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France. The ascendancy of the priest- Canadians abound, while French-Canahood is beginning to be shaken, by dians swarm in the factories of New railroads, which break into parish se- England. Canadians have a good clusion; by the progress, though slow, name and are in request among emof education; and most of all, by inter- ployers in the United States. Interest course with the Republicans of New prevails over prejudice, and the CanaEngland, whence not a few of the dian who has been giving vent to loyal French who have gone to work in the anti-Americanism one day may accept New England factories return, bring- a "call" to the other side of the line on ing with them Republican ideas. An

the next. Of this there have been other element of religious, or at least amusing cases. In race, language, reof ecclesiastical, change, is the advent ligion, political tendencies, and the funof the Jesuit, who has succeeded in ex- damental character of their institutorting a partial indemnity for the es- tions, the population on the north and tates sequestered at the time of the that on the south of a conventional line conquest, and whose wiles have largely are one. Intermarriage is common. prevailed. The old Quebec priest was Churches and associations of all kinds, Gallican, unambitious, living in perfect benevolent, literary, scientific, and inamity with the State, and in his views dustrial, join hands across the line; limited to his Canadian parish. The some of them totally disregard it. The Jesuit has larger and less unequivocal paper currency of the United States aims.

circulates freely in Canada. Canadian Had participation in the South Afri- banks do a great deal of business in can War been put to the vote of the the United States and Canadians specuFrench-Canadian people, there would late largely in the stock market of probably have been an overwhelming New York. The wealthy classes of majority against it. But the Premier the two countries meet in their sumwas a Frenchman. The French fol. mer resorts. The periodical literature lowed him from national feeling, and of Canada is mainly American, and thus French sentiment was masked.

American papers, especially Sunday The French members at Ottawa went

papers, have a considerable circulation. with the Premier, owing their seats to A presidential election creates almost the infuence of his party. But Mr. as much interest in Canada as in the Bourassa,' an opponent of the war, re- States. The political institutions, signed his seat for the purpose of test- though differing in important details, ing the opinion of his constituents, and are in principle fundamentally the was re-elected by acclamation.

same; so are the methods by which There are now twelve hundred thou- they are operated, the cant language in sand native-born Canadians in the which the people speak of them, and United States. The great centres of the political character which they employment draw, and a Canadian form. The Canadian Government beyouth has little more hesitation in go- lieved itself to have ascertained that ing to better himself at Chicago or at there were forty thousand Canadian New York than a Scotch or Yorkshire enlistments in the army of the United youth has in going to better himself States during the War of Secession, in Manchester or London. In the Pa- Apart from political sentiment, there cific States of the Union also British- is in fact nothing to divide the two

: Two articles by Mr. Bourassa on "The FrenchCanadian and the British Empire" appeared in the Monthly Review for September and October

1902, and a reply to them in the November aumber of the same year.

populations from each other except the Canada are Portland, Boston and New territorial and fiscal line. They are York, from which, according to Mr. rapidly mingling in the North-West. Carnegie, thirty-seven per cent. of Ca

It is obvious how widely the cir- nadian exports are shipped. American cumstances of Canada, especially with capital is being largely invested in Canregard to her relation with the United ada. For Canada a commercial war States, differ from those of the other with the United States would be discolonies, particularly from those of astrous. The power of retaliation Australia and New Zealand, and how would be far greater on the side of the difficult, consequently, it would be to Americans, with their boundless vaforce her into a fiscal union. The riety of home productions and their States of Germany were of the same vast internal market. nationality, though under different gov- What, after all, in an economical ernments; they were territorially in a point of view, is this unity of the Emring-fence and their commercial inter- pire, for the consolidation of which ests were generally the same. Yet it commercial war is to be proclaimed took an arduous struggle to bring against the world? What is the Emabout the Zollverein. No divergence pire but the aggregate result of acciof interest among the Colonies was dents of war and discovery governed called into play in sending the contin- by no plan or regard for community of gents to the Boer War.

economical interests? What reason is Protectionist monopoly, especially on there for presuming that all its parts the American side, has done its best to ought, in defiance of the indications of sever Canada commercially from the rest nature, and at great risk of incurring of her continent. But Nature struggles the commercial enmity of other nahard, and not unsuccessfully, against tions, to be forced into a fiscal union? the malignant greed of

The Canada was conquered to rid of a fortrade between the two countries is still midable neighbor the British colonies large, and there was a notable increase in America, which presently cast of in it last year. The United States their allegiance. Fant Canadian timber, pulp, coals,

