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be remembered, from the Roman province of Pannonia.
Dion Cnslius, himself a governor of Upper Pannonia, blames the Greeks for confounding the Pæonians near-Macedon with the PsnHonians near the Danube: but as he supports his opinions on flight grounds, and would derive the name Pannonia from pannis, (the material of their large sleeves,) it seems more rational,to reject his notion,—trusting rather to Strabo, Velleius, and Appian, who place the Pæonians and Pannonians all along these mountains. His error is natural enough to one who first knew the Pannotians in modern Hungary, in a tutored agricultural state, and had only heard of the rude Pa-onians of Macedon ; between which nations, much of Illyria and Mæsia seemed to interpose.
China as known te the Ancients. From the fame.
Serica is bounded on the west by Scythia, on the north-east by au unknown country, on the south by India beyond the Ganges, and also by the Sinæ in a latitude of about 35- This comprehends Kolhotty, the Chinese province of Shiensi, Mongolia, and part of Siberia. The people are called Seres.
The southern part i fthe country has many mountains, which are continuations of thole in Scythia; such as the Aszak mountains in the Russian provinceNertfhinkjand consequently they have been already mentioned. Stillfarthersouth,occur theAsmirean mountains (/icr^aia •£») which form the northern limit of the. deftit of Kobi. To these adjoin the Kasian mountains which stretch along the Chines* wall.
Mount Thaguron (to Qayupt o^5<) stretches from south to north at the eastern end of the Kasian mountains, and must be that part of the Mongolian chain which meets the river Hoang-ho. Next lie the Emodian mountains, which extend from the north of Thibet towards the province Shiensi; of which the Ottorokorras, (to OT-rofoxcfga;,) on which ma.ny rivers rife that fall into the Yellow river, is a portion.
Two great rivers water the major part of Serica. First, the Oichardes, of which the northern source is to besought in the mountains of Aszak. A second stream of it comes from the Asmiræan mountains of (he south-east in the 47 J degree of latitude. Farther west, where the main stream inclines towards the Emodian mountains, 1 third tributary river arises, under the 44th degree of latitude, but more to the north than the Bauiifus. This, latter arm is undoubtedly the Erzineh, which loses itself in the desert of Sohuk, or in the lake Sopu. The eastern stream can hardly be any other than the river Onghen; which, like the Erzineh, never mingles with the main stream, but in a manner approaches it. Ptolemæus, it should seem, had two accounts before him: an intervening district was unknown to both his travellers: it was only from probability that he conducted their several rivers into the great one. The main stream, Oichardes, then, must be the Selenga; which, according to the geographer, takes a southerly direction.
Secondly, the Baut'isus (or, according to the edition of Erasmus, t lie Bautes) has its source in thenorth by the Kasian mountains on the borders of Serica iu the 43d degree of iaiiludc.
latitude. It trends south-east to- renæi and Rabanei; probably a* •swards the Emodian hills for fo.nr niong the Monguls of Kalkas:—
degrees, when it receives a second arm thence descending. In their farther progress, they bend towards the mountain Ottorokorra, and pass into an eastern unknown country. The Hoang ho, or Yellow river, can scarcely be more clearly described from mere reports. Its northern arm Olanmurcn arises in Kolhotey, near to the deiart of K.obi, and from the fame mountains as the Erzineh. Its course is ibuth-eastward, when it receives a southern branch Haramuren; which from the mountains of Thibet, takes a crooked norrh-east course. Of its northern bend Ptolemæus fays nothing: but he appears to pre-supposc it, as he assumes another bend to the cast; which, if he supposed the stream to slow strait, would be needless.
The rivers Psitaras, Cambari, and La nos, which Pliny atligns to the Seres, probably belong not here, but to the Indian coast east of the Ganges.
The people of Serica are divided
for, .immediately below them, occurs the district Afmiræa at the fool of the mountains so named. Below these extends to the Kalian mountain the great natiqn of the Istedohes. There can be no doubt that, by this name, Ilerodotus meaned Mcnguls. Beside them are Throani, near a town of this name; and below them, on the east, Thaguri. Farther to the north-east, Daburi. Among the Ist'edunes dwell theAspakaræ, who' have their name from a city. Near these, the Battae; and the molt southerly are the Ottokarræ* mountaineers. These three nations occupy the province of Shirnsi: Ptolemæus knows nothing of the more easterly parts.
