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and the water flowing from it will be Can we get them? Ah! there's the Somebody once s
clear.
rub. We can if the two classes most Kentucky that they were

667 These proposed parks are the two interested will do their share:

or majors." most conspicuous areas in the East as to First, the class which will benefit So we are all interested either because scenery, trees, and plant life. financially by the tourist travel.

we live in one of these National Park It may be admitted that they are sec- Second, the class that travels, espe- States or we are travelers planning to ond to the West in rugged grandeur, but cially people of means.

visit them. they are first in beauty of woods, in The plan offered by Secretary Work If the Congress is confronted with a thrilling fairyland glens, and in the and our Commission is for the two areas great free-will offering of these areas, it warmth of Mother Nature's welcome. to be presented to Congress by the States will undoubtedly accept and develop

When Park roads enable you to motor in which they are located; for that pur- them. No, it will not lead to the multito the highest points, which our Commis- pose money is being solicited from the plication of Eastern National Parks. sion only reached on foot, when you can people of North Carolina, Tennessee, From Secretary Work down to the park get an unobstructed view where we had and Virginia. Very soon the campaign rangers, there is no desire for quantity. to climb trees to see, you may argue that will be extended to the rest of the United The only call is to maintain the National the vistas from these tops are finer than States.

Park quality. These two proposed parks those of the West.

are three hundred miles apart. They Dr. Work, being a physician as well as

are each about sixty miles long by ten an administrator, thinks of these Parks

miles wide. They contain no towns, no in terms of outdoor health of Eastern

railroads, no industries of importance. America.

They look down on the surrounding valOur Commission, being composed of

leys from a ridge elevation of 3,500 feet practical men, thinks with him also of

in Virginia and 4,500 feet in North Carothe business, social, and political advan

lina and Tennessee. (These figures can tages of the mingling of the North with

both be increased in special places.) the South, of the West with the East.

They have splendid glens, waterfalls, and Surely democracy can have no better

rock formations. Their like will hardly school-room than a National Park where

be found elsewhere in the East. all meet as equals to learn and enjoy.

WILLIAM C. GREGG.

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(C) Haynes, St. Paul

A National Park family. Protection of forests and game makes possible such photographs as this

Afford Farm Relief

By DON C. SEITZ

P

A

sea. Therefore the farm does not require B!

RESIDENT CALVIN COOL- that forced by owners and miners upon grain, fruit, vegetables, meat, milk, and

IDGE in his recent address, in the consumers of coal. Nothing more poultry products; or, briefly, the thing:

which he strove to convey some cruel could be devised than an agrarian required for daily food. consolation to the farmers of America, monopoly. Were it possible to perfect urged closer co-operation among them, such a thing, the results would be hor- LL the co-operation in the world the building of bigger barns, and the rible. The usual farmer is not a man of would have done the farmers of the holding of crops for better markets. In much mercy. The only person who ever town no good. It would probably have short, he wished them to adopt the meth- refused me a cup of water was a farmer. made their plight worse, and certainly ods of the trusts and combines. Farmers Yet without him the world would have added immeasurably to their unand workmen being exempt from the starve. Synthetic food products are not popularity. There are just about 189 operations of the anti-trust laws, there refreshing. “The same thing” is never farmers in the town. Supposing the comwas no impropriety in the advice. Its as good as the original. We need the munity had co-operated and by a decent weakness lies in the fact that it will not farmer, therefore, much more than he merchandising system distributed the work, and that, if it did, great hardship needs us, but fail lamentably to appre- $189,000 among the farmers of the town. would result to the consumers of the ciate the fact. Henry George fought What would have happened? For one country.

land monopoly for fear it would become thing, the vast friction of handling and

the greatest source of economic oppres- financing would have been avoided and A

LL wealth comes from the soil or the sion. Fortunately, his imaginings have one hundred per cent of the money re

sea. Part is derived from the re- not come true, else we might have hun- mained at home. Instead of skinning productive powers of nature; part from gry hordes pillaging the farms, as has his wood lot to get ready money, the looting the storehouses of the earth. The happened more than once in Europe, farmer would have it for his products, first is perpetual, the second destructive. where the farmer does co-operate and now miserably marketed, and, to a conWe capitalize the mines and oil wells, but oppress.

