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By ERNEST W. MANDEVILLE
EFORE returning home from my debtedness, it does not require economic to be sure, but little of the abuses that I study of the liquor problem in experience to deduce the conclusion that have described as existing in England. A
England, I took a month's trip they cannot afford this expenditure. rather feeble prohibition movement exthrough Holland, Germany, Austria, One wonders how the individuals one ists, but it is split into three divisionsCzechoslovakia, Switzerland, and France. sees in the restaurants can afford to Protestant, Neutral, and Catholic-cach I made no attempt during this short time spend their money there when they are one working apart, and therefore making to delve very far into the Continental in such poverty and working for such little impression. drink question, but, with the background small wages. The answer is that they I was in attendance at a dinner given of a thorough study of the problem both live too well because they are too poor. by the League of German Industrialists in America and Great Britain, certain They spend every penny they earn, and to visiting Americans, and at the Americomparisons were impressed upon my
are afraid to save. This is understand- cans' request it was the first social funcmind. I shall report my observations to able when we realize that in Austria, for tion ever given in the history of the you.
instance, the crown is now 70,000 to the League at which no liquor was served. Temperance movements, I was told, dollar, when before the war it was five In Germany almost every one drinks have slightly gained in strength in all the to the dollar. You can readily calculate beer. During the past year, however, an Continental countries with the exception how a fortune in the savings bank or in increase in the consumption of spirituous of Spain, Italy, and France. In Spain life insurance has dwindled to an amount liquors has been noticed. Professor and Italy the issue, scarcely exists. In insufficient to buy a square meal. The Gaupp, of Tübingen University, says France prohibition societies are well or- inhabitants do not trust the future. that in 1924 the country distilleries inganized and work hard, but they are up They are afraid to save. They spend all creased from 700 to 1,700 in round numagainst a general indifference which is the money they have while it still has bers, and that all distilleries of potable more dangerous to their cause than open purchase power.
spirit increased from 1,000 to 2,100. hostility. The French people as a whole Some of their leaders, however, realize There is a growing prohibition movesimply cannot conceive of a dry country. that their habits must change. Dr. ment in Germany. A national post-card They are so used to wine with their Julius Willhelm, economist of Vienna, campaign recently produced 460,000 sig. meals that restrictions on its use would said to me: “Vienna in her dire poverty natures in support of local option. About strike them in the same way as the pro- is spending eighty to ninety millions for one million women are enrolled in the hibition of bread and butter or sugar for
drink. It is utter nonsense. We are a Evangelical Women's League, which is our coffee would strike us.
very poor country, but people do not campaigning for a dry country.
easily change their habits. The time will That the movement is as yet very unDR:
R. BONN, Professor of Economics of come when it will be absolutely neces- popular, however, can be learned from
the University of Berlin, said to me: sary for them to change their habits. If the following incident. Recently the “There is no use of discussing prohibition we could reduce the drink bill even by Frederichshein Brewery, of Berlin, which for Continental countries, for we are not one-third, in ten or fifteen years every rents its public hall for meetings of argudrunkards. We drink, but we are not one in Austria could have a small house mentative burghers, unwittingly leased drunkards. We have no saloons or gin- and garden. To-day thousands of fam- its auditorium to the German prohibishops such as you find in England and ilies are living in one room in dirty, un- tionists. When the public discovered such as you used to have in America.” healthy tenement-houses. In Hungary what was going on, the report went
I believe that Professor Bonn is right they are turning their attention toward through the city that "hallowed ground in his comparison of the Continental partial prohibition. Public-houses and was being desecrated," and a crowd of drinking with that of England. I did inns are to be closed from Saturday noon over one thousand assembled, mobbed not find the counterpart of the filthy to Monday morning; inns selling brandy
to Monday morning; inns selling brandy the prohibitionists, and drove them from British "pub" or the American saloon in alone are to be abolished, and youths the hall. any of the Continental countries. There under eighteen are not to be served.” The drink situation in Czechoslovakia were many places to drink-in fact, most
is much the same as in Germany and of the drinking is done at the open-air I HEARD a great deal about the success Austria. The prohibition movement is tables lining the sidewalks--but com- of the Swedish system. Situated be- as yet very weak. Its main asset is the paratively little hard liquor is sold. Al- tween two prohibition countries-Nor- interest of Dr. Eduard Benes, the Minismost every one drinks either beer or way and Finland-Sweden claims to be ter of Foreign Affairs, who is a total abwine, and very little drunkenness is no- soberer than either. Each household is stainer. ticeable.
