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tions given at cliv. 392, I have not met with the name as an early place-name, and suggest that those given, i.e., Cator Court, and the farms Cator, Great Cator and Low Cator, are derived from the surname as a result of ownership or association.

Robert Cater held a manor and lands in Leicestershire in the time of Edward IV, and the Cater families in Yorkshire (early extinct) and Lincolnshire (of which descendants survive) appear to be younger branches of the Leicestershire family, as also the London families are.

In 1316 John Lacatour held a tenth of a knight's fee in Donyngton, Leics, and Bernard Lacatour held lands in Carlisle.

A few of the earlier references are those to John de Catar, knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, died 1192; Richard and Simon Catour, Pletour, chief purveyor of purveyors under Raulyn corn, London, circa 1360; John Cater, a wealthy merchant, of Coventry, circa 1450; Adam Catur 1348/9, Hugo Catoure 1386/7, Thomas Kaytour 1474, and Thomas Catour, Constable of the Mercers' Company, 1465, all of York; John Cater, seized of a manor in Burton-onTrent, circa 1193.

Space forbids anything more than these sporadic instances, which answer MB. WAT KINS's question as to the localities in which the name occurs, and I take this opportunity of thanking those correspondents who have replied to some of my queries.


MERCURIUS DOMESTICUS' (cliv. 333, 408). I am sorry to say that I have no doubt that "Mercurius Domesticus," limited to one number, in December, 1679, is a modern fraud. All the paragraphs in it are accurate enough, but it has been compiled from Benjamin Harris's Protestant Domes tic Intelligence.' The preparation of the 'Handlist' involved a card index on a gigantic scale; each periodical being entered upon a separate card. There is no copy of this Mercurius Domesticus in the Burney Collection, and the fraud is only to be seen in the general collection at the British Museum. I am quite at a loss to account for the particular card in question having been marked Burney "-so much so that when the error was pointed out by a correspondent in the Times Literary Supplement, I reserved my opinion until I could find time to go through Popish Plot" periodicals again. These, as all who consult them know, are in a very disordered condition, and the process involved a considerable amount of time.

the "

I can only plead in excuse that this is the only error of inclusion in the Handlist,' many other modern frauds having been detected and thrown out. I have never been able to understand wherein the inducement lies for anyone deliberately to manufacture an ancient periodical. Yet there are a large number of similar frauds in existence. They will not be found in the Handlist.' J. G. MUDDIMAN.

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1782-3 (cliv. 210). Further search
for information has elicited
munication from Mr. Francis Green, who is
keenly interested in and has done so much in
research work and furtherance of transactions
of the West Wales Historical Society.


"The connection of the Skerries Light and the Morgan Jones family arose in this way. A William Trench obtained a 99 years' lease of the Skerries from June, 1713, and in June, 1714, secured a Patent empowering him to erect a lighthouse and levy dues for sixty child, Anne, married Rev. Sutton Morgan, years. His daughter and only surviving one of the Morgans of Llanerch Hadry, Co. assigned her interest in an annuity in the Carmarthen, and her mother, Ruth Trench, Lighthouse to


her son-in-law, William

bankrupt, and Walter Morgan, brother of William Trench is said to have become a Sutton, was one of the principal creditors, and it seems not improbable that either he or Sutton purchased the Lighthouse from the assignee the latter, apparently, as he obtained an Act of Parliament vesting the Lighthouse in himself and his heirs, and by his will he charged the Lighthouse with an annuity in favour of his wife, and in default of children or in the event of his dying under age, he devised the Lighthouse to his brother, Walter Morgan, for life, with remainder to his children in tail general.

I have found no record of any children of Sutton, and apparently there were none, or else they died under age, when the Lighthouse vested in his brother Walter. Walter apparently had no children, and the Lighthouse would then vest in his eldest brother, Jacob Morgan, junior, of Pen-y-wern, who had three daughters-Elizabeth Morgan (died unmarried), Rebecca (to whom her father devised all his realty in Carmarthenshire, and who married David Lloyd of Cardigan), and Margaret (who married John Jones of Llanbadarn fawr, afterwards of Cilwedig, Co. Pembroke. This John Jones was the ances

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SERVICE (cliv. 188, 228, 249, 268, 283, 412, 427).-Probably most of the names that have been recorded under this heading are of no special interest apart from the history of private families. But there is one name of note that has been strangely overlooked. Colonel William Windham (1717-1761), of Felbrigge, Norfolk, father of the celebrated statesman, is said in the 'D. N. B.' to have been for some time in one of Queen Maria Theresa's hussar regiments. Had he not returned to this country, England might never have had in his only son a distinguished servant, and Burke and Johnson one of their dearest friends. The Colonel himself was a man of some mark, being the author not only of a military treatise, but of one of the earliest printed accounts of Chamonix and Mont Blanc.

