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By JOHN B. BURNHAM

President of the American Game Protective Association

W

decision, or, in other words, the judge Dr. HORNADAX has done fine work in

ILLIAM C. GREGG in The

lieve that what they have already accomOutlook questions “the right

many

ducks will plished shows them to be the best type of hunters to control or influ

you let me kill in one of men humanly available to "draw up ence the game preservation policy of the day?” When Mr.Gregg asked

these laws, lobby for them in National United States on the reasonable ground

that question, he started a con

and State Capitols, and act as the chief that an interested party makes a poor

troversy.
In this case the

advisers of the enforcing officials.” But judge." The quotation is taken from

controversialists disagree only

first I must remove the implication that the editorial introduction to Mr. Gregg's

as far as I am personally concerned, in article, "How Many Ducks Will You

as to methods. They are both

addition to wanting to save game for Let Me Kill in One Day?”

united in wishing to preserve sport, I am also influenced by an ulterior I should say that this quotation very

America's wild life.

motive. Mr. Gregg, while granting me fairly epitomizes Mr. Gregg's argument.

intelligence and conscientiousness, gives I do not think it is true.

disingenuous interest governs the decis- space to Dr. Hornaday's charge that beThe idea is an old one, broached long ion; otherwise, it is merely another of the cause the American Game Protective ago by Dr. Hornaday when in one of his fallacies which are too easily accepted by Association derives a part of its income circulars he threatened that if the "five those more readily influenced by words from the manufacturers of arms and per cent" who hunt did not accept his than by common sense.

ammunition, I am therefore prejudiced dictum for bag limits and closed seasons There is no such thing as a disinter- in favor of unreasonably large game-bag he would defeat them with the “ninety- ested judge. The term is merely relative. limits. To make the case plausible, it is five per cent” of the people who do not In law we try to get the most disinter assumed that the manufacturers want the hunt.

ested opinion possible, and therefore, so game destroyed. If the bag limits are The question involved is a basic one far as permitted, bring our cases before too large, there can be no other result. of tremendous importance. On its out- the judge we think will give the fairest come depends the whole future of our

HORNADAY ' game supply. As I see it, the issue in- whose mental processes are most like our awakening volved is whether we shall permit the own. We choose our physicians, our the cause of Conservation, but through blind to lead the blind and adopt a doc- lawyers, and our servants on the same his recent obsession for a panacea which trine of despair, which through constant principle. We realize the fact that all he found in an arbitrary system of closed reduction in shooting privileges can mean these people upon whom our welfare de: seasons and reduced bag limits he has nothing in the end but the cessation of pends, no matter how honest they may got completely out of touch with the sport so far as the general public is con- be, have their individual mental slants, constructive spirit of the day. He does cerned, or whether we shall permit those and therefore are not disinterested. We not realize that prohibitions are destrucmost conversant with the situation to go select the judges, lawyers, and doctors in tive, and not constructive. He does not ahead with their well-developed plan for whom we have confidence, but all the take into account the fact that in a large preserving and increasing the wild life of time we know perfectly well their judg- part of the country where there is good the country through modern methods of ments are not infallible.

game administration bag limits have been game administration. The modern spirit If this much is granted, and I think it scientifically adjusted through census is to make each talent produce more, not

will be granted, I should like to carry on studies and game is increasing and that to wrap the talent in a napkin and bury the same illustration and ask what is the in other places limits are useless without it in the ground.

next characteristic after disinterestedness efficient game law enforcement. He igI am writing in the friendliest kind of we demand in those upon whose judg- nores the refuges where an inviolate a way, for, despite what Mr. Gregg says, ment we must depend. Is it not the stock is preserved and all the other I have never yet succeeded in getting knowledge they possess in their special methods which have been practically "mad” at Dr. Hornaday in a personal vocations. A lawyer must know law, a worked out and proved. way. I realize the value of criticism, physician medicine, hygiene, sanitation, Is it reasonable to believe that the even brutal criticism. It was I who jour. etc. Before a man can practice a profes- arms and ammunition manufacturers neyed to Washington to ask that Horna. sion, however, he must add to his knowl- would want to sacrifice their future for day be added to the Federal Board edge acquired by study the experience an immediate profit? Is it not more reacharged with the migratory bird regula- which comes from practice. We do not sonable to assume (as is the fact) that, tions, and at that time I used as an argu- intrust important litigations to law stu- with their large capital investment, they ment for his appointment the fact that dents. Judgment is also required to give are vitally interested in the increase of Lincoln kept Chase and Stanton in his practical application to knowledge and game, so that their business will continue Cabinet largely because they were men experience, and character to stand by the in after years? In all my contact with of hostile view-point, and therefore valu. decisions made. We can find men with the manufacturers I have found them able as a check on possible mistakes. such qualifications, but never, in the to be ultra-conservative Conservationists,

strict sense of the term, disinterested who regard the money given to saving UT, to return to the question, is it judges.