allowed four liters of liquor per month. I have already mentioned the indifferNotwithstanding this fact, however, Since 1911, when liquor restrictions were ence of the French people to the drink there is an important liquor problem in adopted, it is claimed that consumption problem. The prohibition movement Europe. The six countries of Switzer- has fallen from 24 liters per capita per
makes little headway, though many fine land, Holland, Belgium, Rumania, Ger- annum to 12 liters; public offenses, from men and women are interesting themmany, and Austria spend approximately 47 per 1,000 population to 19 per 1,000
selves in its program. each year $2,410,900,000 on alcoholic population; drunkards treated in hospi- Mr. H. W. Chafee, secretary of the liquors. (unsidering the poverty of tals, from 1.2 per 1,000 to .36 per 1,000. American Young Men's Christian Assothese countries and their enormous in- In Holland I found plenty of drinkingciation in Paris, stated that the prohibi
tion movement there was simply for the Paris headquarters office of the French France and beer in Germany? We must prohibition of distilled liquors. He ex- Protestant Churches. He said: “When get prohibitory laws here to save the plained how every one drank, and said: the average Frenchman comes across the country. I am a lifelong abstainer my"Ten out of the twelve men on my Asso- American tourist
, he says, 'Oh, he is dry!' self and speak continuously for prohibiciation board are wine merchants. The but the tourist is not long dry in France, tion in France, but we get little help president of the board is a big wine mer- and the man in the street concludes that from visiting Americans. If prohibition chant, and he has told me that if he the American has come to France to is a success in America, it will sweep the thought that his business was not Chris- get away from that awful prohibition. world. It is a failure, it will react tian he would give it up in a minute.” What are we to think when prohibitionist against the efforts of the dry movement
I also talked with Dr. Mono, of the pastors from America demand wine in all over the world."
The American University
THE author was a member
By M. C. HOLLIS HE great word of impression that
tion of a fraternity house meal table good the English visitor takes away HE author was a member enough intellectual chewing-ground for from a study of American uni
of the Oxford debating
the Oliver Wendell Holmes of the fuversities is “organization.” It comes into
ture? his constant vocabulary very early. The
team which recently traveled
Is not the whole philosophy of loyalty idle, easy ways of Oxford and Cambridge, throughout America. True to
to a fraternity a great fraud? I shall boasting that the greater part of the his national instinct, he gives never forget the sight of a man of sixty benefits that they bestow come from us his impressions of the dining with his old fraternity and singing interminable and spontaneous conversa- America that he saw.
with themtions round the fire—these are the things
Delta Tau Delta, most clearly lacking in the American
My home and shelter. university. The football player is almost education to everybody. The experiment a pawn in the hands of his coach. The has demanded the price.
To what was this loyalty? The memdebater often has the words of his speech I have heard Americans argue that she bers, the very building, had changed. written for him by a professor. Classes has by so doing stultified the very pur- There is no way of life of Delta Tau are compulsory. Every breath that the pose of higher education and sacrificed Delta different from that of all the rest of student takes is the university's business, ability to mass mediocrity. Be that as the world. How can a man serve three and he must breathe it at an appropriate it may-and there is much to be said on Greek letters? What result does the and scheduled time.
