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Modern Industry's Horn of PlentyBy-Product Coke
While the beehive oven produces coke alone, the by-product oven yields coke, gas, tar, ammonia, and benzol, some of these things being, in turn, the source of innumerable useful prod. ucts. By-product ovens are tall and narrow-like
bureau drawers set on edge. They are charged from the top with crushed coal, closed air-tight, and heated by the burning of gas (generally produced by the ovens themselves) in flues that alternate with the ovens in each “bat
The picture shows the "pusher” side of an oven battery, with the big electric ram by which, when coking is complete, the mass of red-hot coke is pushed out of the oven upon a car, on the opposite side of the battery. The car hurries the coke to the quenching station, where it is drenched with water. The
gas from the ovens is drawn by an "exbauster into the big pipe seen running along the top of the battery, and thence by other pipes to the byproducts building for treatment to recover
Photograph from Koppers Co.
One of the
Sulphate Ammonia, produced in different forms in the by-product ovens, is only a little less remarkable
the much-talked-of conl tar for the number and importance of its industrial uses. One of the standard products of the ovens is crude ammonium sulphate, used as a fertilizer. The picture shows this substance in storage.
The machine in the left background is used for Alling the bags. A large part of the ammonia used ip American refrigerating plants is likewise obtained from byproduct coke ovens
Photograph from Barrett Co.
By MILLS C. LEONARD
Locomotive Engineer, Pennsylvania Railroad 'T matters little just what one's com- overtime of those who do the work down they ask such questions as these: "How
plaint against the railroads may to the lowest possible figure. But his is much overtime can you make on the be, the management is to blame. an uphill job.
run?” “Can't you make it pay another Whether there is only an old sleeping-car Overtime? What is overtime on a hour?" "I hear Bill Smith makes five with the storage battery run down doing railroad nowadays? Overtime is a bonus hours a day overtime on his run. My chair-car duty up the Hudson River; or paid to its employees for stretching their first chance I'm going to bump him. I W. & B.'s ten-car shipment is forty- day's work out as long as it can be want that run.” eight hours overdue; or Tom Jones's stretched.
There never has been any kind of flivver stalled her engine on the crossing Sounds unusual, doesn't it? But it's given arriving time for freight trains. and the flier completely demolished the
true. Under the present system of pay- Once a crew is ordered and out on the antiquated ark once called an automobile ing employees in local road freight ser- road, it is up to the crew and despatcher -"the management is to blame.” Yes, vice, the workman gets from three to to advance the train to the next termithe president should be advised of the four dollars for the second eight hours nal. And to-day runs that should be situation, and he, personally, should of a sixteen-hour tour of duty over and made in eight hours (without any overmake amends.
above the same rate that he gets for the time) are in the overtime column, some Well, I have been employed on one first eight hours. That second eight quite deep, according to the ability of the of the biggest railroads of our country hours, or fraction thereof, is paid for on crew as “overtime getters.” nearly twenty-five years, and I have the minute basis, at an hourly rate of Freight trains having work to do must never seen a railroad president yet. But three-sixteenths of the daily rate. It is clear through trains. The station work there are lots of other things to look at called by various names: “bootleggers' or run between stations is so arranged that to me are just as important as the pay," "inch and a half," "shoes for the as to cause the despatcher to put them president.
kids," "gasoline," "pay me,” and “time in at the first siding. He knows they and a half.”