wild life as a form of insurance on a par fair in this instance to say that an It is admitted that the men at the with fire insurance. They are also withinterested party makes a poor judge? The helm to-day in directing the destinies of out exception patriotic men who believe generalization is not true even as a gen- the game in this country are the “hunt- in the value of outdoor sport. eralization, for it presupposes something ers,” using the term in the sense which When these men in 1911 offered the which must be proved-to wit, that a I think Mr. Gregg had in mind. I be- necessary support to start a National

BUT

uously. The first of these was that Mr THERE remains the question as to

game protective association and asked me York. It directed the entire campaign is very little game in a large part of the to take charge, I took several months to which resulted in our present system of Southern Appalachians, but this is due to consider the question. I knew perfectly Federal migratory bird protection. I the fact that the sportsmen's conservawell that their motives might be ques assume that the reason Secretary Hous- tion movement has not yet appreciably tioned, even though I myself might be ton appointed me Chairman of the origi- influenced that section. Other classes of satisfied as to their honor. Two factors nal Migratory Bird Advisory Committee citizens are not sufficiently interested to finally influenced me to take up another and that other Secretaries have continued get out and work for well-recognized piece of hard work at a time when I was the appointment is due to the fact of my measures that would bring the came back tempted by personal desire to retire from intimacy with the subject.

to that lovely region. You simply canthe front lines and live a little less stren

not rely on the other classes; if the

sportsmen neglect the job, it remains un

non- done. Winchester Repeating Arms Company, hunters are the best men to handle the The attitude that any body of men appealed to me on the ground that the game situation. If by the term hunter intelligently interested and informed on country desperately needed a Federal Mr. Gregg means "game hog," then I a subject should by reason of this fact migratory bird law, that all other imme- am with him in his contention that the be debarred from taking action in the diate avenues for securing it had been hunters are not the proper persons to

matter is something beyond my compreclosed, and that if I refused to take up direct the game destinies; but, as neither hension. If I had my way, I would the work the money would be lost Dr. Pearson, Dr. Nelson, nor myself, the make knowledge a prerequisite and perto Conservation. Secondly, Theodore men named in his article, despite other mit no man to judge who lacked this Roosevelt and other leading Conserva- bouquets thrown at them, have been so knowledge. tionists advised me to go ahead with the classed, I am inclined to think that when Not long ago Frank M. Newbert, job. After a talk at Oyster Bay and a he says hunter he means sportsman in Chairman of the California Game Comsubsequent letter, I notified Mr. Leonard

the good sense of the term. If this is mission, asked Dr. Hornaday by what I would organize the new association. so, I do not agree with Mr. Gregg. I authority he had made the widely circu

After the American Game Protective think the facts are all on my side. His- lated statement that the deer of CaliforAssociation was incorporated and Theo- tory judges men more by their works nia were virtually exterminated. Dr. dore Roosevelt, John Burroughs, George than by their words. For every great Hornaday answered that for several Bird Grinnell, and men of their type had advance in game conservation in this years past he had been trying to secure accepted places in its management, I country I can name some sportsman or a set of antlers from the State, and beasked Dr. Hornaday to serve as a direc- group of sportsmen as a factor or factors cause he had difficulty in getting them he tor. The same motives applied here as which brought about the result. It assumed the deer must be gone. Newin the case of the Advisory Board on the would take a longer article than this, bert told him that the United States Migratory Bird Treaty Act. Dr. Horna- however, to give the detail. Men, Forest Service in their latest census day, however, alone of those I askedthrough shooting, not only learn inti- credited California with 185,000 deer in refused to serve.

mately ways and means of game conser- Federal forests alone, not to mention The original directors were the arms vation, but through their love for the other thousands in other forests, and that and ammunition men. At the first meet- wild creatures certain of them become as California has something over 150,000 ing of the Association each of these men imbued with the desire to work for their square miles of territory, much of which gave me his written resignation, to take welfare. The real beginning of the is unsuitable for deer, the figures would effect at my pleasure. The lesser part present-day wild life conservation move- indicate a very comfortable abundance of our income is still derived from the ment in America can be directly traced per square mile in deer forests. manufacturers, and they still have rep- to a little group of New York sportsmen

Newbert then asked Hornaday on resentation on our directorate. I believe who more than half a century ago what grounds he had similarly stated it is one of the greatest achievements of formed the New York Association for the that bob-white quail had been extermithe Association that their interest in Protection of Game, with its noble motto, nated by shooting in California. "Did Conservation has been maintained. If Non nobis solum" (Not for ourselves you not know that there never were any they have any ulterior object, it has not alone).

such quail in California?" questioned yet been disclosed.

