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fciiption is still the characteristic, twenty and tbir*y pound's, yet, from
aud has ever been the principal the length of time which the works
excellence of Scot'illi poets; on continued, the cost of the whole
whom, though grossly ignorant of mult have been very considerable.
human nature, the poetical mantle Whether king Edward I. com
of Dunbar and Douglas has sue- pleted his designs in beautifying
ceflively descended *.
£xti'acl from an account of the Collegiate Chapel of St. Stephen, U')si. mivjier.
KING William Rufus built the
Joy al palace at Westminster; and, the lesser hall of the "king's palate
according to Stow, king Stephen at Westminster, the flame thereof
erected this religions structure, in being driven with the wind, fired
this structure, we are not informed j but if he had, his labours were soon after unfortunately rendered abortive; for we are told by a very accurate chronicler, Stow— "that on the 29th ot March, 1298', a vehement tire being kindled in
honour of St. Stephen the prutomartyr. King Edward I. however, seems to have rebuilt this chapel; for, in the 20th year of his reign, the 28th of April, 1292, the works of fie new chapel began,
the monastery adjoining: which, with the palace, were both confumed."
This disastrous event could not be repaired for some time following; for Edward I. beincr almost
.ind continued for more than two constantly engaged, in the. latter years. An account of the expence part of his reign, either in external of these operations is preserved in wars, or in the conquest of Scotrolls of weeTcly payments remaining land, the prevailing object in the in the exchequer, which I have mind of that monarch, he cannot been indulged with the perusal of, be supposed to hax'e had either lciby our learned brother. Craven sure or wealth to bestow on works Ord, efq. F. R. S. These curious of art; and the weak and turbulent roll? contain the articles purchased reign of his son, Euw'ard H. ditl within the week, and the daily not allow much time for domestic payments to each workman of improvements'. But early in the e.\erj denomination. succeeding reign this building en>
The several articles bought arc gaged the royal at'ention; for, on staled; then follow the payments the 27th of May, 1530, 4 Edw. III. to workmen. They are too mi- the Works on this chapel again cute to be here enumerated, but commenced. The comptroller's these are apparent—to carpenters roll of the expence of tlietc tfperafive pence each per day ;—to other tions, for near three years, is reworkmen threepence halfpenny; maining in .the king's remembran—some three pence;—some two cer's oftice, in the exchequer, pence halfpenny each. Tha length of this account will
Although the amouut of each not allow of the whole to be here separate week does not-appear to inserted: but it is extremely cube much, being in general between rious, because it preserves tlif
* Other poets of inferior reputation Ro'iriflied miring this j-eriod in ?rotlan 1; but it is the purport of this history to record the progressive improvements, liat rhe stationary merit of poctiy.
names of every artist employed, the ■wages they received, and the price of every article, used, as far as the account continues. _ The amount of the wages, during the whole time of this account, •was 350L 12s. ojd.; and of the materials used in the building, J58I. 4s. 4§d.; making together 508I. 16s 5id.
These works were not completed for several years after the termination of this account; but on the 6th of August, 1348, in the 22d year of Edward III. that king, by his royal charter, recited that a spacious chapel, situate within the palace of Westminster, in honour of St. Stephen, protomartyr, had been nobly begun by his progenitors, and had been completed at his own expence, which, to the honour of Almighty God, and especially of the blessed Mary his •mother, and of the said martyr, he ordained, constituted, and appointed to be collegiate.
Notwithstanding this constitution of the college, yet it is evident that the chapel was not then finished; for on the 18th of March, 1350, in the 24th Edward III. the king appointed Hugh de St. Albans, then master of the painters for the works within the chapel, to take and choose as many painters, and other workmen, as should be necessary for carrying on the works in the chapel, as he should find in the counties of Kent, Middlesex, Essex, Surry, and Sussex; such workmen to be employed and paid at the expence of the king. Rymer's Fœdera, torn. 5, p. 670.
A like appointment was made •f John Athelard, for the counties at' Lincoln, Northampton, Oxford, Warwick, and Leicester; and of
Benedict Nighteflgale, for ih» counties of Cambridge, Hunting don, Norfolk, and Suffolk.
Again in the 37th Edward III. June 4th, 1363, according toE?^ mer, William de Walsingham wa appointed to take a sufficient number of painters and workmen, u be employed at the charge of the king, in the chapel of St. Stephen, within the royal palace. Unfortunately the accounts of these workmen have not come to our view.
