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ber, were business men with an earnest The Conference called the attention of ence or proper functioning of large-scale desire to improve the codes and practices the Secretary of Commerce to the need business.” of their calling, editors, economists, and for uniformity of weights and measures The Conference recommended to the trade association officials.

throughout the United States and for in- Chamber of Commerce of the United In order to arrive at a means for re- formation of the public on the processes States early consideration of the wisdom ducing costly fluctuations of price due to of distribution. Co-operation was pledged of suggesting amendments to the Sherlack of co-ordination between the rate of to advance uniformity in State legisla- man Anti-Trust Act, the Clayton Act, production and the rate of consumption, tion affecting distribution. Commercial and the Federal Trade Commission Act. the Conference determined to continue bribery was condemned. The Chamber its study of the field of distribution and of Commerce of the United States was to advise the United States Department asked to determine the advisability of a

The Greatest Foe of of Commerce of the need for separation comprehensive study of the effect of in- Militarism in China of distribution expenses from production stallment selling on the consuming pubcost in its biennial census compilations. lic and on business.

HINA has been so long considered Business men were urged to familiarize It was agreed that large aggregations

a model of pacifism that it is themselves with the statistics of distribu- of capital “intelligently administered and

hard for the Western mind to tion prepared by the Federal Reserve under proper regulation are capable of realize that no country in the world is so Board and its regional banks and to rendering a valuable service and should dominated by the military as China is co-operate in the development of this not be discriminated against when their to-day. As a matter of fact, China has service. Trade associations, chambers of operations are in the public interest.” always been subject to the domination of commerce, and other business organiza. The committee reporting on general con- military chiefs. In that respect China of tions were called upon to uphold and to ditions affecting distribution said that, the twentieth century is much like Eumake more effective right principles of while large-scale business cannot object rope of the Middle Ages. business conduct. Business organizations to regulations which affect the public in- What is significant in the present conwere urged, also, to provide means for terest, "it can properly object to regula- flict between these military chiefs, or the conciliation or arbitration of business tions in favor of less efficient competitors tuchuns, is that for the first time Chinese disputes.

when such regulations imperil the exist- nationality has become an issue. GenOne of the most important resolutions adopted asked that the President of the

Sapajon in the North China Daily News
Chamber of Commerce of the United
States appoint a "Joint Trade Relations

TARIFF

CONFERENCE Committee formed of representatives of manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers, and the consuming public, to act as a clearing-house for complaints of objectionable and destructive practices and to promote such co-ordination as will effect economies and improve mutual relations.” Some delegates, however, expressed a fear that the establishment of such a committee might run counter to the Sherman Anti-Trust Law.

A biennial enumeration of distribution agencies, to be made by the United States Bureau of the Census, was recommended. Secretary of Commerce Hoover suggested, however, that the work might be better done by a research organization created by and under control of the Conference itself.

The Conference declared that existing wastes in advertising are the result, in large part, of lack of marketing information and poor correlation of advertising with the sale of products. It recommended as a remedy a permanent Market Research Planning Commission.

Individual distributers were urged to educate consumers on the cost of service. Business men were asked to co-operate to repress dishonest business failures. The

Such a lovely game of ball amended system of procedure of the Fed

(A view of Feng as seen in China) eral Trade Commission was commended. From Louise Thompson, Shanghai, China

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eral Feng, the so-called Christian gen- Radek and every Russian Bolshevist that the freedom of China from the dominaeral, is really a leader in the expression the Southern Government is a compara- tion of outsiders. of this nationalistic spirit. He is China's tively uninfluential factor in the life of Cromwell, determined to make his coun- China. What Moscow is doing in China War and the Law try free of military domination within is not with any hope of making the conand foreign domination without. He is servative landowning Chinese into Bolsh- OMETIMES war has been likened the incarnation of the unborn national evists, but in order to whip up the anti- to dueling. It has been argued self-consciousness, ready to punish unto foreign feeling. That anti-foreign feeling that as dueling has become antideath all who insist on keeping China in was apparent in China long before the quated and has been virtually abolished bondage.