If such men are "interested parties," Newbert. The American Game Protective Asso- are they any more so than the lawyer A moment later Dr. Hornaday was ciation has been in existence fourteen who desires to win his client's case or the asked if he did not consider it necessary years. Its history is written in the rec- doctor who wants to save a patient's life? to study the game conditions in a State ord of Conservation, and I have yet to The sportsman would not hunt if he did before making recommendations for hear unfavorable criticism from any not love his sport. He does not want cutting bag limits, and he gave this reConservationist of the results it has his sport to cease, and, naturally, if in- markable reply, which is quoted verbaaccomplished. From the start it has telligent, he desires the continuance and tim: been a leader in forward game adminis- increase of the game supply. Without "In a campaign covering forty-eight tration, and it has obtained notable re- his work there would be no deer in the States it is impossible to study local consults in many directions, including the Adirondacks, nor grouse in Pennsylvania,

Adirondacks, nor grouse in Pennsylvania, ditions in any of them”! protection of song and insectivorous and mighty few ducks in the Bear River birds, the creation of at least one new

'He men in the sportsman conservaNational Park and in aiding to preserve others also there is more game to-day

tion movement in this country have the inviolability from despoliation of than there was twenty years ago.

In been, with few exceptions, lifelong stuNational Parks, and in many other the section near New York where Frank dents of wild life and of game law legisworth-while movements. It had much to Forrester hunted three-quarters of a cen- lation and game law enforcement. They do, for example, in securing the creation tury ago there is more game than in his are selfish only in wanting to see the wild of the force of State constabulary in New day. I will grant Mr. Gregg that there life preserved—non nobis solum.

marshes. In all these places and many THE

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Edited by EDMUND PEARSON

N

The Memoirs of Viscount Grey

pause in order to survey the existing state of things. Then comes the tragedy,

and after it come the outburst of passion, Reviewed by W. J. GHENT

the increasing tension throughout EuO more important personal record second election, it is shown here, Presi- rope, the fruitless efforts to stem the drift relating to the outbreak of the dent Wilson was willing, provided Ger- toward war.

The “blow after blow to Great War has appeared than many should refuse a conference, or, the prospects of peace" which followed Viscount Grey's book. The man who accepting it, should prove intractable and Germany's rejection of the proposal of a for nearly a decade preceding that ex- overbearing, to bring America into the conference seemed to the author like plosion directed the foreign policy of war on the side of the Allies. Why “the deliberate, relentless strokes of Great Britain held a unique position. nothing came of the suggestions is ex- Fate, determined on human misfortune, The British Foreign Office was during plained at length. Before many months as they are represented in Greek tragedy. those trying years in a special sense an had passed, Germany, learning of the It was as if Peace were engaged in a international clearing-house of diplo- President's intentions, put forth a set of struggle for life, and whenever she macy; and Sir Edward Grey (his title proposals which, the author believes, seemed to have a chance, some fresh and before 1916), as the representative of a "may well have made him [the Presi- more deadly blow was struck.” Government in at least some degree set dent] despair of anything like a just In the retrospect of a decade later apart from the Continental scramble and peace being secured except by the use of Lord Grey reviews the approach to the as the steadfast upholder of a policy of force."

catastrophe and considers the causes. peace, was an international arbiter. No But what every reader will study most The remoter causes are obvious enoughman knew more of what was going on, intently is the account of events leading international rivalry, the increase of and no other actor in that tragedy can up to the war. It is a long story, begin- armaments, jealousy, suspicion, fear. give testimony of an equal value.

ning with the Algeciras affair in 1906 and But the immediate cause, though it will It is a sincere record-as frank and carrying on through three other major forever be a matter of dispute, is also fair a statement as one will find. It does European crises to the great climax. It clear to his mind. France was “most not profess to give a complete report of is an admirable narrative, candid and peacefully disposed;" over and over he the events leading up to the war; it clear, with the details properly subordi- asserts that France dreaded the war and treats, in the main, only of what came nated to the elucidation of issues. At made every effort to avoid it. England within the author's own knowledge. the period just prior to the assassination had steadfastly stood for peace, and her Confessedly, it gives a British view; but of the Austrian Archduke there is a small pro-war party had no influence. the author disclaims the desire either to vindicate or to condemn any nation; rather, he has tried so to relate the facts and his interpretation of them as to enable others to discover means by which another such war will be made impossible. Though to the German militarist party he ascribes the overt act of forcing the war, he holds the underlying causes to be those for which all the contending nations must take their share of blame. His style is colorless and his temper cold; even when he replies to certain reckless charges of the "faking” of documents, he avoids the note of indignation and contents himself with mere disproof.

