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Modern Industry's Horn of PlentyBy-Product Coke

Ovens

[graphic]

While the beehive oven produces coke alone, the by-product oven yields coke, gas, tar, ammonia, and benzol, some of these things being, in turn, the source of innumerable useful prod. ucts. By-product ovens are tall and narrow-like

bureau drawers set on edge. They are charged from the top with crushed coal, closed air-tight, and heated by the burning of gas (generally produced by the ovens themselves) in flues that alternate with the ovens in each “bat

The picture shows the "pusher” side of an oven battery, with the big electric ram by which, when coking is complete, the mass of red-hot coke is pushed out of the oven upon a car, on the opposite side of the battery. The car hurries the coke to the quenching station, where it is drenched with water. The

gas from the ovens is drawn by an "exbauster into the big pipe seen running along the top of the battery, and thence by other pipes to the byproducts building for treatment to recover

by-products

tery.”

Photograph from Koppers Co.

[graphic]

One of the
By-Products-
Ammonium

Sulphate Ammonia, produced in different forms in the by-product ovens, is only a little less remarkable

than

the much-talked-of conl tar for the number and importance of its industrial uses. One of the standard products of the ovens is crude ammonium sulphate, used as a fertilizer. The picture shows this substance in storage.

The machine in the left background is used for Alling the bags. A large part of the ammonia used ip American refrigerating plants is likewise obtained from byproduct coke ovens

Photograph from Barrett Co.

By MILLS C. LEONARD

I

I

Locomotive Engineer, Pennsylvania Railroad 'T matters little just what one's com- overtime of those who do the work down they ask such questions as these: "How

plaint against the railroads may to the lowest possible figure. But his is much overtime can you make on the be, the management is to blame. an uphill job.

run?” “Can't you make it pay another Whether there is only an old sleeping-car Overtime? What is overtime on a hour?" "I hear Bill Smith makes five with the storage battery run down doing railroad nowadays? Overtime is a bonus hours a day overtime on his run. My chair-car duty up the Hudson River; or paid to its employees for stretching their first chance I'm going to bump him. I W. & B.'s ten-car shipment is forty- day's work out as long as it can be want that run.” eight hours overdue; or Tom Jones's stretched.

There never has been any kind of flivver stalled her engine on the crossing Sounds unusual, doesn't it? But it's given arriving time for freight trains. and the flier completely demolished the

true. Under the present system of pay- Once a crew is ordered and out on the antiquated ark once called an automobile ing employees in local road freight ser- road, it is up to the crew and despatcher -"the management is to blame.” Yes, vice, the workman gets from three to to advance the train to the next termithe president should be advised of the four dollars for the second eight hours nal. And to-day runs that should be situation, and he, personally, should of a sixteen-hour tour of duty over and made in eight hours (without any overmake amends.

above the same rate that he gets for the time) are in the overtime column, some Well, I have been employed on one first eight hours. That second eight quite deep, according to the ability of the of the biggest railroads of our country hours, or fraction thereof, is paid for on crew as “overtime getters.” nearly twenty-five years, and I have the minute basis, at an hourly rate of Freight trains having work to do must never seen a railroad president yet. But three-sixteenths of the daily rate. It is clear through trains. The station work there are lots of other things to look at called by various names: “bootleggers' or run between stations is so arranged that to me are just as important as the pay," "inch and a half," "shoes for the as to cause the despatcher to put them president.

kids," "gasoline," "pay me,” and “time in at the first siding. He knows they and a half.”

will not get clear at the next, and if he HAVEN'T worked twenty-five years Overtime does not affect passenger

asks a reason for their delay, a very for this railroad of mine and not train service. The overtime that puts plausible reply is ready. This is a typilearned to like it. I like them all. And the "big dent” in the earnings of a rail

cal case: I take great deal of interest in looking road is paid to crews in local and pool A train stalled east of Mosier yard and over the motive power of other railroads, freight service. Some idea of the num- delayed a passenger train. The descomparing their equipment with my own, bers to whom it is paid may be had when patcher sent this inquiry, "Please advise watching their trains roll by. When they I say that approximately ninety per cent why you stalled east of Mosier and destop, I like particularly well to see how of the men employed in road service are layed No. 3.” The answer was: “Italian their crews do their bit, how the flagmen freight men, with the remaining ten per woman had cow tied north of track and protect the rear of their trains. There is cent in passenger service. It is the slow grazing south of track. When engine far more that may be wrong with a rail- freight, local freight, and such service as passed over rope, began slipping. Sand road than just “careless management" at has no schedule that is slowed down by very poor, could not get engine to hold

the time-and-one-half payment for over- rail.” I read the other day that there were time. just a few less than two million em- And, as it now is, I do not like this I Do not mean to say enginemen alone ployees on the Class I railroads the past "bonus system.” Service is the only are the perpetrators of this nefarious year. And a short while ago I noticed product a railroad has to sell, and I

product a railroad has to sell, and I stealing of time, for which the public has that a vice-president said he would like know you can't get service when the men to pay; the entire crew has a hand in it. to meet personally all the men on his that are serving you are paid a "bonus" The brakeman, in a railroad man's lansystem. If he ever does, he won't get for taking their “good old time” to ac- guage, “can get where the work hain't” much else done that day. And, too, if complish a given task. Surely, no one, about as easy as anything you ever saw. he does meet them, probably some of the not even a railroad president, can see any The conductor always has to come over boys will soon call him “Bill," or what- incentive for giving speedy service when from the “rear end” and look the ground ever his first name is, and try to tell him there is a "bonus" paid for doing the over before a move can be made. all about some little grievance that even work slowly.