siderable extent, sent away at low prices. their end is zero. Not so the soil and

One thousand dollars per year per

UT our farmer has a just grievance farmer, plus the living provided by the anything in the nature of a sinking fund that can and should be remedied. To farm, would make him the most prosor amortizing of profits to cover its ex- do it requires co-operation, not on the perous and contented of men. haustion. In this respect the farmer is part of the farmer, but of the community. This is true co-operation, the kind that the most advantageously situated capi. This he seldom or never gets. I mean by should be studied and worked out. The talist. He can feed himself, his family, this that, instead of asking the farmer to affluent agriculturists of Berks, York, and his stock, and be therefore invincible combine and hold up the community, the and Lancaster Counties in Pennsylvania against economic disaster, to which other community should combine and uphold are not rich because they are “Pennsylinvestors are exposed. Where the farmer the farmer. It would require actuarial vania Dutch,” but because the commufails is when he neglects this fundamental accomplishments far beyond my own to nities of Reading, York, Hanover, and and strives, as the cotton, wheat, and figure out the extent to which overhead Lancaster support the adjacent farms. corn growers do, to make one crop care is piled upon the products of the soil. The morning markets in Lancaster are for all his requirements. This brings him There is enough wool in the fleece of the something to behold. Here the choicest the need of money and all the incidental average sheep to make a suit of clothes. food products are offered at moderate embarrassments, if prices are low and his For this, at present prices, the sheep prices. Pocketbooks and stomachs are necessities high-as they all too often are. grower would receive $3.50. Yet the alike distended. The community Co

It is to remedy the situation of such commonest suit the farmer buys would operates with the farmer to his great as these that farm blocs foment in Con- cost him $35, and the city man, to or- advantage and its own. What is done gress and fracture the peace of parties. der, from $50 to $125. The rest is the here could be done elsewhere. The one-crop men are the problem. That in-between. This rides the sheep pretty But I do not urge that it be through they should, and could, diversify goes hard.

street markets, but by the merchants. without saying. To acquire prosperity, Of course industrial factors cannot be How easy it would be for these gentlehowever, means the marketing of a sur- fairly quoted in support of my suggestion men, instead of roaring as Lions or whizplus beyond the needs of the farm, as to co-operation, though there is a zing as Rotarians, to get together and whether the crops grown be one or many. chance for improvement here. The big decide to treat the farmer decently, to The farmer needs a bank account, or thing for community co-operation lies in give him real money instead of "store feels the need of it, even if bins and cel- handling the food supply. Not long ago

credit” for his products, if they only lar be full and the family fat. How can I was shocked at the poor showing made would, and how amazingly beneficial the he get it?

in wealth-growing by my old town in results would be all around! Certainly not by the President's pro- Maine. The local bank cashier said that How easy it would be for such coposed method. Seven million five hun- there was nothing strange about it. “I operators to get together and check up dred thousand farmers and their families sent away from this town last year,” he their requirements—how many pounds cannot combine to hold up the other said, “$189,000 for stuff that could have of meat; how much milk, butter, and two-thirds of the populace, who could be been raised here.”

cheese; how many bushels of wheat, made the victims of extortion beyond He meant by this money expended for corn, oats, potatoes, beans, peas, pears,

peaches; how many dozen eggs; how something real for him, besides getting and not to the tiller of the soil. It will much poultry, the town requires, and him further into debt.

in the end be the greatest gainer, but he apportion this by requisition among the

in turn will have a just reward. Let us adjacent farms, each according to its UTOPIA is not impossible. What away with the quack remedies of tariffs, capacity! How joyously the farmers greater guerdon of prosperity could legislation, farm banks, and other forms would come to welcome a regular market be given than such a process of co-opera

of so-called aid that only perpetuate and cash pay, as against a measly credit, tion? What finer form of civilized life peonage. Let the Chambers of Comtoo often taken up in inferior goods at is there than prosperous towns centered merce and Boards of Trade quit talkoutrageous prices! How the community amid prosperous farms, linked up bying to the farmers through their hats. would rejoice at fresh food "right off the good roads and motor transport? The and do it through their pockets. Then, farm”!

social isolation of the farmer is gone. and then alone, can the soil be given its Quit treating him as a jay to be His economic isolation should follow. due and the community remain even plucked or as a fool to be beguiled. Do The task belongs to the community, more secure in its own.