The reader will find much here that is new-particularly in the matter of British-American relations. There are some new Roosevelt letters, there are fresh views of Ambassador Page and of Colonel House, and there is the text of the remarkable memorandum drawn up by Viscount Grey and Colonel House in February, 1916, embodying President

Viscount Grey Wilson's suggestions for terminating the war. More than eight months before his

Photograph by

Lafayette, Ltd. 1 Twenty-five Years (1892–1916). By Vis- Courtesy Frederick A. count Grey of Fallodon, K.G. With 32 Stokes Company illustrations from photographs. The Frederick Stokes Company, New York, 2 vols. $10.

[graphic]

A.

Generating Capacity
must double by 1933

That either the Czar or Sazonoff or “any | ECONOMIC TRENDS IN THE ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY one who had a decisive word in Russia”

(W wanted war he refuses to believe. As for Austria, probably neither the Emperor

Generating nor the people looked for war; but there were “sinister and reckless influences" at

Capacity work—"persons and forces . . . capable

demanded by 1933 of any crime and any blunder. In Austria, as in Russia, there was no head with

52,624,000 direction and grip of affairs."

Generating

KVA He does not believe that war was the

Capacity conscious object of the German Emperor.

for U.S.-1923 The Emperor gave Austria a free hand with Serbia, and when the consequences

20,244,000 of that free hand brought on a crisis that

KVA only he could have quieted he allowed matters to drift until war was virtually unavoidable; but he could hardly have planned to bring on a general conflict. Bethmann Hollweg and Jagow are also absolved from a belligerent purpose; at any rate, they were powerless. Though the German people, once the war had begun, supported it with "frantic demonstrations and enthusiasm," the fact of itself does not warrant the assertion that by pressure they brought on the war. The most that can be said of them is that "they had not that dread and fear of war that would prompt resistance to the idea of it.” The real deciding power lay elsewhere. “The one steady, con

Power, more power, still more power—such stant, organized authority (in Germany] was the military one; and there can be

is the insatiable demand of expanding life and little doubt that high military opinion

industry. The people of the United States held that war must come and that in 1914 the time for war had come.” The influ

already are using as much electrical current as ence of German military authority upon

-all the remaining countries in the world—yet Austrian military authority developed a situation which statecraft in the two

every year sees the demand expanding. countries, even had it been most reso

The generating capacity of all the electric lutely minded toward peace, could hardly have overcome. Viscount Grey's view of

service companies in this country totalled more the power of the German militarist party

than 20,000,000 kva in 1923. Yet, accordin 1914 is well illustrated in the telegram of the Austrian Ambassador, dated Aug.

ing to Electrical World estimates, it will have 7 of that year: "Long conversation with

to be 52,000,000 by 1933, power

facilities Grey. He is very bitter about the attack on Belgium, and complains especially of

keep pace with the growth of factories, mines, the manner in which everything in Ber

railroads, farms and homes. lin has been delivered into the hands of the military, so that he could absolutely

An industry can only be as large as its market. never be sure, while he was negotiating,

Here is one indication of the expanding market where the authority lay in Berlin.” He

for electric power. has found nothing in the eleven succeeding years to cause him to alter this view.

WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC & MANUFACTURING COMPANY The world has had its lesson; but has

EAST PITTSBURGH, PA. it taken the lesson to heart? The war, the author declares, has been a disaster to all, victors as well as vanquished. The great truth that has emerged from the conflict is that no enduring security can be had in competing armaments; that, indeed, there is no security for any

The alternating-current principle, developed and perfected Power unless it be a security in which

by Westinghouse, opened the way for the cheap and efficient

utilization of electric power in industry. Westinghouse its neighbors have an equal share. There

produced and perfected the turbine generator. Westingmust come, he believes, if civilization is

[graphic]

if

Westinghouse

house produced the apparatus which first harnessed the falls of Niagara.

Ingriting to the above advertiser

please mention The Outlool,

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