both sides—it is evident that it makes attempt bring but terrible and crushing In the excess of organization some- education's problem very different. For sameness, man to man, fraternity to frathing is lost, although something is also not only has it brought a volume of stu- ternity? It is just the wrong size; that gained. But it is perhaps the way of the dents to the university, for parallel to is the fraternity's great vice. It is too Englishman to discover the loss much which we have to go back to Europe be- small to
small to be a permanent and enduring sooner than he discovers the reason for fore the Reformation, but-and here the society, too large to be a body of boon it. The reason for it is, of course, partly comparison with the mediævals breaks companions. And this is a vice that it in the American. In America the con- down-the great majority of them can- shares with many instruments of Ameriversationalist is very rare. The American not love learning for its own sake. For can sociability. does not take to the Frenchman's quick the taste is rare. The critic who remem- How necessary is this fear that the throwing to and fro of a conversational bers this finds many of his criticisms individual is being destroyed? It is, of ball. He prefers taking turns at mono- answered. Organization? Yes. But course, obvious that no generalization logue. And he loves organization. The what sort of people are you organizing? about America can be at best more than organization of his social life, the number But here is a question that will not half a truth. But if the Middle West, of his club luncheons, is the wonder of down: Granted that organized athletics, as it sometimes tells the traveler, is the world.
the fraternity system, the amassing of America, then the fear is necessary. For Still, for this organization in the uni- credits, are wise policies with which to the Middle West certainly hates individversities there is a more special reason. meet the problem of the indifferent num- uality. But America, I think, like a wise Here, as in so many other things, Amer- bers, are you not sacrificing to them the shopkeeper, displays its best goods in its ica has undertaken a task quite different genuine lover of learning? And is not a windows, on its east and west coasts. from any that the world has ever before system of education which does such a Why is it that people are best educated seen. The European or English univer- thing a very parody?
when they live by the sea? The advansity has been able to leave the student Nothing is more foolish than an tages of the East are manifest. It has much freedom to learn as he chooses affected eccentricity of superiority. An age and tradition, which is so essential to simply because it has made no attempt to
intellectual who cannot take an ordinary culture. But why, if you leave Yale and cater for the student who does not choose place in the life of the ordinary world the Harvard on the east coast, is it necessary to learn at all. The European university ordinary world can well afford to spare. to travel six days to the west coast to has always been an asylum for the oddity This self-differentiation is the quality one find their equal? Why, if Iowa or Utah with a kink for intellectual interests, a finds in the third-rate; always in a Marie have not forgotten their pioneer days, refuge for the minority. America, the Corelli, and never in a Shakespeare. And has California left them so far behind in first to do so, has tried to give a college yet is there not a danger? Is the conversa- education as in other things? W
often told that it is because the sea brings San Francisco. I think, rather, that the American education is that there is much it into contact with other cultures and explanation, if it is not in natural virtue, too much of it. No one has ever been saves it from the isolation of the Middle is in the climate the climate of Califor. educated in a hurry. Long evenings, the West. But the explanation is surely too nia, which has forced the people, perhaps Socratic threshing out of subjects until facile. I do not believe that the excel- unwillingly, perhaps unadmittingly, into boredom, talk, talk, freedom; all is lence of Stanford is entirely due to the leisure. For a leisurely life is the great- education, and not text-books and credfact that the students go down from Palo est need of the American university of its. It remains to be seen whether the Alto to watch the steamers coming into to-day. By far the greatest vice of Eighteenth Amendment has prohibited it.