will not get clear at the next, and if he HAVEN'T worked twenty-five years Overtime does not affect passenger
asks a reason for their delay, a very for this railroad of mine and not train service. The overtime that puts plausible reply is ready. This is a typilearned to like it. I like them all. And the "big dent” in the earnings of a rail
cal case: I take great deal of interest in looking road is paid to crews in local and pool A train stalled east of Mosier yard and over the motive power of other railroads, freight service. Some idea of the num- delayed a passenger train. The descomparing their equipment with my own, bers to whom it is paid may be had when patcher sent this inquiry, "Please advise watching their trains roll by. When they I say that approximately ninety per cent why you stalled east of Mosier and destop, I like particularly well to see how of the men employed in road service are layed No. 3.” The answer was: “Italian their crews do their bit, how the flagmen freight men, with the remaining ten per woman had cow tied north of track and protect the rear of their trains. There is cent in passenger service. It is the slow grazing south of track. When engine far more that may be wrong with a rail- freight, local freight, and such service as passed over rope, began slipping. Sand road than just “careless management" at has no schedule that is slowed down by very poor, could not get engine to hold
the time-and-one-half payment for over- rail.” I read the other day that there were time. just a few less than two million em- And, as it now is, I do not like this I Do not mean to say enginemen alone ployees on the Class I railroads the past "bonus system.” Service is the only are the perpetrators of this nefarious year. And a short while ago I noticed product a railroad has to sell, and I
product a railroad has to sell, and I stealing of time, for which the public has that a vice-president said he would like know you can't get service when the men to pay; the entire crew has a hand in it. to meet personally all the men on his that are serving you are paid a "bonus" The brakeman, in a railroad man's lansystem. If he ever does, he won't get for taking their “good old time” to ac- guage, “can get where the work hain't” much else done that day. And, too, if complish a given task. Surely, no one, about as easy as anything you ever saw. he does meet them, probably some of the not even a railroad president, can see any The conductor always has to come over boys will soon call him “Bill," or what- incentive for giving speedy service when from the “rear end” and look the ground ever his first name is, and try to tell him there is a "bonus" paid for doing the over before a move can be made. all about some little grievance that even work slowly.
The flagman may not have had to go their employing officers will not take time
back very far to insure full protection, to hear.
A M I not right when I say that the but after he has been called in you would Now, it's employees that I started to system is all wrong? Who pays the think he had come a mile or two before talk about, not presidents or their prob- bill? Who waits for his freight? Of you get the signal. If the engineman lems or possibilities; but first I want to course, not all the delay in freight can be happens to "let her out a little,” at the say just a little about the duty of one charged to the bonus system. But all next stop the trainmen ask him if he has official of the railroad, the superinten- of the railroad systems could, and would gone crazy or has it in for the fireman. dent.
give far better service if it were done “Bonus," as I understand it, is someIt is the duty of the superintendent to
thing given for special service performed make his particular division “pay.” To To-day, in talking with one another over and above the regular pay or wages. do that he must keep the number of em- regarding their runs, slow-freight men do So why not pay it out in such a way as ployees cut down as closely as he can not ask how soon the runs can be made to necessitate the giving of real service and still expedite the work, and keep the or how good their engines are, but rather in order to secure it? Suppose, for in
stance, my run is of one hundred miles or less, with eight hours as the basic day, and eight dollars my rate for the day. If I can take my run in and complete that day's work in six hours, I should receive one-half of the pay for the two hours that I saved, or one dollar in addition to my regular full day's pay—in all, nine dollars.
of the crew, if the men have met the standard of service required and still make overtime, then the overtime rate should be paid, based on the standard of service given. In other words, if the service performed were equal to the completion of that tour of duty in six hours, then the overtime rate should be oneeighth of nine dollars. Standards of service could be very easily arrived at through various means which space does not permit me to enumerate at this time.
With a working agreement of this nature, it would be of vital importance to the management to keep the rolling stock, locomotives, etc., in first-class condition. It would also be of even greater importance to those men who operate trains to give one hundred per cent service, or even better than that, if it were possible, to gain the bonus. There would be fewer working units to maintain, since in speeding up the service even thirty per cent it would require just that many fewer cars and engines to give the same service; and that would effect a greater saving to the railroads. Both the men and the company would profit, as well as the public.
This is not a matter for the management to adjust alone; they are powerless under the present conditions, so they go on contentedly and charge the overtime to the public. Perhaps criticism of the whole situation by the public would give them a leverage by which conditions might be readjusted.
FIFTY years ago Dr. Alexander If he had lived to this semiGraham Bell was busy upon a centennial year, he would have new invention-the telephone. seen over 16,000,000 telephones The first sentence had not been linked by. 40,000,000 miles of heard; the patent had not been wire spanning the American confiled; the demonstration of the tinent and bringing the whole telephone at the Centennial Ex. nation within intimate talking position had not been made. All distance. He would have seen in these noteworthy events were to the Bell System, which bears his occur later in the year 1876. But name, perhaps the largest indus. already, at the beginning of the trial organization in the world year, the basic principle of the with nearly $3,000,000,000 worth new art had been discovered and of public-serving property, owned Bell's experiments were approache chiefly by an army of customers ing a successful issue.
and employees. The inventor of the telephone He would have seen developed lived to see the telephone in daily from the product of his brain a use by millions all over the world new art, binding together the and to see thousands of develop thoughts and actions of a nation ments from his original discovery. for the welfare of all the people.
