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Estate is the right and interest, which a man has in land, or other things of a kindred and permanent nature ; such, for example, as an interest in a mill, in a waterfall, or in a private way. Personal Estate is the right or interest, which a man has in goods, merchandises, and other movable property, or debts and credits. Estoppel is, in Law, the stopping, or precluding, or preventing, a man

from setting up any fact, or previous act, to contradict or invalidate, what he has since done or admitted. Thus, if a inan makes a conveyance, by deed, of land, stating therein that he has a good title

thereto, he shall be estopped to deny that he had any title. Excise. This word ordinarily means a tax, or duty, laid upon some

commodity or thing used, or manufactured, or sold, in a country. Thus, a tax laid upon all coaches used, or upon all spirits manufactured, or upon all goods sold at auction, in a country, is called an excise. It is commonly used in contradistinction to "s imposts,” the latter word being applied to taxes levied on goods upon their importation from a foreign country, whereas excises are taxes on things already in the country, or to be sold or manufactured there, and are

therefore commonly called “ internal taxes." Ex post facto, literally, after the act is done. The phrase is usually

applied to laws passed to punish an act as a crime, when it was not so at the time, when the act was done. Hence such laws are called

Ex post facto laws. Felony. This word was originally applied to crimes, which the common law punished by a forfeiture of the lands and goods of the offender, it being supposed to be derived from the feudal law, in which fee” signified the fief, feud, or estate of the tenant, and “lon," which signified price or value. It is now commonly applied to de

signate such crimes as are punished capitally, that is, by death. Franchise, a right or privilege, granted by the King or Government

to one or more persons, which does not belong to subjects or citizens generally; and which cannot properly be exercised by them, without such grant. Thus, to be and act as a corporation, is a fran

chise. General Issue, a law phrase, signifying a general denial, by the De

fendant in a suit, of all the charges made by the Plaintiff, in his written statements, or allegations, (commonly called a declaration,) against the Defendant, for which the suit is brought. Thus, if an action is brought by A against B, for an assault and battery of A, and B pleads, that he is not guilty, this is called the general issue; that is, the Defendant denies the whole matter charged against him. The Reply of the Plaintiff, putting the matter of fact on trial, by the Jury, is called joining the issue. So, where a party, charged with

a crime, pleads not guilty, that is the general issue. Grantee, the person to whom a grant is made. The person, who

makes the grant, is called the Grantor. Habeas Corpus, literally, Have you the Body. The phrase designates

the most emphatic words of a writ, issued by a Judge or Court, commanding a person, who has another in custody, or in imprisonment, to have his body (Habeas Corpus) before the Judge or Court, ment. The person, whether a sheriff, gaoler, or other person, is bound to produce the body of the prisoner at the time and place appointed ; and, if the prisoner is illegally or improperly in custody, the Judge or Court will discharge him. Hence it is deemed the great security of the personal liberty of the citizen against oppression

and illegal confinement. Impeachment, in a juridical sense, is a written, formal accusation of a

person, as being guilty of some public offence or misdemeanor. When the charges against him are specially described and set forth in writing, they are called Articles of Impeachment. When, for example, the House of Representatives of the United States prefers or offers to the Senate written charges, against any public officer, as being guilty of high crimes and misdemeanors, on which it requires

him to be put upon trial, it is called an Impeachment. In Capite, literally, in chief, or of the head. Tenants in capite, are

those tenants of land, who hold them directly, or immediately, from and under the King, by his gift or grant, in contradistinction to per

sons who hold by the grant of, or under, other persons. Indictment is a formal written accusation, by a Grand Jury, charging

a person to be guilty of a particular crime or misdemeanor, which is

particularly described and set forth in the indictment. Infamous crime. This phrase means, in common language, a crime, which is attended with infamy. In Law, it is usually applied to such gross, or atrocious crimes, as involve deep moral turpitude and dis

grace. Injunction, the name of a writ or process, which enjoins or commands

a man to do or not to do a particular act or thing ; and is a common process issued by Courts of Equity, in proper cases. An injunction of a judgement is an order to the party, who has obtained a judgement in a suit, not to enforce that judgement by an execution, or