EDWARD Bensly.

SOME NOTABLE DIVORCES (cliv. 327, 423). Under the heading of Alfieri in England,' 11 S. iii. 76, there is a note giving several particulars about Lady Ligonier's divorce, which might interest MR. H. ASKEW, Newspaper paragraphs during the year 1776, refer to her as living in Yorkshire with a farmer friend," whose name is given as Lke [Leake ?]. Later, in 1783, she was said to be living with a miller's son, named DOBERT DAVIES (cliv. 425). Robert the true picture of Tony Lumpkin, Baker, Davies was born in 1792. He was a solicitor clumsy, ugly, ill-bred." The Gentleman's Magazine contains the following announce- Clerk. He died in 1875. He was the author in York and in 1827 was appointed Town ment: May 4, 1784, at Northampton, Lady Ligonier, the divorced wife of Lord of numerous books and papers on antiquarian Ligonier, to a private in His Majesty's regi- subjects, chiefly relating to the city of York, ment of Royal Horse Guards Blue. eleven of which, mostly contributions to the name was Smith. She had a private income. Yorks Archeol. Journal, are catalogued in HORACE BLEACKLEY.

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Gomme's Index.

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JOHN A. KNOWLES. JACK KETCH, THE EXECUTIONER MERICAN CORPS IN BRITISH SER(cliv. 352, 411).-There are many volum- A inous notes on the subject of "The ComVICE, 1775: RUGGLES (cliv. 351). mon Hangman," scattered through the recent Sketches of Joseph (not John) Gorham, James series of N. & Q.', notably 10 S. viii. 244, Anderson, Timothy Ruggles, and James For335, 353, 376; 11 S. i. 265; 12 S. i. 486. In rest will be found in L. Sabine's BiographFor 10 S. viii. 246 MR. J. P. BACON PHILLIPS ical Sketches of American Loyalists.' will find a paragraph about John (not Timothy Ruggles, who was one of the most Thomas) Cheshire, yclept " Old Cheese.' prominent men in Massachusetts for thirty years before the American Revolution, see, in addition to the above, L. R. Paige's History of Hardwick, Massachusetts, pp. 481483, and 'Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography."


ARCHING" BY SEA (cliv. 425).-In
the Journals of Major Robert
Rogers,' by Franklin Hough, published by
Joel Munsell's Sons, Albany, in 1883, the
following passage occurs, referring to opera-
tions in North America, dated June, 1758:

The whole army consisting of near 16,000,
embarked in battoes [bateaux] for Ticon-

The order of march was a most agreable
sight: the regular troops were in the center,
provincials on each wing, the Light Infantry
on the right of the advanced guard, the
Rangers on the left, with Colonel Broadstreet's
battoemen in the center." (p. 118).

Hon. Editor of The Journal of the Society
of Army Historical Research.

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CHURCHGARTH" (cliv. 425). cographers define " garth" as provincial English for yard -an enclosed space but it occurs in modern English literature, though not used by Shakespeare. Tennyson, for example, gives it more than once, e.g., in Enoch Arden,' when Annie parted with Philip she

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past into the little garth beyond.
Again, in 'The Grandmother ’—
I climbed to the top of the garth
And stood by the road at the gate.

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Is not this used in the same sense as "cloister-garth"? The open space of the quadrangle (not roofed in) is known as the garth. Churchgarth would equal churchyard, and is still current in the northern dialects of England. I

Lancashire it is not uncommon to refer to the dead as buried in chapel-garth and churchgarth, and the playing yard of the school is termed school-garth. In North Lancashire a rabbit-warren is spoken of as a coney-garth.

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The word " garth in Durham is used dialectically to designate a small field, croft, or paddock, usually near a farmstead. The term is derived from the Old Norse garthr, a word which is cognate with yard in its secondary meaning of enclosure.

Garth enters into combination with other words to indicate enclosures for different purposes, as Churchgarth and Stackgarth. The latter is often corrupted into Staggarth.



[The Cloister Garth in Westminster School was known as the " Fighting Green."] BYR

YRON: REFERENCES IN HIS LETTERS (cliv. 316, 355). In Selected Songs Sung at Harvard College from 18621866, privately printed, Cambridge, 1866, p. 24, appears The Mournful and Piratical Ballad of William Taylor," and one of the stanzas reads:

Then she called for a brace of pistols,
And they were always at her command,
And she shot her William Taylor,
Walking by his bride's right hand.