Communists entered the field. But the by the substitution of courts of law to And yet he is attacked, not only on the Communists contributed to the propaga

which individuals can appeal for the setground that, like other military chiefs, he tion of that feeling.

tlement of disputes between them, so seeks control of Chinese revenues, but General Feng, therefore, is accepting war can be made unnecessary and viralso on the ground that he is friendly all the help he can get from the Russian tually abolished by the establishment of with the Russian Bolsheviki. He is de

an international court to which governnounced as a Red.

ments can appeal for the settlement of That he has been friendly with the

international disputes. If war were but Russians is undenied; but his friendliness

international dueling, then doubtless it with them is due to the fact that they

could be replaced by courts, and there have promised to help him in setting

would be a chance for substituting "law China free. It is from territory con

for war." But since the Middle Ages trolled by the Soviets that he can most

war among civilized nations has seldom easily get supplies. It is from Russia that

been merely international dueling; it has the most practicable aid has come to

been in every great instance something those who are moved by the national

much more fundamental. spirit, which, because of China's past

The Napoleonic wars, for example, subjection to foreign Powers, is anti

were not duels to settle international disforeign.

putes. The issues were not issues of law. This does not mean, however, that

What happened during the Napoleonic Feng is Bolshevist or that he represents

period could never have been prevented any large movement toward the Soviet

by any court. Those wars were the idea. In fact, the Russians themselves

product of the French Revolution, which know very well that China is not fertile

in turn was the product of the rise of ground for Bolshevist seeds. There is a

what we call democracy in the midst of Bolshevist center in China, and from this

privilege and oppression. Those wars center Red ideas may in time spread

were the forcible wiping out of inequali

(C) Henry Miller News Picture Service, Inc. farther. This center is the Southern

Feng, China's Christian General

ties, of unearned privileges, of little and Chinese Government at Canton. As

big autocracies, all of them legally inRadek, the leading Russian Communist Bolsheviki, not because he is a Bolsh- trenched. There were, of course, involved expert on foreign affairs, has said in an evist, but because he is a nationalist. in these wars incidental disputes between article in the "Pravda” for the first of In the war that has been going on be- the nations, but they were not the causes last September), “The Southern Govern- tween Feng Hu-hsiang and Chang Tso- of the wars. The so-called Civil War in ment is the only government of workmen lin Chang, on the whole, represents a this country was not a duel to settle a and peasants in China.” It is controlled policy favorable to the Powers, especially dispute between the States; if it had by the revolutionary party that had Japan, while Feng represents the new been, it would never have happened, for been founded by the late Dr. Sun Yat- anti-foreign feeling and embryonic pa- there was, as a matter of fact, a court set sen. Originally merely republican, it has triotism of the Chinese. Indeed, if

up for the very purpose of settling interundergone an important evolution, and Feng's policy prevails, the effect will be State disputes. The United States Suits left wing, composed mainly of intel- injurious to the old military chieftains preme Court did not prevent the War of lectuals, has fallen into the hands of and a breakdown of Chinese militarism. Secession, because the issue was not one Communists. The Southern Govern- Feng's army is the most efficient in subject to legal settlement. The World ment has confiscated pagodas, church China to-day. His soldiers are disci- War was not for the settlement of a disproperty, and religious objects and sold plined. His military camps are orderly. pute between the nations. There was no them at public auction. It has imitated He represents the closest approach that dispute whatever as to the legal right in many respects the methods of Mos- any one in China has made to modern and wrong of Germany's action. The cow. It has also, as Radek acknowl- military methods. It is just because of German Government itself acknowledged edges, become an important center of that fact that he is the greatest menace

that it was committing a legal wrong. propaganda. There are the headquarters to Chinese militarism there is. On the About that there was absolutely no disof the Sailors' Union, which covers military field Feng stands for the very pute whatever. Those who seek to jussouthern China, Hawaii, the Philippines, thing which in diplomacy the Chinese tify Germany do so on extra-legal and the adjoining British and Dutch delegates at the conference with the for- grounds. The Allies were engaged not in colonies. But no one knows better than eign Powers are endeavoring to foster- any attempt to settle a dispute, but in a

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ish war.

desperate resistance to an enterprise that A Plague on

A Plague on Both Your ceived the happy idea of presenting one they would have resisted just as des

of the most mysterious and inexplicable perately if it had had the sanction of law.