otherwise. Insolvency, an inability of a debtor to pay all his debts. Insolvent

laws are such as are made for the relief of debtors unable to pay all

their debts. Ipso facto, literally, by this very act. It means, that a certain result

immediately follows from that act. Thus, we say, if a man conveys his estate to another, he ceases, ipso facto, (by this very act,) to be

the owner thereof. Jure Belli, literally, by the law or right of war. Jurisprudence is, properly speaking, the Science of the Law, in which

sense, it includes all the principles and doctrines of the Law. The word is sometimes used in a more limited sense, and means only the

expositions and interpretations of the Law, by Judicial Tribunals. Jury, a body composed of twelve men, selected to try questions of

fact in civil and criminal suits, and who are under oath or solemn affirmation, to decide the facts truly and faithfully, according to the evidence laid before them. The points, which they are lo try, are generally founded upon the written allegations of the parties, (called the pleadings,) and the points, on which the parties require their decision, are called the issues, and the decisions on those points made ing of the truth of the facts. The jury for the trial of eauses is some times called the petit, (or small,) or trarerse jury, (that is, a jury to try questions of fact, which are traversed or denied between the

parties. ) Jury, Grand, a body composed of not less than twelve, por more than

twenty-three men, who, under oath, hear the proof of any particular crime, or offence, with which any person is charged, and if they believe him guilty on the evidence, they present an indietment against

him. Lau, Ciril. The phrase, “ civil law,” sometimes means the law,

which respects the private rights and property of persons, in contradistinction to criminal law, which respects public offences. Sometimes, it means the Roman Law, which is commonly called the civil law. Sometimes, civil law is used in contradistinction to military law, the

latter being applicable only to persons in the military or naval service. Law, Common. The phrase, “ common law,” is used, in England,

to express all the doctrines and principles of Law, which are recog. nised and enforced in its jurisprudence, and are not founded upon any positive existing act or statute of Parliament. It consists of all the general customs and usages, which regulate the rights of property, and all those general principles of justice and interpretation, which are acted upon in Courts of Justice, and all those remedies, which are applied for the redress of wrongs, which cannot be traced up to any positive act or statute. The phrase, “common law," is sometimes used to distinguish the English law from the Roman, which is commonly called the “ civil law ;” and sometimes merely to express, that it is the law applicable, in common to the whole kingdom. The common Law of each of the American States is that portion of the English common Law, which has been adopted by the particular State, in connexion with its own peculiar and settled usages and customs, and which is not prescribed by any act or statute

of the State Legislature. Law, Constitutional. Constitutional Law is that branch of the Law,

which relates to the exposition and interpretation of the Constitution

of the State or Nation.. Law, Merchant. That branch of the Laws of a State or Nation, which

treats of rights, duties, contracts, &c., respecting trade, and commerce, and navigation, and shipping, and sales, and insurance, and

bills of exchange, and promissory notes, &c. &c. Law, Municipal. Municipal Law means the law of a particular community, State, or Nation, in contradistinction to the law of foreign

communities, States, or Nations. Law of Nations. The Law of Nations is properly that, which regu

lates the rights and duties of Nations, in respect to each other, and the respective subjects and citizens thereof. That branch, which respects the rights and intercourse of the Nations, in their sovereign capacities, is often called public international law ; that, which respects the private rights and intercourse of the respective subjects and

citizens thereof, is called private international law. Laws, Insolvent. Laws made respecting debtors, who are unable to Laws, Inspection. Inspection laws are such laws as are made by a

particular State, to ascertain and fix the quality, character, and relative value, of its own products or manufactures. In order to ascertain these facts, the products or manufactures are examined, or inspected, by skilful persons, who are often called inspectors ; as, for example, inspectors of provisions, inspectors of flour, inspectors of

ashes, &c. Letters of Marque and Reprisal. These are letters under seal, or

commissions, granted by a government to one or more of its eitizens, to make seizure or reprisal of the property of an enemy, or of persons, who belong to another government, which government has refused to do justice to the citizens of the country granting the letters

of marque and reprisal. Magna Charta, or Magna Carta, literally, the Great Charter. This