The cities of Serica and Damns, at the welt end of the Oichardes, and at some distance northward from the tfver: Piada, on the southern bend of the Selcnga, here called the Itlcha: Asminca, neat (he mountains so named: Throana, on the cist side of the Oni/hen,
into the Anthropophagi, (or, ac- in the rrgioti in which the ruins of
cording to Ammianus, XXIII. 6 Alitrophagi,) of the north, and the Annibi who dwell contiguous to these. Between the latter and the Aszak mountains are the Silyges. The cannibals are placed in the north of Sibeiia, of which nothing was known; of the other two, who seem to have dwelt near the sea of Baikal, he may have heard. Above the Oichardes are the Damnæ and the Piadæ, and near to the river the Oichardæ.
Again, in the north, but east of the Annibi, are situated the Ga
Karakorum, once .the metropolis of .the Mongul sovereigns, are usually sought. The tribe's above mentioned are probably named from these towns.
Issedon Serica is contradistinguished from llledori Seythica, wnich lay more to the north-west. This Chinese town, which Ptoleraæus names after the great nation, of tlielssedones, was I Tuated northcast from the source cf the Erzineh, and consequently on the borclrrs of the desart of Sharrto: he place*, in. fact, no town beyond it. AfpakH h 2 ara.
• Perlwpi Piiny, VI. 17, alludes te these by the tlimc At aeorat.
ara, which gives name to a tribe, lay near to the northern Bautisus, and eastward from its source; on the Olanmuren river, - therefore, and probably in Kostiotey. Rhosoche lay much farther east in the same latitude. I know not where to seek it. Paliana and Abragana were both on the banks of the northern Bautisus and in Kostiotey. Togara and Daxata were both in the middle of the province Shiensi, and probably near the Hoa-ho; for all these places were in a south-east line towards the bend of the Bautisus, and towards Sera, the metropolis. Orosana lay near the source of the southern Bautisus, or the Haramuren. Ottorakorra along the course of the same river near its easterly bend, and to the north of the district to which and to whose inhabitants it gives its name. Solana was more eastward: I know not where.
Sera, the capital, was at some distance from the south bend of the Bautisus. If Ptolemæus means, by this south ixT^mrt, the contiguous river Hoa-ho, this Sera can be no other than Singan-fu, which is at some distance from its southern evolution :—but, if he knew of the bow of theHoang-ho, itmust be placed more eastward at Honan. The first seems to be more probable, as Ptolemæus appears ignorant »»f the eastern course of the river, and may well have mistaken a part of the Hoa-ho for a continuation of his Bautisus; and also as Singan-lu is named as a former metropolis of the north-west parts of China. Sera was the easternmost resort of the merchants j and beyond it < Fio!ema.-ai knows nothing.
Historical Account of Sculpture. From Falconer'j chronological 9 ables; beginning •with the reign of Solomon, and ending •with the Death of Alexander the Great.
ALL the ancient writers have agreed in dividing it into two periods, the latter of which begins with the age of Phidias. Strabo ascertains these ages \ery exactly, tho'ratherforeign tohissubject; for, in describing the temples of Ephefus, there are some which he calls ancient, and in these were u^Xa.x Zixva antique wooden figures. In the other temples, built, a it Toii Zrtp'i'" after-times, be transgresses from his usual form, and describes three statues in particular, which were probably of the age of Phidius and Scopas. Pliny and Faufanias abound in examples of this division of the periods. The former, when discoursing of Myron, says, "capillum non e-mendatius fecisse quam rudit antiquiiai instituisset."- This "rudis aritiquitas" means what is termed the age of Dædalus and his scholars, who improved but little on the models brought from Egypt. However, as we have some dates in Pliny, which fix the progression of this art with tolerable accuracy, we (hall briefly touch on the history of this period from the earliest times; though the vague, and nearly fabulous relations, of Dædalus form some embarrassment in fixing the commencement of this æra. Diodorus Siculus and Pausanias agree in supposing there was an artist of that name who worked for Minos in Crete, and built a labyrinth at Gnossus, of which no vestige was left in the time ef Augustus. Homer, in his -i%\h Iliad, does mention a A*i:»>.=;, who
formed a dance for Ariadne; but, as he uses the fame word, a few lines after, adjectively, to signify artificially made, he might mean by the former no more than what the word imports, an ingenious artilt. Eustathius interprets Homer as meaning that Dædalus only iuvented the dance itself, and not that he worked it in either wood, stone, or metal.