Houses !

plays of Shakespeare in modern dress, If this country joins the Permanent HE public in general and con- and. we now have Hamlet clad in a Court of International Justice, as it

sumers of anthracite (at such dinner coat and smoking a cigarette; should, under proper safeguards, it ought

times as they can get it) in par

Horatio sporting a Burberry ulster and not to do so under any misapprehension. ticular are out of patience with both the a Henry Heath fedora hat; Polonius By joining such a court it will not ahol- war factions in the coal strike. The decked out in a swallow-tail, white waist

It will not even greatly lessen leaders do not act like men who want to coat, and monocle; the Queen of Denthe chance that it will in some future settle a dispute. Whenever a move for mark and Ophelia charmingly arrayed in exigency be involved in war. Some wars conference is suggested, whether by Gov- evening gowns by Poiret; and an automay be prevented by court decisions, but ernor Pinchot, or the business men and matic pistol substituted for the convennot all wars. If great wars are to be pre- mayors of the coal field, or by clergy- tional sword in the unintentional assasvented, it must be by other than merely men who know the deprivations among sination of Ophelia's father. Thus the legal means. If, for example, what the the poor, or even by humble press men discussion of Shakespeare's motives, purRussian Bolsheviki stand for should be- who strive in vain to convince miners and poses, and subtleties, which after blazcome a great world force, no court could operators that the public has rights and ing for more than two hundred years settle the issue between the fanatics who interests, forthwith the leaders on one had about burned out, has flared up believe in it and the lovers of liberty who side or the other declare that conference again. would resist it to the death.

is impossible unless this or that is agreed I went the other night to see this The cause of the International Court

upon or ruled out before conference. modern version of “Hamlet,” which is does not need to be buttressed by illu- What is conference for if not to iron now being played in New York. It is sions. It is sufficiently strong to stand out difficulties? If permanent high excellently well done and deserves a beton its solid merits. Those who lead profits and high wages could be insured ter public support than it is receiving, others to expect of it what it cannot give in advance, the other matters could be for it is an interesting and entertaining

merely inviting disappointment. adjusted in a day. These people, labor spectacle and the play-goer realizes as America should join the Court for what leaders and operators' leaders, do not act never before, perhaps—I did, at any it is, and not for what it is not. It is not as if they were in earnest.

They say

rate—that Shakespeare was a human a substitute for war. It is a means for "Peace, peace,” but there is no peace in being, like the rest of us, and not a mysdetermining and supporting legal rights. their hearts-only victory at the con- terious and miraculous kind of superDiplomacy, arbitration, education of sumers' expense.

genius. The fact is that human nature public opinion, and power mustered in "A plague on both your houses!” says is in itself a miracle which we do not the interest of peace and against aggres- the disgusted public. "We must and will understand and cannot explain. To try sion are the chief resources of the nations look elsewhere for relief. We must use to make towering specimens like Abrain the prevention of war. Nothing can other kinds of fuel than hard coal this ham Lincoln and William Shakespeare take the place of the will to peace; and winter, as a majority of people in Amer- sports, in the biological sense of that when that is reinforced with power it can ica do always; and if Congress does not word--that is to say, inexplicable and prevent war. Nothing else can.

follow the suggestion of the President to spontaneous variations from the normal The determination of the legal rights act upon the recommendations of the type-really detracts from their greatof nations, the decision of what is just Coal Commission of 1923, then we must When you see “Hamlet in Modunder international law, is an end in it- settle down to permanent use of other ern Dress," you see Shakespeare as he self, and to that end the United States fuel and emancipation from the dictation really was, a playwright and theatrical should lend the weight of its approval to of anthracite magnates and labor union manager who wrote for the box-office the World Court. leaders.”

