerful in- that M. Loubet, while paying a visit of stitution, which arise from
ceremony to the King of Italy, will pay virtues of the present occupant of the no visit to the Pope, an omission which, Papal throne. His course through his as we see from a recent scene in the complex world may prove too straight Chamber, will be regarded by fervent to be altogether safe. Pius X. is clear- Roman Catholics as a deliberate afly no diplomatist. He considers, for front to their Church, and by men of example, that the French Government all religious opinions as a proclamation in prohibiting the Congregations from that between that Church and the teaching or keeping schools is acting op- French Government there is open war. pressively and in an unrighteous man- If, indeed, the Pope by his impetuous ner, and he says so in a voice which is
denunciation had alarmed the Chamaudible in every house in France, and ber, and so altered votes, the Vatican which has immensely increased the might have claimed a victory, however bitterness of the conflict between the temporary; but, on the contrary, the French Government and the church. Bill has been rushed through the Thousands of influential men in France Chamber in a truncated form which, who would have gladly welcomed any according to many French lawyers, inreasonable compromise now declare
creases its severity. As in the present that compromise is impossible, that condition of affairs half the Governthe fight must go on to a finish, that ments of the world have frequently diplomatic communication with the difficult "questions" to settle' with Vatican must be broken off, and that Rome-questions of education in par
ticular-which keenly interest Liberal and suppress thought as violent as any majorities, this apparent absence of adopted in the Middle Ages. The diplomatic capacity or diplomatic re- bodies of inquirers, no doubt, are safe serve may at any moment produce, as to-day, but their minds are subjected to it were by accident, most serious conse- torture, arising from the conflict bequences. All history shows that the tween their enlightened perceptions and jealousy of Rome felt by the lay Pow- their old convictions. The compression is ers of the world is incurable, and ex- not one whit more endurable because it tends even to Princes and statesmen is sanctioned by a Pope whom everybody who on another side of their minds are believes to be both able and conscienhonestly devoted to the Roman Church. tious; who is, in fact, only doing what They do not like, all the same, to be he conceives to be his duty in preventheld up to those they rule as impious ing the diffusion of opinions which, if persons, as Pius X., if that were his diffused, will, he believes, weaken the conviction, would hold them up without faith of the flocks entrusted to his much thought of consequences. Car- charge. The result of such a course of dinal Rampolla as he reads of any blun- action, if this is what the Pope really der of the kind must feel inclined to intends—and he is obviously a detersay, as Ferdinand, the superseded Em- mined man, resolute to obey his own peror of Austria, did when he heard of best lights-cannot fail to be disasthe cession of Lombardy: “Well, I trous. Such decrees as that against the could have done that!"
Abbé Loisy will deepen the cleavage An equally dangerous symptom is the already existing between the intelligent apparent proclivity of the Pope towards and the ignorant; will drive out of the what may be best described as the "old Church its ablest thinkers, who if let orthodox” schools of thought. The alone would be its best defence against whole record of his Holiness proves the rising tide of materialism; and will him to be an able man, but the evi- intensify the most visible danger of dence of his ability has been principally the Roman Catholic faith, its tendency success in administration; and the his- to become the creed of the Latin races tory of our own Episcopate shows us only. Narrowness in a Pope may exhow often great ability in administra- cite derision in France, but those who tion has been conjoined with total in- believe will go on believing. It will capacity to accept new ideas. Now the affect, perhaps frighten, only a limited Roman Church is feeling, in a limited class in Italy and Spain, and in Spandegree no doubt, but still feeling, like ish America it will probably pass althe Protestant Churches, the pressure most unnoticed. But in Germany, of the new atmosphere produced by the America, and England it will weaken discoveries of science and the investiga- the Church materially, will spread tions of Oriental antiquarians; and to doubts as to the divine claim of the see those discoveries ignored, and those central authority, and in the end will investigations set aside, by the author- foster disbelief in the dogmas which ity which on the religious aspect of the Pope himself fears to subject to those questions is considered an infalli- reasonable criticism. The case is the ble guide must to the brightest intelli- worse because the intellectual world of gences in the Church be exquisitely our day is not seeking, as it was in the painful. The proceedings taken, for eighteenth century, for arguments instance, against the Abbé Loisy against Christianity, but is trying, honamount, in the judgment of such estly and zealously trying, especially minds, to an attempt to silence inquiry in Germany, to find arguments that