King Edward III. erected, fur the use of this college, at some distance weft, in the Little Sanctuary, out of the palace court, a strong clochard, or bell tower, of stone and timber, covered with lead: and placed therein three great bellsj which were afterwards ufuallr rung at coronations, triumphs, and funerals of princes, which gavi such a huge sound, that was-commonly said they soured all thdrink in the town. Howell'sLondinopolis, p. 378.
This college of St. Stephen wa valued at the fuppreslion to be worth 1085I. 10s. 5d. and was surrendered in the first year of kin* Edward VI. A list of the dean's and canons of this college may be seen in Newcourt's Repertorina.
The chapel of St. Stephen wai soon afterwards fitted up for the meeting of the house of commons, which had before usually assembled in the chapter house of the abbey of WeHminster, and has since continued to be appropriated to tie same use, to the present time.
Of axcitnt Spain and hi erigbtalli.' habitants. From Mamttfs Stirthem Geography of the Grtth ui Ramans,
THE name of Spain is probably cient settled inhabitants of the
of Phœuician origin. The Ro- country in the western parts', the
mans borrowed it from the Cartha- .Kynetæ; and on the southern
ginians, through whom they first be- coast, the Tarteffians beyond the
came acquainted with the country. Iberians within the Pillars of Her
The Greeks every where call it Iberia, without attaching always the fame idea to the denomination: The elder Greeks, till the period of the Achaean league and of their closer acquaintance with Roman
cules. Part of the latter, between the Pyrenees and the Ebro, were known by the name of Igletae. Herodotus learned these names from the Phocæans; so that our first notices of the country reach
affairs, understood by it the whole back to the times of the early Per
sea-coast from the columns of Her cules to the mouth of the Rhine: because throughout this district, the Iberi were to be found, sometimes apart, sometimes mingled •with Ligurians. The river Ebro has its name from them.
The sea-coast beyond the pillars they called Tarteflis. The interior
lian kings. I pass over the fable of Luscus and Pan, Generals of Bacchus, said to have given their names to Lusitania and Hispania.
Herodotus also notices some intruded tribes, the Phœnicians who had colonized the coasts, and the Celts who had wandered into the interior. These dwell less west
of the country went long without ward than the Kynetæ, and proa name among the inhabitants.be- bablyin the lame regions in which cause each nation considered itself we find them at a later period; as a whole, and lived nearly un- and these were probably the onlyconnected with its neighbours. Celts or Kelts of whom the PhœAmong the Greeks, it obtained nicians had experimental knowthe vague name of Ke.lrica; which ledge; which occasions Herodotus was also applied to the whole to place erroneously among them a north-west of Europe. Time al- city, Pyrene, near to which he
tered these ideas, and the latter Greeks appropriate the name Iberia to the fame country which the Romans called Hispania. Even this last name the Greeks occa
supposes the Danube to rise.
Whether the Phœnicians or the Kelts were the earlier intruders cannot be ascertained. Both their emigrations precede the begin
sionally use, but understand by it ning of authentic history. The
the region between the Pyrenees building of Gadeir, their chief l'ea
and lber or Ebro. Not till the port, by the Phœnicians, is placed
second or third eentury was the soon after the Trojan war. The
Latin name fully received into the intrusion of the Kelts loses itself in
Greek tongue, although earlier in- the mist of antiquity. Later his
siances occur. Hel'peria, or the tovy mentions them to have come
■welt country, is a common name from beyond the Pyrenees, to have
among the Greek poets both for waged long wars with the Iberi,
Italy and Spain; for the latter, and finally to have melted into one
with the occasional epithet ultima, nation j which under the name of
History mentions as the most an- Keltiberi, possessed a considerable l .• . tract
tract ofland in the soulh, and was noted for its bravery during the wars between the Cartbagenians and the Romans. The union was not general: only the inhabitants of the south became one nation •with the Kelts; the other Iberi remained unmixed Fiom ihe great Keltic army some tribes separated, who established themselves near to the mouth of the river Anas (Guadiana.) Another portion occupied the north-west extremity under the name of Artabri. The former preserved the general name of Kelts.
The Greeks established some colonies along the coast of Iberi within the columns: but, except the Saguntum of the Lakyntihans and the Emporium of the Mastilians or Pbocæans, they were of little importance.