The statues of Dædalus, mentioned by Pan fan ius, were all of ■wood, and resembled, as we may suppose, the Egyptian; for Philostratus fays, that the statue of Memnon was formed with the feet joined together, and the arms resting on the feat, after the manner of cutting figures in the age of Dædalus. Such was probably the figure of Minerva in Troy, mentioned in the 6th Iliad, which seems to have been in a sitting posture. We have no remains of these rude ages; but the forms of the Juno of Samos, carved by Smilis of Ægina, said to be contemporary with Dædalus, and that of the Diana of Ephesus, by the hand of Endaeus, or Endyus, a pupil of Dædalus, are preserved on the medals of their respective cities. These representations gave a very unfavourable idea of the Dædalean age; yet we have no reason to doubt their authenticity, for the artists of polished times would never have disgraced their coinage "with such uncouth figures, had they not been exact resemblances of objects made venerable by superstition. Some more of these wooden statues are described as existing at Thebes, Lehaden, Delos, and Crete, to the reign of Hadrian. They were nearly destroyed by age 5 and yet Pausanius, sired by
religious and antiquarian enthusiasm, could find in them something divine; but what it was be does not explain. Some other of these statues were plated with gold, and their faces painted red, viz. two of Bacchus, in the forum of Corinth; which gives us but an indifferent idea of the taste of that period. The Venus of Delos had only a head and arms, with a quadrangular basis instead of feet; which mews that these sculptors had improved but little on the rude ages of Greece, when unhewn stones, orat best cut intoa quadrangular form, were the only emblems of their divinities. Yet even, these figures, I think, were not introduced into European Greece till after the days of Homer. The name of Dædalus was, we know, given to artists long after the Athenian Dædalus is supposed to have flourished. Pausanias himself mentions one of Sicyon of that name, which he seems to confound with the Dædalus mentioned by Homer. Dipœrvus and Scyllus, according to Pliny, were the founders of the school of sculpture in Sicyon, and were the first who were celebrated for carving in marble. They flouriilied, says the fame author, in the 50th Olympiad, which is very probable: for at that period, the states of Greece were beginning to cultivate their talents, and to fettle a form of government. Pausanius, by a strange anachronism of above 400 years, fays, that Dipœnus and Scyllis were the sons of that very Dædalus who lived so long in Crete. Pliny indeed fays, they were Cretans by birth, but that they settled at Sicyon. Is it not then more likely that they were instructed long after by DasH h 3 daliu
dalns Sicyonius, and that the identity of names was the source of the error?
However celebrated these artists ■were for marble sculpture, yet the most noted performances from their hands were cut inebenus, a fort of jiignum vitæ, with pieces of ivory interspersed; a practice much improved afterwards. Tectæus and Angelion were the scholars of Diprenus; they carved the Apollo at l")elos, and Callon, their piipil, the llatue of Minerva Sthenias, in the citadel of Athens, about the 63d Olympiad. The other memorable pupils of this sohool were Theocles rind Doriclydas, both Lacedemonirfns, whose works were to be seen, as Pausanius informs us, in his time at Elis.
The school of Chios, formed by Malas about the fame time with that ofSicyo'n, or probably before, was fit 11 more noted. Bupalus and Authermus carved well in the 60th Olympiad; some of whose works had a place in the palace of Augustus Cæsar. Yet even in this period ■we are uncertain whether the Greeks knew the art of calling statues in metal. The oldest brass statue known in Greece was one of Jupiter, in the Chalciœcos and X.aconia, in which the limbs had been separately formed, and then nailed together; yet this imperfect ess.iy was ascribed to Learchus, a scholar ot Dipœims, who mull have lived about the 53d or 54th Olympiad. So little was this art known in the school of .Sicyon; when it was celebrated for marble sculpture. About the 63d Olympi.id, we find the name of Khœcus 'and Theodorus, both of Samos, the' fdms \Vho built the temple of Jimo,
in the reign of Polycrates, and practised the art of casting statues with success.
Hence, I think, the schools of Sicyon and Chios divide this period into two parts. The Dædalean, or barbarous age, ceases in the 50th Olympiad; the middle age, which gave better forms to the human figure, but not the last polish, nor an exact representation of the minuter parts, may be extended to the 83d Olympiad; when tbe great genius of Phidias broke out at once in full lustre in the Jupiter at Olympia, and the Minerva at Athens. Pausonias has described the former of these with great accuracy; and Livy the historian, with a sublimity of expression almost equal to the ideas of _the artist, points out in a few words, iti effect on the beholder. Paul us Æmilius, fays that invaluable writer, travelling through Greece, ent>red the temple to survey tbe colossal statue; when Jovem velut præsentem intuens, motus animo est. It is generally known that this figure was composed of ivory, and ornamented with gold, a practice of great antiquity in the East; but few consider the difficulty of executing a grand idea with so minute materials. If any other graces were still wanting in sculpture, the lkill of Praxiteles and Lysippus gavel hose finished touches which produced sublimity in small figures without diminilhing their elegance. Such was sculpture in the days of Alexander. Some specimens of this æra are most pro-, -bably even now to be seen at Rome and Florence, viz. the Wedicean Venus, the Hercules Farnese, and th.e .Beviderian Apollo. The grept 3 gcnlui