The Book Table
Edited by EDMUND PEARSON
sist mainly in the fact that her meaning
hide again. In this characteristic she is Reviews by WILLIAM Rose BENÉT
completely of her century. What she \HIS season boasts several new nouncement that "the only poet who cares most for are the design and the op
monographs upon poetry in its should dare to use free verse is the poet portunity for fandango. And in fandan
fundamental and eternal rela- trained in the ancient laws." That is not gos she indubitably excels. tionship to life, all interesting if not con- new, perhaps, but it holds good. Free Robinson Jeffers comes before us as a clusive. The most recent of these is Mr. verse, as he knows, is no new thing, "but poet of considerable power, emerging John G. Neihardt's "Poetic Values: an ancient and honorable form of from "the golden, remote wild West Their Reality and Our Need of Them;" poetry.” He becomes more original where the sea without shore is" with a while R. C. Trevelyan's "Thamyris; or, when he declares that "the statement new manner of long narrative poem. He Is There a Future for Poetry?” is an- that a restless time demands restless seems fond of the incest motif. He deother brief suggestive discussion of the verse asserts that a thing can best be de- sires to choose themes that will shock. theme. It is not within the scope of this scribed in terms of itself; and that, as It is hard to shock us to-day. Leaving review to treat these particular books, every one knows, is photography, not this quite aside, “Roan Stallion” and but in this connection we may call atten- portraiture;” and also when he neatly“Tamar” and “The Tower Beyond tion to Mr. Struthers Burt's introduction pierces certain of his audience with, “The Tragedy" and a few of his other poems to his volume of poems, “When I Grew man who pleads simplicity and says he are full of intensity and have memorable Up to Middle Age.” 1 He calls that cannot understand poetry is naming passages. His Cassandra is a Cassandra. introduction “Ancient Gossip,” and it is himself not a simple man but—as so
“The Tower Beyond Tragedy” is to us, well entitled. The points he makes in it, many people are nowadays—a partially in fact, one of the most terribly vivid for well or ill, have mostly been made developed man; a man too complex but
revivals of Greek legend that we have before. Yet some of it is cogent. He not complex enough; a 'half-baked' read since Swinburne's “Atalanta.” It burnishes certain old truths that are man."
is not Greek as Swinburne was Greek. It likely to become lost, strayed, or stolen We wish we had space to discuss at is not Greek as any one has been Greek in the strident confusion of the competi- length such running comments as these.
before or since. But some of its motive present.
We have not, and must turn to Mr. ments continue to vibrate in the mind. The older one grows (says Mr. Burt's book itself. Undeniably there is
“Tamar” itself is one of the most conBurt), the more one becomes an poetry here. It has well-wrought pas- gested pieces of writing we have toiled anarchist, realizing how little didactic sages of clear, calm felicity (such as page through in moons, but we find that, in any one should dare to be concerning three of "No One Knows the Country- spite of all its overplus of horrors and such a hidden and delicate subject as side”). It rises to the fantastic brittle organ roar of madness (in spite, we say,
beauty of "Helen Pendicott." It is tra- instead of because of these things), its We feel as if we were that kind of an ditional in manner, for the most part, as
story (which requires a strong stomach) anarchist. The New has now become the English poetry of Freeman and has left a powerful impression. It is the almost as didactic as the Old, and we
Drinkwater is traditional. And it doesn't same with "Roan Stallion.” Mr. Jeflong for a little respite. It is, of course, give a darn that it is.
fers's book contains evidences of creative only a manifestation of human nature Let us juxtapose Miss Edith Sitwell, power of the first order. Mr. Jeffers will that a little later on Mr. Burt himself the varnished flowered-chintz cover of go his own way. We certainly cannot becomes quite didactic. But one of his whose book' expresses aptly the verse
predict how far he will go. didacticisms, even though some may call within. Miss Sitwell takes nonsense and Margaret Widdemer is a poet of emoit moss-grown, needs, we think, to be nursery legend and playful sophistication tion, and sometimes a poet of mere pretblazoned on high in this day and generaand tangles them in a maze of vari
tiness. This recent book of hers is tion: colored yarn. The maze is full of color stronger in many respects than some of
her former ones. “No form of poetry can make poetry, schemes, but sometimes it is a labor to
She can be intensely, but poetry can make any form."
untangle the yarn. There is a fascinaHe lays fitting stress on the protion about Miss Sitwell's helter-skelter of
& Roan Stallion, Tamar, and Other Poems.
