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The account of this defeat of the soldiers was given me in our logia, and the narrator wound up by remarking
"I wonder if the Vali can do anything! They say that Tchakegie carries a talisman with him which prevents his being shot."
"That is so,” remarked Hadja, who sat on the floor before the brazier engaged in her favorite occupation of making coffee-“that is so,
for we know that if a bullet strikes his flesh it falls to the ground.”
Whether this be true or not the reader must decide for himself. At all events the greater part of the stories told me of Tchakegie were, I believe, Longman's Magazine.
substantially so, and no doubt he is in many respects a remarkable character. A better government would provide a career for such a man. Instead of living in his mountain stronghold breathing defiance and executing vengeance upon corrupt and venial officials, he might be fighting his country's battles, or helping to carry out some greatly needed scheme of roads or irrigation.
At all events his character and life as sketched to me suggested the fact that Turkey can produce men of mettle, with rude ideals of justice, by no means devoid of heroism.
At his death Professor Mommsen oc- owes more to him than to any modern cupied a unique position in contempo- scholar. But his great achievement is rary Europe. By common consent he to be found in the work which he was the foremost scholar, both by vir- wrote less for the student than for the tue of the extent and variety of his ordinary reader. He wrote the history attainments, and the extraordinary lite- of Rome, not as a mosaic of painfully rary value of one or two of his works. deciphered facts, but as a story of livHe was also the accepted savant of the ing men, a drama of the rise of one German people, the tutelary intellec- of the greatest of human peoples. Only tual genius of his country.
For many a laborious scholar can know what a years it had been his business to ex- deep foundation of scholarship underpound German ideals and to give voice lies the vivid narrative; but the most to racial ambitions. His verdict on prosaic of men can feel in the tale any question, whether of the day or something of an epic magnificence. of all time, was accepted by the large Mommsen carried the same vitality proportion of his countrymen. He into his politics. An enthusiastic Libmay rank with Savigny as one of the eral from the first, and a strenuous opgreatest of academic lawyers, who ponent of Bismarck, he remained to the have brought into the sphere of legal end a keen critic of policies and politimaxims a constructive historical spirit, cians. Whatever our verdict on his and shown us the great edifice rising work, all must feel that a great figure out of the swamps of primitive soci- has departed from the world. ety. The Corpus Inscriptionum Latin- Being a man before he was a scholar, arum for which he was chiefly respon- he carried into scholarship a profound sible laid the foundation of a scientific sense of the importance of the man of study of the most important of original action. Like Freeman, he always inautborities, and classical epigraphy sisted upon the unity of history, and
refused to change his attitude towards self, his sympathies are far more with the protagonists merely because they Sulla than with the Gracchi, who dishad been two thousand years in their covered a truth which they had not graves. He was as keenly interested, the courage to develop logically; with and, let it be said, as violent a parti- Catiline and “those terrible energies, san, in the quarrels of Sullans and Ma- the wicked," than with Cicero and rians as he was in the debates of the academic virtue. No one can forget Reichstag. For him there was no dis- tbat portrait of Cicero, which, bitten in tinction in nature between 1805 and with vitriolic energy, has so biassed B.C. 90. Hence we never find in him the world that there seems small the severely balanced judgments and chance of that excellent man of letters the scrupulous impartiality of calmer getting justice for many a day. But historians. He wrote his history with it is in his account of Cæsar that certain fixed presuppositions in his Mommsen's imagination carries him to mind, but happily they are very the plane of creative literature. In clear on every page that the student the main it is no doubt correct, though can detect them and allow for them. for some of his more sensational theoIn the first place, he was a democrat, ries, such as the motive with which rejoicing in the strength of the people, Cæsar undertook the Gallic Wars, there and when he found a man capable of seems scanty warrant from the authorileading the masses, ready to fall down ties. The great epic of the career of and worship him. But the democracy the aristocrat, who passes from a negamust be a militant one. The ineffective tive iconoclasm to a profoundly conphilanthropist gets from him nothing structive policy, and at last lays down but contempt. It is the strong man, his life as the seal on the task he has the Cæsar or Napoleon, who can dis- finished, has never been surpassed by cern the power of the "body-guard any historian. Mommsen had always from the pavement," and use it to a good deal of the dramatist's art, and shatter effete institutions, who com- the way in which the narrative leads mands his admiration. That