and not for posterity. His transcendent genius appears in his knowledge of human nature, its passions, its vices, its virtues—in his comprehension of life and his unsurpassed literary expression of

that life. By LAWRENCE F. ABBOTT

He paid little attention to

what the sophisticated call the dramatic Contributing Editor of The Outlook

unities. He thought little about the laws SUPPOSE that a greater volume of not only the subject but the world at of time and space and geography. What comment, criticism, and interpreta large had been exhausted. All that he wanted to do was to hold his audi

tion has been written and spoken Shakespeare wrote and did, so far as the ences spellbound over the tragedies and about the plays and poems of Shake- world could discover it, has been an- set them rocking with laughter over the speare than about any other body of alyzed to the last particular in the humors of life as he saw it all about him. literature that has ever been produced by laboratory of criticism.

If he could do this by introducing a man with the exception of that collec- But just as the play-going and play- couple of English peasants as gravetion of prose and poetry which we call reading world had come to regard the diggers into a Danish historical romance the Bible. Every aspect of Shakespeare genius of Shakespeare as a fixed quan- and melodrama, he did it without thinkand his works has been so discussed and tity, like a chemical element in the uni- ing much about inconsistencies and rediscussed that it sometimes seems as if verse, some original in England con- anachronisms. This aspect of his dra

ness.

Shakespeare in a New Dress

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matic art shows itself very clearly in a mentioned twenty-four times. One of mark one day when, in discussing the dinner-coated Hamlet. We fail to see it Johnson's lesser-known works is his edi- French drama, he remarked that “Corin the conventional Hamlet, because the tion of Shakespeare, of which Mrs. neille is to Shakespeare as a clipped whole thing is archaic and the grave-dig- Thrale said: “It is observable in his hedge is to a forest." gers seem as natural as Hamlet himself. preface to Shakespeare, that while other

The humanity of Shakespeare imIt is a pity that the audiences which critics expatiate on the creative powers pressed itself also upon Emerson, as have seen "Hamlet in Modern Dress" and vivid imagination of that matchless these sentences of his indicate: “Who have not been larger. I suppose the

saw Milton, who saw Shakespeare, saw highbrows fight shy of it because it is

them do their best and utter their whole modern and the lowbrows because it is

heart manlike among their brethren." ancient. As a matter of fact, it is rat

"An omnipresent humanity co-ordinates tling good melodrama of the "unhand

all his faculties." "Some able and apme, villain," type, with this supreme

preciating critics think no criticism on advantage, however, it was written by

Shakespeare valuable that does not rest an incomparable master of literary style

purely on the dramatic merit. ... I think and imagination.

as highly as these critics of his dramatic I should be sorry to have it supposed

merit, but still think it secondary. He from these casual comments on the com

was a full man, who liked to talk; a mon humanity and modernity of Shake

brain exhaling thoughts and images, speare that I am small and presumptuous

which, seeking vent, found the drama enough to try to belittle him. Not at all.

next at hand. Had he been less, we I am trying to defend him from that

should have had to consider how well he kind of mistaken scholarship which has

filled his place, how good a dramatist he so set him apart from ordinary life that

was—and he is the best in the world. many intelligent men and women grow

But it turns out that what he has to say up with the idea that he is incompre

is of that weight as to withdraw some hensible. Unfortunately, this is the in

attention from the vehicle." fluence that a certain kind of scholarship

Dinner coats and revolvers cannot dehas had upon all classical literature. The

stroy what Shakespeare has to say. In Bible has suffered from it as much as

some respects I think they help it, for Shakespeare. It might not be a bad

they prove the truth of what Emerson thing for some daring innovator to give

asserts, that the vehicle is secondary and us the story of Esther or the story of