PUBLIC opinion gave the railroad men
Going To Leave Your Happy Home?
the time-and-one-half pay. Public opinion alone can now combat the evil perpetrated on the public—that of boosting freight rates and slowing down the movement of freight.
It sums itself up to just one requisite: Having assumed the proportions of a “bonus,” it should be abolished, and something should be put in its place that will create an incentive for better, cleaner, and faster work. Employees of a public utility never much criticised by the public should come in for just as great a share of it as the management.
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FRIENDS OF MR. SWEENEY.
record of his election as President and ware; or standing, hand in his breast, in By Elmer Davis. his early days in the Presidency.
front of two marble columns, and beside Robert M. McBride & Co., New York. $2.
The historical importance of the dia- a table on which rests a copy of the ConA rattling, good, up-to-the-minute ries is therefore considerably impaired. stitution. Here are the names of those story of New York. As fresh and mod
But as a record of the private citizen, who dined with him; here is the list of ern as this morning's paper; as satirical
the gentleman-farmer, the diner-out and his slaves; here is an enormous amount and pungent as George Ade at his best.
of information about weather; and here If there's been a more amusing novel of
is the record of hogs killed. Here are American city life this year, we've missed
Books for Gifts the dates when he began to plow Field it. It is not a "study" of anything, it's
No. 1, and when they dug the ten rows not psychological (three hearty cheers!),
For Different Tastes of carrots. These farming diaries are but for sheer amusing power we give it
not everything. Do not think this is but 98 per cent plus.
PLUCK AND LUCK
a dry chronicle of seed-times and harTHE VENETIAN GLASS NEPHEW. By Elinor
By Robert Benchley
vests. The days of the Presidency in Wylie. The George H. Doran Company, New
New York, his "progresses" in state York. $2. THE GREATEST BOOK IN THE WORLD
through the country, are also recorded. A highly imaginative story, by a wri
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As a whole, no more important work of ter who commands a delicate style. A
THE LE GALLIENNE BOOK OF AMERI
American history has been published this fragile creation, as iridescent as an icicle
year. sparkling in the sunlight. This country
CARTOONS FROM "LIFE" has two novelists with a highly developed
UNCOMMON AMERICANS. By Don C. Seitz. By Ellison Hoover
The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Indianapolis. $3. imagination: Mr. Cabell and Mrs. Wylie. But Cabell is often long-winded, and
FRIENDS OF MR. SWEENEY
These are called "pencil portraits" of even wearisome. Mrs. Wylie is neither;
By Elmer Davis
men and women who have broken the
rules.” Mr. Seitz has an attractive and her touch is always light. There is no RECOLLECTIONS OF THOMAS R. one in America exactly like her.
wholesome liking for the odd and
bizarre; in this book he sketches lightly A VOLUME OF STEVENSON Biography
(as his phrase "pencil portraits” indiIn the new South Seas Edition
cates) the careers of twenty-two eccenMEMOIRS OF LEON DAUDET. translated by Arthur Kingsland Griggs.
THE VENETIAN GLASS NEPHEW tric Americans. With some, as with Dial Press, New York. $5.
By Elinor Wylie
Whistler, the eccentricity was a minor An entertaining and unintentionally
THE POETRY CURE
characteristic of a great genius; with amusing book by one of those delightful anachronisms, a partisan of the pre
Edited by Robert Haven Schauffler
others, as with Henry George and Susan
B. Anthony, the main characteristic was tender to the throne of France. M.
independence, the willingness to rebel, Daudet, son of the famous novelist,
By Booth Tarkington
and the desire to reform. really wishes to restore the French mon- ROVING THROUGH, SOUTHERN CHINA Others, like George Francis Train and archy and to turn somebody or other
By Harry A. Franck
Lord Timothy Dexter, well-nigh subinto. Henry V, or, maybe, Louis XIX,
TONY SARG'S BOOK OF ANIMALS merged their ability in their peculiarities. Roi de France, with the white flag and
LORD TIMOTHY DEXTER
Still others, like Ethan Allen, General gold lilies and all the rest of it. Here
By J. P. Marquand he tells of his acquaintance with authors
Forrest, Israel Putnam, David Crockett,
and John S. Mosby, were brave men of and statesmen and other public charac
THE TALE OF GENJI
much nobility of character. Yet they ters in France for the past fifty years.