Power from the Heights

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By ELBERT FRANCIS BALDWIN
The Outlook's Editor in Europe puts on his climbing boots and

sends us some news from the Alps 10 her alarm, Switzerland saw re- this?" asks perhaps some critic. The This morning I rose at six, so as to

cently how war could deprive political power in Switzerland—that is to be early on the way. I went north by her of coal.

say, the Federal Assembly-discusses the Rhône Valley to Vernayaz, where I Unfortunately, Switzerland has no and pronounces upon the annual budgets turned east, passing the famous Trient coal mines. To get this commodity she of the Federal Railways. For the Barhas to pay every year immense sums to berine enterprise it was also necessary to foreign countries, chiefly to Germany. obtain authorization, not only from the

Henceforth so far as most of her rail- canton of Valais, but also from the Conway fuel is concerned those sums will re- federation itself. In such discussion and main in Switzerland. The utilization of authorization politics may enter. Hapwater power in hydraulic force, develop- pily, no "concessions” were needed to ing electrical energy, is replacing coal, gain political parties or politicians to the and is thus a savings bank for Switzer- Barberine project. All recognized its land.

necessity. Thanks to this, it has been One of the latest enterprises of this and is a purely technical question, wholly sort is that of Barberine, east of Mont within the domain of engineers. Blanc and just this side of the French The work of construction has lasted frontier. Barberine lies above Châte- five years; it was completed in Septemlard, on the Martigny-Chamonix line. ber.

The project was undertaken by the I have been wanting to see it. So, in Electrical Division of the Swiss Federal coming from Italy, I stopped here at Railways. It acquired the waters of the Martigny. The good little Hotel Kluser Barberine brook with a view to trans- now replaces the old Hotel Clerc, well forming them into electrical energy by known to generations of travelers going creating a lake and by constructing from Switzerland to Italy by the St. hydroelectric centers to furnish power for Bernard Pass or from Switzerland to railway transportation.

France by the villages of Finhaut, "Did politics have anything to do with Châtelard, and Chamonix.

[graphic]

Courtesy Swiss Federal Railways

The machinery building, pressure conduit, and funicular of the Barberine power works in the Valais, Switzerland

[graphic]

Courtesy Swiss Federal Railways

A general view of the new Barberine power works of the Swiss Federal Railways above Montigny, in the Valais

Gorge, and followed the smaller valley standard-gauge, narrow-gauge, and in- climb easily," she replied, and then up to Châtelard a superb trip.

clined-plane railways, covers nearly added: “There will probably be room As I was too late for the inclined rail- 3,800 miles. About half the whole is enough for you to stand on the open way, I tackled the little path leading up represented by the Swiss Federal Rail- freight car coming down at the end of to Barberine. As one ascends the first ways.

the afternoon.” sight is of an immense generating power- The farther I ascended, the more I calculated rapidly, and made out house, a monumental construction, ap- beautiful were the views. After having that there would be just enough time in parently built for eternity.