By Robinson Jeffers. Boni & Liveright, brilliant phrase that seems often to con- New York. $3. 1 When I Grew Up to Middle Age. By
* Ballads and Lyrics By Margaret WidStruthers Burt. Charles Scribner's Sons, • Troy Park. By Edith Sitwell. Alfred A. demer. Harcourt, Brace & Co., New York. New York. $2. Knopf, New York. $1.75.
cannot claim to have found any work SMITH BONDS
from distinction, certainly. We must lay for December Investment
or January Reservation
By Edward Lucas White.
humorously charming, as in “Orange poems of Spanish America and Russia,
here that seems to us truly enduring.
Proctor. This too shall pass away. cent sound and fury) enough remarkable
Winepress: A Vintage of Verse. By work to assure him a place in American Walter Hart Blumenthal. The Vail-Ballou literature. What he may do in the next
Press, New York. $2. few years is on the knees of the gods.
Fiction Personally, we expect a new annus mirabilis.
H. Doran Company, New York, $2.50. Sister Mary Angelita's book o opens
Mr. White is a classicist, and the pubwith a devotional poem of genuine dis- lishers have given his book a charming tinction, "Signum Cui Contradicetur.”
classical dress. He gets at Helen's psyIt seems to us her most striking poem, chology in a way of his own, and shows though there is charm elsewhere, and the
that her power over men was through beauty of simple devotion. Marguerite her intelligence as well as her beauty. Wilkinson's anthology of Christmas There is a singular enjoyment to be had poems, "Yule Fire,"' contains much one
from this short and spirited narrative of likes to read over and over in this season, chosen episodes in the many years that and is prefaced by a zealous and well
elapsed beginning with Helen's young informed essay in the Christian spirit, girlhood (she was abducted by Theseus upon true and false mysticism among at the age of twelve), on through other things. Our own predilection is for
the siege of Troy, and up to her return a wild kind of faith, and when, at the to Greece with her original husband. end of the book, we swing into Chester- The gods and goddesses are here very ton's “The House of Christmas” we are much in the background, and we are face thrilled the most:
to face with men and women. Menelaus, This world is wild as an old wives' tale, Paris, Deiphobus, Menelaus again-but And strange the plain things are, always Helen is calm and accepts facts The earth is enough and the air is (and men) as they come. There is a enough
legend, not mentioned by Mr. White, For our wonder and our war;
that Helen became after death and in But our rest is as far as the fire-drake
the Isles of the Blest, the bride of swings
Achilles. We hope that she did, and that And our peace is put in impossible
Achilles and Hector fought over her. things Where clashed and thundered un
THE PRIVATE LIFE OF HELEN OF TROY. By thinkable wings
The Bobbs-Merrill Company,
Indianapolis. Round an incredible star.
The beauty of Helen of Troy has long "The Complete Poetical Works of been accepted as an eternal truth, but Edna Dean Proctor” & present for the Mr. Erskine does not content himself first time in one volume the work of a with mere descriptions. This Helen is poet who was a household word in the an absorbing person, with a quick intelhomes of some of our elders. Here are ligence and a lively humor. The world her Columbian poems, her Civil War knows more or less of what happened at poems, her New Hampshire poems, her Troy, but little has been said about the
after-life of the unrepentant Helen, back Collected Poems. By Vachel Lindsay. The Macmillan Company, New York. $3.50. in her Spartan home. It is a scintillat
Starshine and Candlelight. By Sister Mary Angelita, B. V. M. D. Appleton &
ing wit that has pictured Menelaos, the Co., New York. $1.50.
impeccable husband, rushing forth to Yule Fire. By Marguerite Wilkinson. The Macmillan Company, New York. $2.50.
punish his erring wife, finding her "too $ The Complete Poetical Works of Edna beautiful to kill," and finally bringing Dean Proctor. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. $3.
her home, to twist him around her beau
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THE BLACK JOKER.