that the essential is Shakespeare himself. David on the stage, not in modern lan

To discourse on “Hamlet” without guage, but in modern dress. Both are

alluding to the Shakespeare-Bacon conmelodramatic, but very human. I could

troversy would be singular, or at least not write a scenario to save my life, but

unfashionable. A small but vociferous perhaps Mr. Will Hays might find some

group of persons tell us that we cannot one to make a moving picture out of the

believe in Shakespeare because his origin life of David. It would certainly be

was so humble and his education so limvery moving, not merely in the techni

ited. Perhaps three hundred years hence cal sense, but in its effect on the emo

literary skeptics of the same type of tions. David's fight with Goliath, his

mind will assert that Lincoln could not friendship for Jonathan, his poignant la

have written the Second Inaugural or the ment over the death of his son Absalom,

Gettysburg Speech and prove by inand his love affair with the beautiful

genious ciphers that they were the work Bathsheba run the gamut of human ex

of Charles Sumner. Moreover, the Baperience. One may imagine Shakespeare

conians argue that if Shakespeare the as being tempted to try his hand at the

obscure play-actor had been Shakespeare dramatization of the life of David but

the supreme playwright the records of his Maurice Goldberg. Courtesy Bonwit Teller & Co. being estopped by the thought of the

external life could not have been so frag

Helen Chandler, who plays the part of effect which the theological prejudices of

Ophelia in “Hamlet in Modern Dress'

mentary and meager as they are. This the day might have upon his box-office

argument is sometimes a poser, I confess. receipts.

poet, Dr. Johnson commends him for But only yesterday I stumbled on a On coming home from “Hamlet in giving so just a representation of human concise and, for me at least, conclusive Modern Dress” I was interested to see manners.” Of this same preface Adam answer. In a somewhat haphazard readwhat two of the wisest critics who have Smith, author of "The Wealth of Na- ing of an essay on George Borrow by ever written in the English language had tions," observed that it was the most Theodore Watts-Dunton I came across to say about Shakespeare-Dr. Johnson manly piece of criticism that was ever the following comment on Shakespeare — and Emerson. In the general index of published in any country. Dr. Johnson a kind of obiter dictum: John Murray's edition of Boswell, pub- was not always just to French culture

In these days no lives, as a rule, are lished in London in 1835, Shakespeare is and literature, but he certainly hit the less adventurous, none, as a rule, less

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tinged with romance, than the lives of those who attain eminence in the world of letters. . . . Perhaps one reason why we have almost no record of what the greatest of all writing men was doing in the world is that while

his friends were elbowing the tide of
life in the streets of London, or fight-
ing in the Low Countries, or carousing
at the Mermaid Tavern, or at the
Apollo Saloon, he was filling every
moment with work-work which en-

abled him, before he reached his fiftysecond year, to build up that literary monument of his, that edifice which made the monuments of the others, his contemporaries, seem like the handiwork of pygmies.

The Film Trust vs. the Government

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The Outlook of November 25 I cost $800,000. The average cost of he then offer the actress a measly $250,000 outlined the main points in the ordinary feature picture during the past to quit the pictures for all time?"

Government's brief in the Federal two or three years has been about $200,- 7. Denial that the Famous Players Trade Commission's investigation of the 000.” Exceptional cases were cited— Company has close connections with Famous Players-Lasky Corporation and e. g., "The Ten Commandments," $1,- Marcus Loew or the First National Comallied moving-picture corporations. Coun- 600,000; and “The Thief of Bagdad," pany other than minor mutual relations sel for the Government commission $2,000,000. These increases are attrib- as customers and minor stockholders in charged the moving-picture corporations uted to intense competition.

an inconsequential number of theaters. (and Adolph Zukor, head of the Famous 2. Contention that a motion-picture 8. That the desire of the Commission's Players in particular) with an attempt at producer may lawfully sell his product counsel that the Famous Players Comthe monopoly of the motion-picture in- direct and own the facilities for such sale, pany be forced to sell its theaters cannot dustry and of coercion, intimidation, and as do Ford and certain other manufac- be granted, as it exceeds the authority of conspiracy for the restraint of trade. turers in marketing their products. The the Federal Trade Commission to issue