OLD CHAPEL ROW, KENTISH TOWN: COOKE: MANN (cliv. 425). There are accounts of three Cookes, all engravers, in the Dic. Nat. Biog.': W. B., 1778-1855; G., 1781-1834; and W. J., 1797-1856; which engraver is the one MR. W. T. T. ELLIOTT seeks information about? Your correspondent will find an account of Old Chapel Row in St. Pancras Notes and Queries, and there is a list of some of the inhabitants in Watkins' Directory of the Environs of London,' published in 1853.

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Various names appear under " Gentry and Professions and Trades"; in the former category is "J. Mann, esq., 3 Old Chapel Row," and in the latter are


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Hampstead, Upminster, Essex.

THE EARLY BRITISH CHURCH (cliv. 405). The Archbishop of Wales, in Church,' 1912, devotes the first chapter to a Landmarks in the History of the Welsh survey of this question. Various other recent authorities deal with it.

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Prof. Freeman quoted on Glastonbury," in the Catholic Encyclopedia' (New York, 1913), gives concisely the scholars' view on the whole matter of the legends. The legend in itself is not true, but the legend has grown up round a nucleus of truth. There were British monks of Ynyswitrin long before the Saxons took it and made it Glastonbury, and their origin dates back to very early times. But since the complete legend of Joseph of Arimathea only comes to light in William of Malmesbury's 'De Antiquitate Glastoniensis Ecclesiæ,' 1135,-a book written expressly to glorify Glastonbury-it can hardly claim great authority.

In the

Perhaps the most interesting fact, as to the earliness of the tradition of apostolic foundation for British Christianity is this. fourth century Codex Sinaiticus' and in the fifth century Codex C of the New Testament, that is, in two of the five most ancient manuscripts, appears in 2 Tim. iv. 10, the reading "Gallia " instead of Galatia." That seems to indicate a widespread belief in the West that St. Paul had personally visited Gaul, and " Gaul" in those days was in close touch with Britain. Prof. Ramsay points out that we know nothing of St. Paul's

movements between 62 and 65 A.D., and that he almost certainly visted Western Europe at that time.

But undoubtedly the British Church dated back to the second, if not indeed to the first century. W. ARTHUR WESTLEY.

St. John's Vicarage, Oldham.

CHURCHES WITH SHOPS ATTACHED (cliv. 189, 249, 431). Underneath the Chapel Royal at Brighton, there is a large cellar which is in connection with a wine-merchant's shop closely adjacent thereto : grossly incongruous as indeed it is.


PICTURE WANTED (cliv. 406, 448). - A coloured plate of the picture described by MR. A. H. COOPER-PRICHARD will be found in one of the volumes of The Boys' Own Paper, published in the early eighties. Per haps one of your correspondents could give the exact reference, which might help in the tracing of the original. The date will probably be found to be about 1884-6.

The first and greatest editor of the 'B. O. P.'-than which in the estimation of us who were boys in the 'eighties, there was no finer paper in the world-Mr. G. A. Hutchinson, died at Frinton-on-Sea in the early days of the war. I went through his house before the sale of its contents, which followed his death, and found its walls covered with the originals of many familiar pictures which had once been reproduced in the paper. I believe that some of them fetched quite good prices at the sale, but the one of the pirate ship was not among them.

A. C. E.

[We are informed by the Editor of the B.O.P." that the above mentioned picture entitled 'Pirates Decoying a Merchantman appeared in vol. v. of that paper opposite p. 126.]

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JATHANIEL 'POEMS, NAT SACRED AND SATYRYCALL' (cliv. 425). Nathaniel Richards, author of 'Poems, Sacred and Satyrycall,' was for many years confused with Nathaniel Richards, fifth son of Richard Richards, rector of Kentisbury, Devonshire (see 'D.N.B.,' vol. xlviii., which continues this erroneous ascription). N. & Q.' (10 S. xi. 461) contains a long note on the two contemporary Nathaniel Richards, showing that Nathaniel, the author and dramatist, was in all probability one of the Richards of Rowling, Kent, and not a Richard of Kentisbury.

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Thomas de Grey of Cavendish married the heiress of Cornherd, and assumed her arms, Az., a fess between two chevrons or.

Sir Robert Clifton and Alice his wife held a court at Cavendish in 1429; she may have belonged to the de Grey family. G. S. G.

THE KING'S SHIPS: 7. BUILT AT PORTSMOUTH (cliv. 402, 420, 447).—MR. DENHAM PARSONS mistook my article at cliii. 75 and 94, which was entitled "King's Ships Built in Southampton Neighbourhood," and which covered Bursledon, Bucklers Yard, Southampton, Northam, Éling, Hythe, Redbridge and Cowes, for a list covering the county of Hampshire, which was not intended. These lists were naturally only as complete as I was able to make them, and were added to by various contributors at clii. 176, 190, 210, and

cliv. 170.

