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ings. Quite recently the present Secre- This theory, of course, is as fallacious as to the President of the Corporation, retary of Agriculture, W. M. Jardine, dis- it is pernicious. Congress has no power signed. Not only has the Corporation missed the proceedings, holding that the to set up an executive agency and clothe lost heavily of its officials, but the Shipconsolidation did not create a monopoly it with power to act independently of the ping Board itself has lost one of its memor anything like one, and that if the law President's executive authority. If this bers and another has been asked to reis violated by the consolidated concern sort of thing could be done once, it could sign. he has ample powers under the Packers be done endlessly. All of the powers of Frederick I. Thompson, of Alabama, a and Stockyards Act to punish the offen- the President could be shorn away and Democrat, resigned with the candid der.
the executive branch of the Government statement that he wished to be free to Two years ago there would have been be dissipated through numberless inde- fight for the policies he has advocated as widespread condemnation of this action pendent boards.
a member of the Board. These are the by the daily press. Now practically all The only sound theory upon which the policies which resulted in removal of Adnewspaper comment, from Republican Board's assertion of independence could miral Palmer and are directly opposed to and Democratic sources alike, commends be based is that it is purely a judicial the policies of the President. Mr. the action of Secretary Jardine. Evi- and not at all an executive body. And Thompson was one of the leaders in dently the newspapers, at least, have this, of course, it is not. It has judicial bringing about the upset. Plummer, of realized the fact that the tide of consoli- duties, to be sure, but it has also execu- Maine, Vice-President of the Board and dation is on the rise and that those who tive duties. This very matter of operat- a Republican, voted with him. So did stand in its way are likely to be sub- ing ships is an important executive func- Benson and Haney. It is the latter, Bert merged.
tion. The Board might have gone some E. Haney, of Oregon, who has been
way toward making itself independent of asked to resign, and has thus far refused The Shipping Board
Presidential authority by restricting itself to do so. The request for his resignation Defies the President
to its judicial functions, but it loses that came before the ousting of Admiral THE 'HE United States Shipping Board opportunity by the very act of resuming Palmer and resulted directly from his has embarked upon a dangerous control of operations.
criticisms of the President. course by withdrawing the authority con
The point is sought to be made that Both Thompson and Haney held referred upon the Emergency Fleet Cor
the Shipping Board is in all respects like cess appointments from the President. poration to operate Government-owned
the Inter-State Commerce Commission. It is understood in Washington that the ships and by removing Admiral Leigh C.
To a certain extent, the two are alike. President probably will not seek to force Palmer as President of the Corporation Each of them has the duty of regulating Haney out, but will simply decline when and virtually sole director of operations.
rates and practices; but the Inter-State Congress meets to submit his name to Direction of operations reverts to the Commerce Commission does not operate the Senate. It is said also that he will Shipping Board, a, semi-judicial body
any railroads, while the Shipping Board not submit any name for appointment to composed of a number of men who have
insists upon its right to operate ships. the place vacated by Thompson, but will never been able to agree among them- The Commission has no authority under deliberately leave two vacancies on the selves. The action of the Board amounts
the law to operate roads, but the Board Board. practically to defiance of the President. has authority under the law to operate
That the President will ask for repeal It was at the insistence of President ships. It follows, therefore, that, while or drastic modification of the Shipping Coolidge that control of operations was the Commission may not be subject to Board Act is hardly to be doubted. It is placed in the hands of a single man, the Presidential authority, the Board neces- scarcely less a matter of doubt that he President of the Emergency Fleet Corsarily is.
will call upon Congress to abolish the poration. That the President had not
This fact appears to be more clearly Shipping Board and set up some more changed his mind and decided in favor recognized by everybody else than by the adequate agency. of operation by the Board is proved by
Board itself. Already it has become The Shipping Board Act was passed the fact that only a few days before the
fairly clear that public opinion is with during the period of world upheaval. It upset he had appointed a special investi- the President and against the Shipping has always been something of a mongator to make a thorough study of the Board.