McBride & Co., New York.
not, Can you afford the time and the money to travel? but, Can you afford not to travel? If you are interested in human behavior from a scientific view-point, if you want to broaden your vision and cultivate a colorful garden of memories, or if you just “like folks,” you should travel.
tiful fingers. The greater part of the admit the truth: that he wrote much
THE FOLLIES OF THE COURTS. By Leigh H the great tragedy of Clytemnestra and Agamemnon, but it is with the extraordi- gcles. $2.50. narily vital character of Helen that the
A sensible, vigorous, and greatly book is mainly concerned. Of love she
needed criticism of our methods of crimsays: "You think love is a crime. Let's
inal justice. Describes American delays, compromise, and say it's a great mis- quibbles, and sentimentalisms which refortune-a misfortune one wouldn't have sult in keeping alive our murderers at the missed.” In a day of “Hamlet” in mufti
expense of thousands of innocent lives. it will not seem strange that the classic
Contrasts these follies with the English characters in this fascinating book con
law, which puts the convicted murderer verse in an altogether modern and some- to death promptly, and thereby discourtimes cynical manner.
ages murder, instead of fostering it. By Isabel
An Autobiography. By Rebekah
Thomas Seltzer, New York. $3.50. ducted girl in fiction. Minions of three
The daughter of one rabbi and the gangs are always grabbing her and she is
widow of another tells her life story. constantly rushed about in airplane, Brought to the United States from Hunship, or motor car. Not for love, how
gary as a little girl in the late 60's, she ever; she is supposed to have "the pa- lived in various centers-Philadelphia, pers” in a great international struggle, Richmond, San Francisco, Baltimore, which, by the way, is never clearly eluci
and New York. Married to the eminent dated. The incidents are exciting, but scholar, Alexander Kohut, many years the plot is plain “tosh.”
her senior, she found all her attention P. A. L. By Felix Riesenberg. Robert M. McBride claimed for a time by domestic duties.
Later, and especially after her husband's This might better be called "Bunk."
death, she took up social work, and here It deals with every species of humbug her activities have covered a wide range. by exploitation. Its P. A. L. believes
The book is interesting and important that the fool who is born every minute
in various ways. For one thing, as the can be caught, and that the way to catch
writer of the Introduction, Miss Henhim is to spend a fortune advertising, rietta Szold, points out, it is unique in then form a stock company, and when
that it is the first American-Jewish autothe bait ceases to catch the suckers
biography by a woman past her thirtieth dump the load on the stockholders and
year, dealing with experience and start something new. The satire would
achievement and mellow influences, "inbe keener if there were less exaggeration stead of the harsh, callous grind of a and more discrimination.
mechanized life.” Here is the story of Literature
one whose arrival in America long ante
dates the coming of the immigrant Boni & Liveright, New York. swarms of her people who crowd the $5.
ghettos, a woman who has lived always Here is one of the fine books of the
in a cultured environment, which, though year. Mr. Macy tries to tell about the predominantly Jewish, has had also its world's literature in five or six hundred
close contacts with Gentile life. The pages; so he has to slight much and
rebellious note of the autobiographies of skim over some rather important authors. young women from the ghetto-justified But he touches all the great figures, and
and socially valuable as that note may writes of them with the enthusiasm of a be-is wholly absent from these pages. lover, the balance of a man of good There are memories of anguished days in sense. Henry James, he says, was “an the record, but they are told with serenintellectual 'shut in;'” Lincoln, of all ity. To Mrs. Kohut "life, above all, is a statesmen in the world, had the finest going on, a never resting." Her portion and strongest literary touch. These are seems to her a miraculous compound "of two bits of sound comment. So is his all the ingredients of life-poverty, criticism of Whitman; he places him struggle, affluence, health, illness, comhigh among our poets, but isn't afraid to panionship, friendship, love, betrayal,
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THE STORY OF THE WORLD'S LITERATURE.
By John Macy.
, January 1 at hand - RESOLVED: To see at least one new place this year.
Have you made that resolution ? The next step is to look over the travel and resort advertising in each issue of The Outlook, and then to address any inquiries about trips to The Outlook's Äotel and Travel Bureau, 120 East
16th Street, New York.