Teutonic up to the climax, the crossing of the characteristic, which is found in dif- Rubicon, is moving drama as well as ferent degrees in such very opposite great history. people as Bismarck and Nietzsche, is But if he so carried his politics into his very strong in this historian's mind. history that he seems to give his narraHe believes in and preaches the gospel tive a contemporary interest, there was of strength, and the strong unjust man a reflex action, and he imported from seems to him more worth having than his history certain principles which a century of the ineffectual good. determined his attitude to questions of Hence his democracy is a fighting his own day. His conception of civic force, and only one step removed from freedom was rather Roman than mod. a tyranny. For constitutional fictions ern. For the cast-off rags of feudaland beliefs which have outlived their ism and clericalism he had nothing but usefulness he has a complete scorn, contempt, but in discarding one set of and the upholders of an old régime bonds he imposed another. He was rarely get justice at his hands. It at all times a thorough-going Individcannot be said that he has stated the ualist. He detested slavery, and the Senatorial case fairly, or done that war between North and South in justice to the old Republicans which America seemed to him a holy crusade. be has done so amply to the icono- But his conception of freedom, like clasts. Liberal though he calls him- that of most Individualists, was nar
row and abstract; and he was prepared to submit to other bonds. He was nominally opposed to the doctrine of Imperialism, but in practice he was an enthusiast for the domination of his own Teutonic race. His nationalism was strong enough to make him a violent critic of the policy of other peoples, as in his ill-judged comments on the Boer War, but it was a nationalism quite inconsistent with itself. The old democratic cult of the "strong man" is always somewhere in the back of his mind. The people are the only source of power and of political wisdom, so ran his creed; but they must be led, and their leader should tolerate no malcontents. He was so like Bismarck that we need not wonder that he quarrelled with him. The truth is that no Conservativism is so unshakeable as a certain kind of Liberalism which professes a small number of Liberal dog. the rotator
mas, but is by temperament bureaucratic and absolutist. To Mommsen the Hague Convention was merely a misprint in history, Socialism a dangerous heresy, and popular liberties an upcertain growth which should be blessed but also jealously curtailed. His hop esty and political courage were always remarkable, and were so recognized by his countrymen that towards the end of his life he was granted a kind og indulgence for free speech, and held a position of whimsical independence. But the net result of his teaching seems to us to have been the riveting of militarist and bureaucratic shackles upon his compatriots, and the encouragement of every grandiose racial ambition, Like the Republican Whigs of the eighteenth century, he showed how reaction can masquerade in the cap of liberty.
Did ever you meet the Pixies between the night and day?
I kissed her on the laughing mouth, and on the forehead pale,
The plover is the Pixies' bird, and when I hear him cry,
When dust-clouds travel down the road I look to see her pass.
But there's a time to and them, and for that time I wait
POETS OF THE FRENCH RENAISSANCE CLEMENT MAROT.
If in Charles of Orleans the first note XII. could bring to letters. By a of the French Renaissance is heard, if happy accident there were mixed in in Villon you find first its energy ap- bim, however, two vigorous springs of pearing above ground, yet both are inspiration, each ready to receive the forerunners only.
new forces that were working in EuWith Marot one is in the full tide of rope, each destined to take the fullest the movement The discovery of advantage of the new time. These America had preceded his birth by springs were first, learned Normandy, three or perhaps four years. His early quiet, legal, well-founded, deep in manhood was filled with all that fer
grass, wealthy; and secondly, the arid ment, all that enormous branching out brilliancy of the South: Quercy and of human life, which was connected the country round Cabors. His father with the expansion of Spain; he was was a Norman pure bred, who had in the midst of the scarlet and the come down and married into that sharp gold. A man just of age when Luther land where the summer is the note of was first condemned, living his active the whole year, and where the travel manhood through the experience of the ler chiefly remembers vineyards, lix great battlefields in Italy, wounded (a ards on the walls, short shadow, ralet rather than a soldier) at Pavia, sleep at noon, and blinding roads of the perpetual chorus of Francis I., dust. The first years of his childhood privileged to witness the first stroke of were spent in the Southern town, 80 the pickaxe against the mediæval that the south entered into him Loivre, and to see the first Italian thoroughly. The language that he dignity of the great stone houses on never wrote, the Languedoc, was that, the Loire-being all this the Renais- perhaps, in which he thought during sance was the stuff on which his life all his life. It was his mother's. was worked.