strosity, but it served for an emergency. whole situation, involving both the Ship
It should have been repealed or drastiping Board and the Emergency Fleet The Shipping Board Should Be
cally amended long ago. Corporation. Conceivably, the President Mended or Ended
'HE causes leading to the drastic and The City and the Child some changes upon the completion of definite action of the Shipping As a result of a survey of health conthis study. The Board, even if it had Board are complicated and have been ditions and teaching in eighty-six decided to defy the President, might have operative for a long time. The effects cities lately carried on by the American had the patience and the courtesy to are as yet conjectural, but they are likely Child Health Association, of which Secawait the outcome of the investigation. to be far-reaching. Already a great deal retary Hoover is President, it appears Instead, it warped the whole scheme more has resulted than the mere removal that large differences exist in the way in askew before the President's representa- of Admiral Palmer. Immediately after which children are protected in cities and tive had time fairly to begin his work. the ousting Admiral Hutchinson L. Cone, sections. The places studied were neither
The theory upon which the action ap- Vice-President and General Manager of very large nor very small, but ranged pears to have been taken is that the the Emergency Fleet Corporation, sub- from 40,000 to 70,000 in population. Shipping Board was by Congress created mitted his resignation. A few days later The picture drawn of actual conditions independent of Executive authority.
authority. Commander S. P. Fullinwider, assistant shows increasing civic attention to the
might have been ready to recommend TH
subject, but with plenty of room for im- as prevalent in the cities of the South At Locarno provement. The small city, says a digest
Atlantic and East South Central States
A as in other sections.
DECIDEDLY hopeful tone marks the of the survey, "provides its children with
Hospital provisions for cases of com
reports of the informal discussions good water to drink but feeds them milk
municable disease are provided in most
at the Locarno Conference over the proof doubtful quality. It surrounds them cities, but eighteen are still without posed security pacts. No formal action with regulations to curb communicable local facilities.
had been taken up to October 13, nor disease, but at the same time withholds In forty-nine cities with compulsory any definite drafts of agreements made much of the real protection that it is
vaccination a question test of several
public, but this meeting is largely one in
hundred fifth-grade school-children in possible to provide. Its human book
which the give and take of negotiation
each city indicated that 87 per cent keeping records are faulty and it fails
were vaccinated. In the cities where must precede action. As Mr. Chamberadequately to teach the child and his vaccination is not compulsory a similar lain pointed out, such private negotiation parents how to be healthy. It does not test indicated but 56 per cent vacci- is not "secret diplomacy,” like hidden equip the official health departments with
nated. Judging by this index, the
treaties, but the necessary prelude to fai: people who are trained for the work and
cities of New England are best pro-
united action, or, as he put it in homely who are paid enough to give their entire
of the Central West but 16 per cent of
simile, "We cook the meal in the kitchen, time to the position, nor does it appro- the children questioned reported hav- but when it is ready it will be served priate funds that are adequate for the ing been vaccinated.
openly in the world parliaments." serious duty of promoting public health.
The prevention of diphtheria by One interesting development has been The bright spot, the committee adds, is
immunization of children with toxin
Italy's consent to join in the establishing that most communities realize their
antitoxin has been undertaken by the
of neutrality in the Rhine section as deshortcomings, and some have already the cities, one city having a record of
sired by Great Britain and France, and progressed very far in their health ad- 4,900 children thus protected in the without acceptance of German amending vancement efforts."
demands. There had been some question Specific findings relating to the subject The American Child Health Associa- as to whether Italy was quite in line with of communicable disease are interesting tion deserves credit and praise for pro
her former allies on the security pact as showing typical weak spots in guard- viding the facts from which American question, but this action of hers seemed ing children, and the urgent need of communities may learn upon just what to show the contrary. bringing up the whole country to stand- lines organization of health work, with There seems to be no unadjustable ards set in well-controlled places. the selection of an adequate personnel to
difference as to the measures for the seTyphoid fever is two or three times enforce it, may be best carried on. curity of the western (or Rhine) frontier, but Germany's eastern frontier is, as elaborate study of Mosul by the League’s is planning a reorganization of industry we write, still a troublesome question. Commission, said that British military on a basis of partnership between capiOne possible outcome is that France occupation was established after the tal and labor. There is to be, we are should simply base its right to protect Armistice and after the retreat of the told, one big federation of Fascist labor Poland and Czechoslovakia on Article Turks in Mosul as well as in the other unions and one big federation of employXVI of the League Covenant, without two vilayets of Irak, and that it is im- ers' organizations. All questions between asserting it in the security pact, and that possible both strategically and economi- employers and employees are to be setGermany should withdraw her proposal cally for a government in Bagdad to live tled between these two bodies. It is the for an agreement of the Powers to con- if Mosul is detached from it and held by supplanting of the class war by class cosider changes in the Versailles Treaty another government.