gone a goodish distance, stopping every this short day at the end of autumn for This plant, covering the Barberine hy- few paces to enjoy some new spectacle, I the ascent and for a brief visit. So, after draulic forces, is being connected and found myself on a small mountainside half an hour for lunch, I resumed my will be worked with that of Vernayaz. plateau, just large enough for a number walk. They can be relied on to furnish the of houses. As I was beginning to get The path now became rude and diffichief energy for moving the trains on the hungry, I noted by a sign, to my great

hungry, I noted by a sign, to my great cult; it was often built up and often holnow electrified Simplon route-namely, satisfaction, that one of the houses was lowed in the rock. from Vallorbe, on the French frontier at an inn. Approaching nearer, however, I Sometimes it came close to the inclined the north, by way of Lausanne, through saw that the window-blinds were all railway. That railway also had to keep the Simplon Tunnel, the longest in Eu- shut; the little hotel was evidently closed a dizzy grade, reaching 86 per cent. rope, on the Italian frontier at the south. to guests after the season of the warmer That seems rather close to the vertical! This line is a European artery. It forms months. Fortunately for me, I investi- This transportation facility has made the shortest communication for England gated the other side of the house, and an enormous difference with conditions and northern France with Italy and the discovered the landlady in the cellar. I at the beginning of the work of construcBalkáns.

persuaded her to give me something to tion. A first difficulty with that work Later the Châtelard and Vernayaz eat-bread, cheese, even eggs, to which was the lack of means of access. Transpower-houses are to be connected with she added a glass of Valais-she actually portation of material and food could only the power stations in central Switzer- had some Montibeux! At that moment be accomplished from Finhaut over the land, at Amsteg in the Reuss Valley and for me the repast became Lucullian! Gueula Pass by mule or human back. at Ritom on the Gothard. This will I asked my hostess, "How much time Some twelve hundred tons were thus carsuffice to feed the Swiss mileage to be will it take to go up from here to Bar- ried up before the inclined railway was electrified--two-thirds of the total—by berine?"

built. This reminds one of the labors 1929. The Swiss mileage, comprising "Well, from two to three hours if you of the ancient Egyptians. They carried on their backs stones for their gigantic alongside the inclined railway to the tur- Vernayaz will be, it is estimated, no less pyramids.

bines of the Châtelard power-house. than two hundred and thirty million From time to time a look over my And now I set forth for the dam, kilowatts-it should save at least 350,shoulder made me appreciate the valley's higher still. The dam is a titanic 000 tons of coal a year. And coal comes depth. I could also appreciate the achievement. It is some 250 feet high, high here! height I was gaining. I had long since and in shape bends like a bow. At its All this power is intended for railway reached the snow level. At first a fringe, 'top it is nearly 900 feet long, but only use. Any sale of power is not contemthe snow had become thick. Though I 10 feet wide; at its base it is 185 feet plated unless there should be an excess found it much less chill and wet than the wide. Fifty thousand tons of cement from all the power-houses together. The snows of our great cities, my path had were required for its masonry.

railways could even petition the Federal become more and more invisible. Fi- This colossal affair, closing the Bar- Council for authorization to export power

nally, I could not make it out. The re- berine defile, has created an artificial abroad. This, however, I feel sure, they ·cent traces, seen occasionally, of chamois lake extending over more than four hun- will not do. feet naturally indicated nothing.

dred acres and with a capacity of almost Near the dam one sees some thirty To crown all, near Château d'Eau a forty million cubic meters.

buildings--forges, repair shops, adminissnow hurricane reached me. At times,

Instead of spoiling the scenery, the trative bureaus, a compressor station, a for an instant, the clouds cleared a bit lake is surely more picturesque than was heating plant, a restaurant, dormitories, and I caught glimpses of glaciers in the the large stony and dreary bed of the a foyer, an infirmary, a clothing and not too far distance, the sun actually brook, spreading itself in the defile and grocery store, etc. shining on them! It was magnificent! above the vegetation line. Around the The total cost of this latest electrifica

More time was thus needed than my lake stand some majestic summits of the tion venture will reach well over sixteen hostess had foreseen to reach Château Mont Blanc chain.

million dollars. d'Eau, where the variations of water- From this point to the Châtelard In leaving its territory up on the pressure are deadened; the water comes power-house the net fall of water is pro- heights I saw a freight car, laden, on the from the Barberine Lake by a rock-cut digious. Sixty thousand horse-power is inclined railway, about ready to be sent gallery and passes into a forced conduit developed at the Châtelard. The yearly down, and hastened to add myself to its through a great pipe running down quantity of energy from Châtelard and load.

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