By Lady Murasaki
were markedly different from their neighGEORGE WASHINGTON. UNCOMMON AMERICANS
bors in almost every way. Although the Edited by John C. Fitzpatrick.
By Don C. Seitz
atmosphere of the book is of a past long Ladies Association of the Union by Houghton
dead, the writer of this note is amused Mitrin Company, Boston. $25. Only about one-sixth of Washington's
By Alpha of the Plough
to discover that he has seen at least one
of these men (George Francis Train), diaries have ever been published before.
while with two others he has held speech Now all that are available are presented
By Christopher Ward
-Colonel Mosby, the guerrilla chief, in these four handsome books. From his THE PRIVATE LIFE OF HELEN OF TROY
and Hinton Helper. This is an admirajourney over the Blue Ridge when he
By John Erskine
ble book for a gift, and will please any was sixteen to his last careful record of
man interested in American history or in the weather (and nothing else) on De
the oddities of human life. cember 13, 1799, the day before his drinker of tea with this one and that, the death, the diaries are here, so far as they fox-hunter, and the practical agricultur
THE LIFE OF W. T. STEAD. By Frederic
Houghton Mifflin Company, are to be found to-day. There are dis- ist the story is complete and surprising.
$12. tressing gaps; the worst of these is from Washington's intense preoccupation with An extended biography of the English his appointment as Commander-in-Chief farming will probably amaze many per- journalist, editor of the "Pall Mall in June, 1775, to a day, nearly six years sons who think of him as perpetually Gazette” and the "Review of Reviews.” later, in 1781. Thus nearly all the engaged in riding a white horse and A reformer, "impossible as a colleague," Revolutionary War is lacking. So is his flourishing a sword; or crossing the Dela- said Bernard Shaw (!); he was conspic
THE DIARIES OF
Sophia Cleugh's Two Novels
uous and sometimes influential for many years in England and America. Many who had disliked him as a crank nevertheless came to love him as a man.
Ben Ray Redman says in The Spur:
"There are a few writers who are reasonably sure of a A new edition of this excellent biog- place in our literary history. Add one more niche for raphy.
Sophia Cleugh, author of Matilda, Governess of the THE LIFE OF SAMUEL JOHNSON. By James
English, and Ernestine Sophie. For she can write."
THE LIFE AND TIMES OF LAURENCE
STERNE. By Wilbur L. Cross. 2 vols. The
Boswell. Edited by Arnold Glover. Introduction by Austin Dobson. 3 vols. E. P. Dutton & Co., New York. $10.
Published this fall
“Let us commend to you 'Ernes-
- The Continent You will find 'Ernestine Sophie' the most delightful of purely fictitious companions." —The Spur
Published last fall
by Sophia Cleugh
"More delight to the page than any book we have read in 1924."
-N. Y. Evening World
-N. Y. Times
A reprint of an edition first published in 1901. An admirable edition to read. Annotated, indexed, well illustrated, and made agreeable. These are not large books; the type is good and legible; they would classify as books to be taken in the hand and to be read at the fire, and as such would be commended by the Doctor himself. Better to own than the Birkbeck Hill edition, which has so many notes that the tail of annotation wags the dog of text.
Essays and Criticism
OTHER PAPERS. By A. Edward Newton.
Mr. Newton's books are all good-looking; well printed and well illustrated, and prettily, if not satisfactorily bound. This is no exception. His title essay is, of course, about the Bible. He also writes about London, about Gilbert and Sullivan, book-plates, travel, and other pleasant topics which are usually described by the rather sickly word "bookish." Mr. Newton knows more about books than most of us, he owns costlier and rarer books than any of us, except a few great millionaires (who seldom write for this section of The Outlook), yet his own writings are jolly and popular. He has many prejudices, and, as nearly all of them are exactly like our own, we pronounce them to be sound prejudices. It warms us to the very gizzard to hear him lead the cheering for Gilbert and Sullivan and for Dickens. A fine book; your friend will be glad to get it for Christmas.
History, Political Economy, and
The Macmillan Company, New York. $2.50.
Vol. VI of A History of the United States.
Here is a history of the Civil War at once readable and just. If any Northern historian can ever write of this war so as to be acceptable to fair-minded Southerners, Professor Channing has
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