All the numerous tribes, therefore, which are afterward found in Spain, may be divided, I. into the unmixedaboriginal inhabitants, and II. into the tribes wholly or partially compose.! of intruders. The former occupied the east and west coast of the ocean, the Pyrenees, and great part of the country east of the Iber. It cannot be proved that the north-west inhabitants are the fame with the proper Iberi of the south east: but I find no obstacle to this opinion. To these belong the Lufitani, Karpetani, Kallaiki, and Vakkæi, of the west; the Asturian, Cantabrian and Vask, of the north; the inhabitants of the Pyrenees, through whose territory many hordes passed without staying, and some tribes dwelling along the Iber, of the cast; finally, the inhabitants of the highlands, of Ortoipcika, the Oretani Olkadi, and
•3 • ••
Baftitani, of the south. The language, manners, and weapons of these people arc alike: they are one' people in many subdivisions.
The mixed tribes may be again divided into the Keltiberi and the people ot the south-coast. The former comprehend in a maonef all the inland inha itants of tbe south The Kelts chiefly struggled with the Iberi in the neighbourhood of the river so called; but. after the incorporation they jointly occupied the mountainous country on the west of the Iber, ai far as the source of the Durius and Tagus. This was Keltiberia in itr narrowest import: but the nation, having multiplied greatly, dispossessed or reduced to Qavery several tribes, as-the Vakkæi, Karpetaio, Oretani, &c. who ate thence incorrectly reckoned as a part of it.
The people of the coast boyond the pillars are a mixture of the natives with Phœnicians; and, within the pillars, a mixture of the natives with Greeks, Romans, and Carthaginians. Their commerce with strangers destroyed all peculiarity of character. At first, they learned the Punic, afterward the Roman language and manners. The commerce to which they were devoted, habituated them to assume every form. For this reason, tbe inlanders despised them, made ic roads ou them, aud forced them to recur for defence to foreign protection. The Keltsberians, on the contrary, prided themselves on retaining their native savagencsi of dress, weapons, language, and manners.
Wore will be said of the peculi'
arities of each people, when ibe
description of their boundaries is
undertaken, Titus much was re-'
• :. • celtyr/ cessar)' to prepare a clear survey of the remainder.
■ —■—1 ■
Of the lllyrians and Pamfortiam. From the/ame.
The lllyrians are probably of the same stem with the Thracians; at least, the elder writers, who had visited the country or conversed ■with natives of it, confound them together: whereas the Kelts are always contradistinguished from them, even when resident among them. Of all the European nations, the lllyrians and Thracians only had the practice of tattooing their bodies. Their original language is probably preserved in the Epirotic dialect of the present times: but in Illyria itself, the Slavonian tribes have wholly extinguished every other tongue. The eastern continuation of the Alps comprised the ancient dwellings of the Illyrian nations. From the Julian Alps, the high lands spread uuinterrupted between the Save and the Adriatic to the Hæmus and to Macedon. Of this mountainous district, the lllyrians occupied the southern declivity, together with the sea-coast, from about Aquileia to the modern Epirus.
On these very mountains, down the southern declivity towards the Save, were the oldest feats of the Pæonians, as the Greeks styled them: of the Pannouians, as the Latins called them. They extended from the Ukraine toMaredooia. Thus Strabo specifies their station, and he flourished while Augustus and Tiberius we*e in conflict with them; his account is confirmed by Velleius Paterculus, and Appian, from the commentaries of Augustus.
Strabo does not in any thing 4tf
tinguifh the Pæonians from the other lllyrians. Herodo'us, who knew them experimentally, does not indeed expressly reckon them as a branch of the Thracian stem, because he lays that the quantity of single tribes is too great to be enumerated: but he knows only oj Thracians on the south-side of the Danube; he describes them as covering many diltricts, and places among them the Pæonians by the Strymon and the Drina, without distinguistiing them from Thracians;—and as he deduces the Pæonians from the Teucri of Asia, he farther corroborates the opinion of their being of Thracian race, whose Asiatic origin is certain. If the Thracians be one race with the Pæonians and lllyrians, the Kelts must not be derived from the Thracians; for the Eomans constantly discriminate between the language and warfare of Kelts and lllyrians. Thucydides also notices the Pæonians in this site.
Perhaps, in elder periods, they had extended their feats farther north unto the Danube, aud were compressed in the southern mountains by the Kelts; who, as I shall thew, overflowed at one period the whole south of Hungary. Certain, it is that the Romans found towns of the Pannonians only about th« Save:—but, when the Kelts were repulsed, and the plains emptied, the Pannpnians began to migrate from their mountains into the champaign, and to extend their habitations to the Danube. At this period, probably under Claudius, Pannonia obtained its constitutioi) and boundary as a Roman province, although fortresses had long before been raised along the river. The original district of the Pannopians materially differs, it thould
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