operation. and League Covenant.
In this disputed section of Irak live This plan involves the abolition of the If Germany becomes a member-nation Kurds, Arabs, Christians, Turks, Yezudi, secret shop committees and the substituof the League, she will be equally liable and Jews, in that order as to numbers. tion of committees appointed by the with other nations to be called upon to Turkey holds that this section never did heads of the Fascist unions. enforce by economic boycott or in the pass over to Irak after the war. The Over the two big organizations will last resort by armed force penalties League's Commission seems to think that stand the state to see that each treats the against a country which should flatly Turkey has some legal basis for that other fairly and that both regard the disobey the League. Germany thinks claim, but that she should renounce any rights of the public. that she should be released from this such right because of her agreement to
But Mussolini is not content with this obligation because of her presnt weak- accept the Commission's report, the main change. He is making his reorganization ness, both military and economic. But, finding of which is that the status quo. of Italy not only industrial but political. if she is to be so released, the door is should be maintained and with general The Grand Fascist Council has decided opened to tampering with League and consent Great Britain's mandate be re- to make the Italian Senate an elective Covenant. The likelihood of Germany's newed for twenty-five years after its ex- body. At present the Senate consists of being called on to act thus as defender of piration in 1928.
princes and of members nominated for the League against disobedient members The principal question that the Coun- life. Rome is to be administered by a is not great.
cil of the League has laid before the Per- governor, chosen by the Italian GovernProbably some way, can be found to manent Court of Justice at The Hague is ment, assisted by two vice-governors, by reconcile the right of Germany's eastern whether the Council is competent under ten technical experts called rectors, and neighbors to receive protection from the Treaty of Lausanne to give a binding eighty consultors chosen by such bodies France against future German attack and arbitral award. Turkey asserts that she as the Chamber of Commerce, Bankers' the admission of Germany into the was given to understand the contrary, Association, and Professors' Association; ; League. On that point the negotiation and she also asserts that Lord Curzon at and each municipality of 5,000 inhabiseems to turn.
Lausanne promised Turkey, not only tants or less is to be administered by an
that the League's Council would not act executive chosen also by the Central Mosul, the League, and
on Mosul except by a unanimous vote, Government and called a podesta. the Powers
but also that Turkey, if the case arose,
should have a seat and a vote-all of Machiavellian Mussolini I may seem out of proportion as to world importance that a part of one which British authorities deny--and she
LL this seems to come rather too of the three vilayets of Irak (Mesopotaadds that she means to assist and defend
suddenly and too perfectly as a mia) should be a dangerous and disturb
her claim to the disputed territory. well-rounded plan of class co-operation ing element internationally. Yet the
The whole question is complex and and political reformation to be accepted Prime Minister of England in his recent
bids fair to keep the Hague Court, the quite at its face value. Even, however, speech at Brighton declared that, much League of Nations, and the diplomats
League of Nations, and the diplomats if it is not accepted as an accomplished as English sentiment hesitated as to the busy. That it will end in warfare is im
fact, it is significant enough as a new decost involved in renewing in 1928 the probable, but not impossible if the Turks
velopment in the Fascist programme. mandate over Irak, Great Britain was
continue their repeatedly reported depor- Both the new plan of municipal governcommitted to insure Irak's stability and tation of non-Turks from the disputed
ment and that of changed relations in progress. Not to admit this, as Colonel territory-a positive infraction of definite
industry indicate that Fascist Italy looks Amery had done before the League of promises made by them as to Mosul at
to the past for life, for guidance, and for Nations, would have been, said Mr. Lausanne.