It has been noticed by all his modern His blood and descent were typical readers, it will be noticed probably enough of the work he had to do. His with peculiar force by English readers, own father was one of the last set that the fame of Marot during his liferhymers of the dying Middle Ages. time and his historical position as the All his boyhood was passed among
leader of the Renaissance has in it that multitude of little dry "writers- something exaggerated and false. One down of verse" with which, in Paris, cannot help a perpetual doubt as to the Middle Ages died; they were not a whether the religious quarrel, the inswarm, for they were not living; they fluence of the Court, the strong perwere a heap of dust. All his early sonal friendships and enmities which work is touched with the learned, surrounded him had not had more to tedious, unbeautiful industry which do with his reputation than his facility, was all that the elder men round Louis or even his genius, for rhyme.
Whenever he wanted £100 he asked you had to do with a Frenchman, and, it of the King, with the grave promise probably, with a kind of poet. that he would bestow upon him im- He was short, square in the shoulmortality.
ders, tending in middle age to fatness. From Ronsard, or from Du Bellay, A dark hair and beard; large brown eyes we, here in the north, could understand of the south, a great, rounded, wrinthat phrase; from Marot it carries a kled forehead like Verlaine's; a happy flavor of the grotesque.
mouth, a nose a trifle insignificant, indeed and a great power over the completed him. Who knows but we material one uses in singing last indefi- may meet somewhere, under cypress nitely; they last as long as the sub- trees at last, these great poets of a lime or the terrible in literature, but better age, and find Ronsard a very we forbear to associate with them happy man, Du Bellay, a gentleman, perbaps unjustly-the conception of Malherbe, for all that he was a northgreatness.
erner, we may mistake if we find If indeed anyone
were to main- him ever, for a Catalonian. Villon a tain that Marot was not an excel- Bohemian that many cities have pro lent and admirable poet he would duced; Charles of Orleans one of that prove himself ignorant of the language very high nobility remnants of which in which Marot wrote, but let the most are still to be discovered in Europe. sympathetic turn to what is best in his But when we see Marot (if we ever see verse, let them turn for instance to him), our first thought will certainly that charming lyric: "A sa Dame be, as I have said, that we have come Malade" or to “The Ballad of Old
across a Frenchman; and the more Time," and they will see that it is the French for a touch of the commonkind of thing which is amplified by place. music, and which sometimes demands See how French
the whole the aid of music to appear at all. They career! will see quite plainly that Marot took Whatever is new attracts him. The pleasure in playing with words and reform attracts him. It was chic to arranged them well, felt keenly and have to do with these new things. happily, had even some fecundity, but He had the French ignorance of what they will doubt whether poetry was was foreign and alien; the French necessarily for him the most serious curiosity to meddle with it because it business of life.
had come from abroad; the French Why, then, bas he taken the place passion for opposing, for struggling;claimed for him, and why is he firmly and beneath it all the large French secure in the place of master of the indifference to the problem of evil (or ceremonies, as it were, to that glorious whatever you like to call it), the century whose dawn he enjoyed and changeless French content in certitude, helped to beautify?
upon which ease, indeed, as upon a I will explain it.
rock, the Church of Gaul has permaIt is because he is national. He rep- nently stood and will continuously reresents not what is most this, or most pose. that-“highest,” “noblest," "truest," He has been a sore puzzle to the men "best,” and all the rest of it-in his who have never heard of these things. countrymen, but rather what is most Calvin (that astounding exception who common.
had nothing in him of France except Did you meet him to-day in the lucidity) could make neither head nor Strand you would know at once that tail of him. Geneva was glad enough