The flagman may not have had to go their employing officers will not take time

back very far to insure full protection, to hear.

A M I not right when I say that the but after he has been called in you would Now, it's employees that I started to system is all wrong? Who pays the think he had come a mile or two before talk about, not presidents or their prob- bill? Who waits for his freight? Of you get the signal. If the engineman lems or possibilities; but first I want to course, not all the delay in freight can be happens to "let her out a little,” at the say just a little about the duty of one charged to the bonus system. But all next stop the trainmen ask him if he has official of the railroad, the superinten- of the railroad systems could, and would gone crazy or has it in for the fireman. dent.

give far better service if it were done “Bonus," as I understand it, is someIt is the duty of the superintendent to

thing given for special service performed make his particular division “pay.” To To-day, in talking with one another over and above the regular pay or wages. do that he must keep the number of em- regarding their runs, slow-freight men do So why not pay it out in such a way as ployees cut down as closely as he can not ask how soon the runs can be made to necessitate the giving of real service and still expedite the work, and keep the or how good their engines are, but rather in order to secure it? Suppose, for in

the top

away with

stance, my run is of one hundred miles or less, with eight hours as the basic day, and eight dollars my rate for the day. If I can take my run in and complete that day's work in six hours, I should receive one-half of the pay for the two hours that I saved, or one dollar in addition to my regular full day's pay—in all, nine dollars.

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IF
F the run is delayed through no fault

of the crew, if the men have met the standard of service required and still make overtime, then the overtime rate should be paid, based on the standard of service given. In other words, if the service performed were equal to the completion of that tour of duty in six hours, then the overtime rate should be oneeighth of nine dollars. Standards of service could be very easily arrived at through various means which space does not permit me to enumerate at this time.

With a working agreement of this nature, it would be of vital importance to the management to keep the rolling stock, locomotives, etc., in first-class condition. It would also be of even greater importance to those men who operate trains to give one hundred per cent service, or even better than that, if it were possible, to gain the bonus. There would be fewer working units to maintain, since in speeding up the service even thirty per cent it would require just that many fewer cars and engines to give the same service; and that would effect a greater saving to the railroads. Both the men and the company would profit, as well as the public.

This is not a matter for the management to adjust alone; they are powerless under the present conditions, so they go on contentedly and charge the overtime to the public. Perhaps criticism of the whole situation by the public would give them a leverage by which conditions might be readjusted.

FIFTY years ago Dr. Alexander If he had lived to this semiGraham Bell was busy upon a centennial year, he would have new invention-the telephone. seen over 16,000,000 telephones The first sentence had not been linked by. 40,000,000 miles of heard; the patent had not been wire spanning the American confiled; the demonstration of the tinent and bringing the whole telephone at the Centennial Ex. nation within intimate talking position had not been made. All distance. He would have seen in these noteworthy events were to the Bell System, which bears his occur later in the year 1876. But name, perhaps the largest indus. already, at the beginning of the trial organization in the world year, the basic principle of the with nearly $3,000,000,000 worth new art had been discovered and of public-serving property, owned Bell's experiments were approache chiefly by an army of customers ing a successful issue.

and employees. The inventor of the telephone He would have seen developed lived to see the telephone in daily from the product of his brain a use by millions all over the world new art, binding together the and to see thousands of develop thoughts and actions of a nation ments from his original discovery. for the welfare of all the people.

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PUBLIC opinion gave the railroad men

Going To Leave Your Happy Home?

the time-and-one-half pay. Public opinion alone can now combat the evil perpetrated on the public—that of boosting freight rates and slowing down the movement of freight.

It sums itself up to just one requisite: Having assumed the proportions of a “bonus,” it should be abolished, and something should be put in its place that will create an incentive for better, cleaner, and faster work. Employees of a public utility never much criticised by the public should come in for just as great a share of it as the management.

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others, as with Henry George and Susan

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LORD TIMOTHY DEXTER

Still others, like Ethan Allen, General gold lilies and all the rest of it. Here

By J. P. Marquand he tells of his acquaintance with authors

Forrest, Israel Putnam, David Crockett,

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THE TALE OF GENJI

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By Lady Murasaki

were markedly different from their neighGEORGE WASHINGTON. UNCOMMON AMERICANS

bors in almost every way. Although the Edited by John C. Fitzpatrick.

By Don C. Seitz

atmosphere of the book is of a past long Ladies Association of the Union by Houghton

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uous and sometimes influential for many years in England and America. Many who had disliked him as a crank nevertheless came to love him as a man.

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Published this fall
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Price $2.00

Published last fall

Matilda,

Governess
of the English

by Sophia Cleugh
"A joyous, romantic, engaging
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-The Outlook
A Sheer delight." - The Spur

"More delight to the page than any book we have read in 1924."

-N. Y. Evening World
Barely a page that does not
ripple with gentle pleasantry."

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Price $2.50

A reprint of an edition first published in 1901. An admirable edition to read. Annotated, indexed, well illustrated, and made agreeable. These are not large books; the type is good and legible; they would classify as books to be taken in the hand and to be read at the fire, and as such would be commended by the Doctor himself. Better to own than the Birkbeck Hill edition, which has so many notes that the tail of annotation wags the dog of text.

Essays and Criticism
THE GREATEST BOOK IN THE WORLD, AND

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Strategic and historical studies of na-
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Here is a history of the Civil War at once readable and just. If any Northern historian can ever write of this war so as to be acceptable to fair-minded Southerners, Professor Channing has

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