name is given to a formal written charter, granted by King John, and confirmed by King Henry III., of England, which solemnly recognised and secured certain enumerated rights, privileges, and liberties, as belonging to the people of England, which have ever since constituted a fundamental part of the constitution or government of England. Among other important rights, it secured the right of a trial by jury in civil and criminal cases, and the right of the subject to the free enjoyment of his life, his liberty, and his property, unless declared forfeited by the judgement of his peers, (a jury,) or by the Law of the land. Several of its provisions constitute a part of the Bill of Rights set forth in our present State and National Con

stitutions. Malversations in Office. This phrase is applied to official misdemean

ors, corruptions, extortions, and other wrongful conduct, by public

officers. Mandamus, literally, “ we command." This is a writ issued by a

Court of Justice to some Corporation, public officer, or other person, commanding them to do some particular thing, therein specified, which appertains to their office or duty. It is called a Mandamus, from this word being in the original writ, which was formerly in


Material Men. Those persons are called, in Admiralty Courts, ma

terial men, who supply ships with provisions, or equipments, or other

outfits, or furnish materials for repairs, and make the repairs on ships. Mesne Process, literally, intermediate process, as contradistinguished

from final process, in any suit. In strictness, the writ first issued, to bring a party before a court, in a suit, is called original process ; the writ of execution, which issues to enforce the judgement in the suit, is called the final process; and all other process or writs, issued in that suit, are mesne process. But, in America, mesne process is ordinarily used to describe all process issued in a suit, which

is not final process. Ministers Plenipotentiary, ) See Ambassadors. Ministers Resident. See Ambassadors. Ordinance of 1787, for the settlement and government of the North

Western Territory of the United States, may be found, at length, in Parliament. This is the appellation, by which the Legislatzze of Great Britain is ordinarily designated. It is composed of the House

of Lords, and House of Commons. Patent, an abbreviated espression, signifying letters-patent, or open

letters, or grants of the government, under the great seal thereof, granting some right, privilege, or property, to a person, wbo is bence called the Patentee. Thus, the government grants the pabae lands, by a patent, to the purchaser. So, a copy-right in a book, or an eielasive right to an invention, is granted by a petent. When the word patent is used in conversation, it ordinarily is iimited to a petent-right for an invention. Patentee. The party, who is the grantee of a patent from the govers

ment. Peers. Peers, ordinarily, means the nobility of Great Britain, who have a seat in the House of Lords. They are called peers, from the Latin word, pares, equals. But the word is also ased to signify, the pares, or jory men, who are entitled to try questions of fact in civil and criminal cases. The trial by jury is therefore often called

a trial by his (the defendant's) peers. Personal Estate. See Estate. Plaintiff, the party, who brings a soit against another, for redress of

some private wrong or breach of contract. He is so called, be

cause he makes a plaint or complaint against the wrongdoer. Plea, the written defence of the Defendant in any suit, in denial or

avoidance of the matter charged by the Plaintiff in that sait against

him. Plea, Special. It is a special justification or excuse, set forth in writing by the Defendant in a suit, which bars or destroys the Plaintiff's right in that suit. It is used in contradistinction, generally, to the general issue. A justification admits the act charged by the Plaintiff to be done or omitted, and justifies the Defendant in such act or omission. Whereas the general issue usually denies, that the act bas ever been

done or omitted. Plurality of Votes. A person is said to have a plurality of votes, who has more votes than any other single candidate for the same office. A person is said to have a majority of votes, who has a larger number than all the other candidates have, adding all their votes together. Primâ facie means, literally, upon the first view or appearance. It

is commonly applied to cases of evidence or presumption, where the meaning is, that the evidence or presuinption is to be taken to be sufficient to prove certain facts, until other evidence or presumptions are introduced to control it. Prison Liberties, or Gaol Limits. To every public gaol or prison,

there are certain limited spaces, or local limits, outside of the walls of the gaol or prison, within which persons imprisoned for debts are entitled to reside, or be, upon complying with the conditions and securities required to be given, that they will commit no escape. These limits, or liberties, are commonly called the gaol or prison limits or

liberties. Privies, in a legal sense, are those, who claim any right or property

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