the hope of progress and prosperity, Baldwin, "to prejudice fatally the cause
rather than to its recent experience as a The Fascist Refashioning of Irak before the League, and it would
modern constitutional state. have been an act of folly from the point of Italy
Similar in some respects as the methof view of those who urged economy to IF
ods of Mussolini are to those of the sacrifice the richest part of the territory Italy are to be believed, Mussolini is Bolshevist oligarchy in Russia, they are of Irak, and the substitution of an inde- consolidating his gains.
essentially different because they are esfensible for a defensible frontier would Though the Fascisti are anti-Socialists, sentially Italian. It must not be thought have undone all the great work of recent
there is much in Fascism that is as far that Mussolini is driving out democratic years and left us with complete chaos in from the American spirit of independence government from Italy; for it would not Asia." and self-reliance as Socialism is.
be accurate to say that Italy has had King Faisal of Irak, during the recent According to the despatches, Mussolini democratic government in the sense in
which we understand it. Italy has little ent limitations on discussions at home baseball ability is not restricted to cities to lose by scrapping many of its more and abroad.
like New York and Chicago. And now recent experiments and theories, espe
for the football season, from which radio cially of the imported kind, and much to Exit Baseball, Enter Football fans as well as stadium onlookers will gain by searching for guidance in its own
. past. Fascism may not be able to revive title, perhaps, as the world outside in modern industry the organization, the of this country and Cuba takes little in- A Fighting Veteran life, and the aims of its ancient guilds, terest in baseball) is undecided as we W
ALTER JOHNSON, pitcher of the but it may learn from a study of them write. The score of games was then:
Washington American League the spirit which made them great and Washington, 3; Pittsburgh, 3. The tie, team, furnished a new reminder during helpful in the economic life of the past, weather permitting, was to be settled by the World Series that professional sports and it may utilize that spirit as a force the seventh game on Wednesday, Octo-. have been, perhaps, too insistent upon in the modern industrial state. Similarly, ber 14.
the first flush of youth as a necessary Fascism may find in the records of its
thousands who have equipment. Johnson, in his later thirsignories, its communes, and its little re- watched the games and the many more ties, is an old, old man in baseball. But, publics material for fashioning a form of thousands who have listened to the radio old and seriously injured, he accomgovernment more nearly suitable to Ital- broadcasting play by play have certainly plished in the series against Pittsburgh ian life than what has been called parlia- had their full of excitement, for there has what few, if any, young men could have mentary government.
been free batting, extraordinary plays in done. Mussolini is an avowed disciple of the field, and many tense moments. As Last year, when Washington conMachiavelli, but there is little indication to the last, it would be hard to find in tended successfully against the New that any other Italian politician has baseball records anything to beat the ex- York Nationals for World honors, was much more real faith in democracy than citing moment in the first half of the supposed to have been Walter Johnson's he has. A recent official communiqué ninth inning in the third game when, the final year as an active player. refers to the "absurd presumption of gen- Pirates at the bat and needing one run This year, through a strenuous season, eral governmental capacity.” In Amer- to tie, there were two men out, three on "the old man” did his full share toward ica, as in England, that presumption is bases, two strikes, and three balls. pitching and batting Washington to vicbased upon generations of experience in Washington won; but the crisis was one tory in the American League. He pitched self-government which has never existed more often read about in boys' stories the first game against Pittsburgh, at in Italy. Mussolini's programme would than seen in the field.
Pittsburgh, and won it easily. He be outrageous in America, but that does The country at large has, we think, pitched the fourth game at home, and not lessen its value as a subject for open- rather enjoyed the fact that the biggest won easily over Pittsburgh, despite the minded study.
cities and richest clubs have been out of fact that Johnson was so seriously inIn the meanwhile Signor Mussolini this contest. The pep and skill of Wash- jured in the fourth inning that his team might at least relax the rigor of the pres- ington and Pittsburgh have shown that mates did not believe he could go on.
P. & A. Photos
Governor Pinchot, of Pennsylvania, performs the customary ceremony of throwing out the first ball of the World's Series