The brief for Zukor and the Famous Government's reply brief, however, states such an order. Players admits that they control the best that it has no objection to producers To an outsider it seems that the detheaters and make the best pictures and selling direct, but that no producers or fense of the moving-picture people conthat Zukor is a dominating figure in combination of them should be permitted sists of many evasions of the Government the industry, but specifically denies the to corner any section, and that in the charges. For example, they seek to other charges. The defense counsel says moving-picture field the South and other prove that they control only a very small that it is true that the Famous Players sections are controlled by the respon- percentage of the country's movie theaCompany is commercializing art and dents.

ters. This is a quibble in terms, for the making it pay dividends, but he puts the 3. That the only conspiracy shown in Government's contention is that they question, "What of it?"

the records is one against the Famous control the first-run theaters. It is of Inasmuch as the Famous Players de- Players Company, and not one by them. little importance whether or not they fense brief covers 970 pages, it will only The “real monopoly,” it claims, is com- control the majority of small picture be possible here to state briefly the eight posed of a combination of so-called “in- houses. Also the percentages arrived at points of the defense argument:

dependents," who have combined against by the Famous Players Company take 1. A denial that the Famous Players the Famous Players Company, but with no account of the large business of the Company or its constituent corporations whom "counsel for the Commission bra- other moving-picture corporations with now have or have ever had any sem- zenly links arms.” Instead of the at- which the Government claims Mr. Zukor blance of a monopoly. In 1924 the total tempt of the Famous Players Company

tempt of the Famous Players Company and the Famous Players have acquired estimated admissions to movie theaters to stifle the First National Company, it influential control. Though this is deaggregated $540,000,000, with the to- claims that in reality the First National nied by the defense, it seems to be tal film rentals reaching $155,000,000. Company was trying to stifle the Famous quite well established by the Govern"Naturally," it says, “this growth has Players.

ment. been attended by some confusion, and 4. Denial of the use of unfair or coer- The hearing has now degenerated into the previous experiences of many of cive measures in the acquisition of thea- a denunciation by both sides of the opthose who were prominent in its early ters or in the sale of pictures. If any posing counsels. It is also noticeable stages, coupled with the temperamental unfairness was practiced, it was only the that some of the members of the Federal character of the business, has made for local field of exhibition, and does not Trade Commission are not satisfied with intense and bitter competition.” To-day, come under the Inter-State Commerce the preparation of the case by the Comhowever, the industry is approaching Act, and therefore the Commission has mission's counsel. On the other hand, stabilization and its larger units have ob- no jurisdiction. Zukor was characterized the Commission has taken official cogtained a position fairly comparable with as being conspired against by his bitter- nizance of its chief counsel's petition to those in other industries. The brief ad- est enemies, and he was likened to Edi- reopen the investigation, and has set mits that the Famous Players Corpora- son, Ford, and others as being a man of January 6 as the date for the new evition is predominant in the production vision and the savior of the movie indus- dence. At that time the Government of pictures, but reasons that this is be- try.

promises to show evidence of further cause it controls the best directors and 5. It admits “block booking” (that conspiracy and promiscuous theater buythe best executive and dramatic skill, and is, the necessity of buying all the pictures ing since the close of the testimony taken asks the question, "When was it a crime or none), but claims that it does not ad- in 1924. to surpass others in quality?” The enor- versely affect meritorious competitive It is impossible to foretell when a demous growth in the manufacturing cost pictures.

cision will be handed down, but all indiof feature films was illustrated by the fol- 6. Mary Pickford's testimony is called cations point away from any definite - lowing statements: “In 1912 the average "utterly false.” “Inasmuch as Zukor had action toward the curtailment of the so

cost of a feature film was $8,000, while paid Miss Pickford $2,000,000 for two called film trust. 'The Covered Wagon' of recent years years' work," counsel says, "Would he

E. W. M.

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