The future of the North-West is now minerals, and farm produce. For farm the great subject of interest and specuproduce evidently the nearest market lation. The extent of the wheat-growis the best. Canada,

on the other ing land, though not yet ascertained, is band, is a natural market for the certainly immense, while the wheat is manufactures which the Americans of the finest quality, and the roots are produce on a large scale. There was a as fine as the wheat. Nor does it reciprocity treaty between the two seem that there is any danger of excountries till 1866, when Canada lost it haustion. On the other hand, the clithrough the conduct of the governing mate is very severe; forty below zero class of England in violently espousing being not very uncommon, even a lowthe cause of the South, a fact which er temperature being not unknown. should be borne in mind when the bal- The winter is too long, the summer is ance of the obligation between the too short, and there is a danger of frost Imperial country and the colony is to at harvest time. The summer air is be struck. In spite of the patriotic delicious and health-giving. There is attempts of Canadian statesmen to now coal enough. What is wanting is keep the lines of communication and wood. There is a dreariness in the transportation apart, they are intimate- boundless expanse without hill or tree, ly connected. The winter ports of

but the sensibilities of the pioneer, tilling

man.

a rich soil, are not apt to be very keen. which existed in the two united prov. The prairie being so apt for the ma- inces before confederation; one based chine, it seemed that large farming upon the British and Protestant, the might pay there. Large farming was other on the French and Catholic provtried, but the expense of keeping the ince. But there has ceased to be any staff through the winter proved too dividing-line of principle. The result great. Of the waifs of European popu- is a perpetual struggle of two factions lation imported by the Government, for power with the usual instruments some, particularly the Mennonites, of faction, as recent revelations have have made good farmers, but they have shown. A Member of Parliament who not made good citizens. The best set- dared to be independent was deprived tlers are the Americans, natives to the of his seat by the joint action of the prairie and to the style of farming. two parties, which openly combined They will probably predominate in the their forces for that purpose. The future. Young Englishmen have not powers of commerce, the great railroad done well, though they do better on companies especially, hover over the ranches than on farms. Many of them two parties, and play for their own went with the contingent. The farmer purposes upon them both. Federal must work hard, live hard, and bargain parties extend to the provinces, where, hard; perhaps to the young English as there can be no national questions, gentleman the last is not the least dif- there is, if possible, less of a dividing ficult of the three.

principle to give rationality or dignity The Canadian Constitution is in to the contest. The Canadians are form that of a na ion with a federal worthy people, probably there are none structure; the national element being worthier in the world; but Canadian modelled after the British Constitution, politics leave something to be desired. the federal element after that of the Nor can the general character of the United States. The national element people remain wholly unaffected by the in the Canadian polity, however, is example of public life. stronger than it is or has hitherto been It is an anxious question what will in that of the United States. The Sen- be the political effect of the great ate, supposed to answer to the House American immigration into the Northof Lords, is appointed, nominally, by West. Time alone can show. But the Crown, really by the Prime Min- the probability is that the Americans ister.

will take kindly to institutions closely After the long reign of Sir John akin to their own, and become, for all Macdonald, who was master of the ordinary purposes, good Canadians; country, with a brief intermission, for though it is very unlikely that they thirty years,

the Senate was over- will become Imperialists and wish to whelmingly Conservative; a run on the spend the earnings of their labor in other side since his death has turned the destruction of South African Reit Liberal. The Governor-General publics or the conquest of the Soudan. reigns and does not govern, unless it Commercial interests cannot fail to be underband. There has latterly been draw them closely to the adjacent a tendency to give the office the air States of the Union. What seems cerof royalty and to introduce the state tain is, that when the North-West fills and pageantry of a Court, which take up, the centre of power must shift to with the high society of Canada. it, and Ontario, which paid largely for

The political system is party. The the opening up of the North-West by parties trace their pedigree to those the construction of the Canadian Pa

cifie Railway, will have paid for her dragged in by intrigue, which she long own political dethronement.

resented. Prince Edward Island came A peculiar feature of Canadian poli- in later. The Canadian Pacific Railtics is “United Empire Loyalism,” the way was constructed to take in British political religion of a group of fami- Columbia. In the debate on confederlies tracing their origin to the Royal. ation, when the familiar simile of the ist exiles of the American Revolution, bundle of sticks was used to prove that and doing their best to keep those union made force, it was replied that memories alive. They are, of course, the same could not be said of seven intensely anti-American and Imperial- fishing-rods tied together by the ends. ist.

Their feelings must be mixed British Columbia sends a delegation to when they see Great Britain falling Ottawa and Eastern Canada speculates upon the neck of the American Repub- in her mines; otherwise she is almost lic. Many a descendant, however, of out of ken, nor could the man in the United Empire Loyalists may probably street of Eastern Canada give any now be found on the south of the line. account of the political distractions to An English audience listening to a po

which she seems to be a prey. She is litical missionary of the United Em- ominously embraced between the Papire Loyalist order, and fancying that cific States of the Union and the Amerit hears the voice of Canada, is apt to ican territory of Alaska. Nor in the be led astray.

case of the other Provinces does conOrangeism is, or perhaps it would be federation amount to political fusion. more correct to say that the Orange The builder of a Dominion government Lodges still are, a power in politics; has to pay something for each stone but the religious war between them of his edifice. and the Roman Catholics is at an end. Distance and the interposition of The Irish Catholic vote is strong.