MR. DENHAM PARSONS' brother informed me that if he would he (MR. DENHAM PARSONS) could supply N. & Q.' readers with some at least of the ships built in the Hamble River by John Tyson and by Messrs. Black and Scott. May I once again ask his assistance.

I am grateful to him for the confirmation of the Birth Port of GALATEA-but he does not

appear to understand that practically all the ships built in merchants' yards were forwarded as bare hulls under tow or as vessels under jury masts to their final port, generally Portsmouth or one of the other senior King's yards, to be masted, rigged and fitted out generally, no doubt with two sets of sails, stores, etc. broke Dockyard appear to have been sent to Portsmouth or other yards under jury masts

Even the vessels built at Pem

to be masted as late as 1856. Buckler's Yard has one instance of GLADIATOR, 44, built 1782, being sent to Liverpool for completion, and one at least safely reached Ports


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I regret that it is not within my power to add to the King's Ships lists as given. Of course, I have many ships without their place of building, and many readers would be glad of further information. Chatham and Portsmouth Dockyard Lists supplied to me are far from complete.


JOHN A. RUPERT-JONES. OF THE GREAT PLAGUE (cliv. 422). MR. F. A. EDWARDS would, I think, find the Introduction to A Journal of the Plague Year,' edited by George A. Aitken, and published by J. M. Dent and Co., 1895, of considerable interest. C. F.

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THE REGICIDES (cliv. 298, 410). Since my reply at the second reference was written, I had occasion to consult, for another purpose, Elihu Burritt's interesting book, Walks in the Black Country and its Green Border Land' (1868).

In company with Edward Capern, the Cornish postman poet, he visited Boscobel, and the viewing of the hiding-place of Charles II caused him to dwell on another and similar topic, the scene of which was laid across the Atlantic. It will, I think, be best to give it in his own words:

Whilst looking down into that square hole, where he [Charles II] lay wearied in fitful sleep, with his head against one wall and his feet against the other, it was easy and natural for the thought to dart across the ocean to the cave's mouth in the West Rock, at New Haven. In the tortuous recesses of those vaulted rocks, night after night and week after

week, three of the judges that condemned

Charles I to death hid themselves while soldiers of the Restoration were hunting after them, as Cromwell's bands hunted Charles II up and down England. If the book is still extant, no better place could be found,, than Boscobel, for reading Styles's Judges.' would show proofs of devotion and self-sacrifice for the outlawed, hungry, hunted Whalley, Goffe, and Dickinson as brave, unswerving,


and unselfish as the loyalty of the Pendrels to

their fugitive sovereign. It would disclose the same expedients for their security; how one stout-hearted woman had a false floor made, or two floors for her garret so deep between the joists that the three men might lie in it by night and day if need were; how she strewed the upper floor with reeds, and wiled away the soldiers from their frequent search; how the fugitive judges when they transferred their hiding-place to the cave, were startled on the first night by two fiery eyes that glared at them more fiercely than human pursuers could do, but felt relieved when they found that it was a panther instead of the soldiers of of Charles II.

I can now answer my own query. The

three regicides who fled to America were Edward Whalley, William Goffe, and Dickinson. The last named did not sign the warrant for the execution; at least, I fail to find it on a reproduction of the original document in the House of Lords.

died shortly after this year. Goffe, or General Whalley was alive in 1674, but probably Goffe, was Whalley's son-in-law, and is supposed to have died in 1679. About Dickinson I have no details, and should welcome some. H. ASKEW.

COMBINATION LOCKS (cliv. 335).—It is said that what are known as combination locks were very common in China in very early times, but unfortunately their history has been lost.

Amongst European nations the Dutch are credited with being the first to make and to use these contrivances. The Dutch locks were so made that the letters of the alphabet, engraved on four revolving rings, could be required, by pre-arrangement, to spell a certain word or number of words before they could be opened.

A lock of this type was made to open only with A. M. E. N.

The poet Thomas Carew (1598-1639?) in the combination lock: some verses written in 1620, thus alludes to

As doth a lock

That goes with letters, for till everyone be known,

The lock's as fast as if you had found none. H. ASKEW.

PRAGER (cliv. 299, 339, 376).—Is_Proger

by any chance a variation of Prager? Philip Proger was granted on July 7, 1629, a moiety of embezzled Spanish money (Sign Manuals of Charles I). It would be interesting to know something about this embezzled Spanish money.


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