French Quebec between Ontario and Twice under its influence the Domin- the group of Maritime Provinces still ion Parliament has passed resolutions keep them socially separate from each of sympathy with Home Rule; the sec- other, and there is little interchange of ond time after receiving a rebuke from population. the Imperial Government for interfer

Will some enthusiastic advocate of ing with the question. The Legisla- the present system please rise and exture of Ontario, under the late Sir plain why, after twenty years of conOliver Mowat, passed a resolution cen- federation, a Nova Scotian is never suring Lord Salisbury's renewal of the seen in Ontario except as a traveller Crimes Act.

or a delegate to some denominational Lord Durham thought that in unit convention, and why, with the exceping the two Provinces, French and

tion of the “Drummer," an Ontario man British Canada, he assured complete

is as great a curiosity in Nova Scotia

as a South Sea Islander? There seems to British ascendancy, which he regarded be something generally wrong with a as the law of nature. He was mis

system which, after twenty years of taken. The French held together, and enthusiastic gush over the confederaforming a party with a section of the tion and the building of a national British, brought government at last to sentiment, has for its product complete a deadlock, escape from which was

isolation between the several prov. found in confederation of all the Brit: inces; which sees the merchants of the

maritime provinces making constant ish colonies in North America. New

visits in the way of trade to Boston Brunswick came in with little hesita

and New York, and none to Toronto, tion. Nova Scotia refused, but was which sees the business men of On

has

tario going daily backward and for- tives the last is not the most effective. ward between that province and the The thirst for titles and decorations is American cities about them, and com

great. Some years ago a leading Libing to Halifax in the way of business

eral moved in the Canadian Parliament once in a century.'

against the profuse distribution of ImSo wrote an eminent Nova Scotian perial titles, the effect of which on the twenty years ago, and it is believed devotion of the bearers to the interests that nearly the same thing might be of their own country he reasonably said now so far as the interchange of

feared. Yet the same man could not population is concerned.

help taking a title when it was offered Since the revolution of 1837 the sepa

him. Decorations have been recently ration of the Church from the State in solicited and received for an encounter the British Provinces has been com- which took place more than thirty plete, though not so complete in Que- years ago. In the Canadian Almanac bec. In Ontario the Catholic Church,

there is a list of titled Canadians formhaving the command of the Irish vote, ing a sort of miniature peerage. Miliis able to exact the privilege of sepa

tary titles also are much prized. rate schools. Wealth and fashion in Imperial Federation

been Canada, as in the United States, in- preached in Canada by a small but encline to the Anglican Church with its thusiastic party for many years withhierarchy, its ritual, and its English out ever assuming a tangible shape. connection. Methodism is the church No one has yet pretended to say what of the people; more of the people per- the government of the federation was baps than of John Wesley, for spiritual to be, what was to be its relation to enthusiasm inevitably spends its force, the British monarchy and Foreign and objects less distinctly spiritual suc- Office; how its decrees and requisitions ceed.

were to be enforced; or what was to be The tie which binds Canada as a de- done with India. pendency to the Imperial country has, Canadian writers bewail the betrayal by successive concessions of self-gov

of Canadian interests to the Americans ernment, been worn thin. The sover

by the weakness of British diplomacy. eign power still remains in the King Especially do they deplore the loss, by and Parliament of Great Britain. The the Ashburton Treaty, of Maine, which Canadian Constitution is embodied in carried with it the winter port of Portan Imperial Act, alterable only by the land. The answer apparently is that same authority. Otherwise the bonds the British Government has done the consist of the Governor-Generalship, best for the Canadians that diplomacy divested, like the monarchy which it could do, and has obtained for them, represents, of real powers; the com- even in the case of the Ashburton mand of the Militia, perpetually con- Treaty, more than they could have obtested by the Canadian Minister of tained for themselves. But Great Britthat Department; a veto, almost for- ain has ceased to be a military power mal, on Canadian legislation; an appel- on the Western Continent, or to be able late jurisdiction which has been great- to enforce her claims against the Unitly reduced, with a prospect, after the ed States by arms. Such is the fact, Australian example, of further reduc

however unwelcome it may be. Canation; and the fountain of honor-i. e., dians in their warlike mood, conscious of titles and decorations.

It is a ques

that nothing could be done against the tion whether of the surviving preroga- power of the United States on land, : "Handbook of Commercial Union," pp. 113, 114.

used to talk of bombarding New York.

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