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year or two after the first semaphore signals had been erected on British railways, in 1841, a signalman was charged with the manipulation of two of them. To save himself the trouble of walking back and forth between the signal posts, he attached wires to both signals and led the wires into his hut, where he discharged his duty with a minimum of labor and a maximum of comfort. It is related that he got a wigging from the higher-ups, but was afterward more fittingly rewarded. His idea speedily took shape on all the railroads in the centralized control, first of signals, and then of both signals and switches. This innovation led, however, to difficulties. The more switches and signals a man had to manage, the greater were the chances of disastrous mistakes. Wherever there were many interconnected and busy tracks it took an alert brain and an exceptional memory to avoid setting up conflicting routes, and thereby sending trains crashing into each other.
The principle of “interlocking,” which Union Switch and Signal Company mechanically prevents such conflicts, was
The Older Way first applied to signals at Bricklayers
The electric and pneumatic adjuncts of the interlocking plant are comparatively recent improve
ments. All plants were once operated, as most of the smaller plants still are, by human muscle Arms railway station in London by Sir
The levers seen in this picture are mechanically connected with the signals and switches Charles Gregory about 1844. At the
by lines of iron pipe. The task of throwing a distant switch with one of these levers taxeo the
strength of the operator same station, in 1856, John Saxby installed the first interlocking machine ap- by Ashbel Welch, chief engineer of the ing machinery; especially in the addition proximating the design of those used United New Jersey Canal and Railroad of power devices--electric and pneumatic to-day, governing switches as well as Company, who was also the American - which alone make possible the operasignals. These machines were common pioneer in the matter of block-signaling. tion of our great terminal yards with in England before 1874, when the sys- In later years, however, Americans took facility, economy, and safety.–Scheheretem was introduced in the United States the lead in the improvement of interlock- zade please take notice.
By P. W. WILSON
TOR Americans, regarding the prob- had applied a thrifty system of insur- savings in industrial securities. It is as
lem from a distance, it is hard to ing workers against the vicissitudes of sumed that among the weekly wage
think of the "doles" granted in health and industry. And in Britain earners there is a margin for such savBritain except as an endowment of idle- a similar insurance had been provided to ings. The entire situation in Britain is ness by the State, of which the effect at a minority of wage-earners by trade dominated by the fact that employers once upon character and upon commerce unions and friendly societies.
have fought hard for low wages. Into is to be deplored. Not only for the stu- this insurance, hitherto unassisted by the the merits of this policy we need not endent of economics, but for the citizen
state, that Lloyd George, by his famous ter. It is enough to say that the family who pays taxes, there is here obviously Budget of 1909, co-ordinated and ex- budget was arranged on a scale which an issue of far-reaching importance, in tended to the nation. His plan was at precluded the possibility of providing for the decision of which Britain has been the outset limited in scope. But if there the future or even for adequate medical either very right or very wrong. And it had been no war at all, it would have attention where disease is actual and is possible that in some cases an opinion been extended and perfected in detail. present. The poor have been unable, has been formed without a full knowledge The notion that acute unemployment
The notion that acute unemployment without starvation, to pút by money, of the facts. For instance, it is not true began with the Armistice may be dis- and, while the Post Office Savings Bank that the schemes of which unemployment missed. What has happened is that holds a sum of about $1,250,000,000 on benefit is a part were adopted as a result since the Armistice the unemployed have behalf of 11,000,000 depositors, many of of the war. refrained from riots.
these depositors are children of the midFor a generation imperial Germany In the United States the workers have dle class. The blunt truth is that out of
been encouraged, especially since the 430,990 adults who died in 1922 only 'An editorial on this subject appears elsewhere in this issue.
placing of Liberty Bonds, to invest their 98,902--that is fewer than a quarterowned as much as $500 worth of prop- are compulsory on all employed persons, the temporary benefits, paid at any given erty, all told. It is arguable that Britain from early youth to advanced age. date, to the sick, nor the maternity ought to suspend her Drink Bill of Broadly, the insurance covers 11,000,000 benefit of $8. That there should be from $1,500,000,000, much of which is of men and 5,000,000 women. For many 6,000,000 to 7,000,000 grants from the course taxation. But, on the other of the benefits the state, the employer, state during any average week in a counhand, this Drink Bill, in so far as it falls and the worker make joint contributions. try with 8,000,000 homes is a fact eloon the workers, may be set off, surely, And the tendency will be, undoubtedly, quent of the scope now covered by the against what American families of mod- to extend the range of this partnership. social policy adopted. Of this policy, the est means spend on motor cars and ice- But in the meantime the state bears the provision for the unemployed is, after all, cream. Years ago Bernard Shaw an- whole cost of destitution, under the poor no more than an important detail. nounced that what the British working- law, of war pensions and—until this In considering the problem we must man needed was merely more money. year-of old-age pensions. Indeed, in not be deceived by big totals. The grant The inescapable actuality is that he lives principle it does not matter very much made in each particular case is small. and dies penniless.
whether the state does or does not bear For, instance, a widow's pension is no Of this poverty private agencies have the entire cost. For a contribution by more than $2.50 per week, with $1.25 failed to furnish an amelioration. In the employer or employed, when enforced by
for her eldest child under fourteen years, anxiety to avoid a pauper's grave the law, is, after all, only a tax to the state and 75 cents for every younger child. By workers by the million contribute weekly under another name. An insurance this scale a family of five would receive dues to insurance companies for policies stamp on a worker's card is no different $6 a week. For sickness the allowpayable at death. Yet, owing to the from a revenue stamp on a check.
ance is $3.75 for men and $3 for women. uncertainties of employment, many poli
For unemployment a man has $3.75 and cies lapse. And of the revenues, amount
The Community Takes Charge a woman $3. Nor must we suppose that ing to $125,000,000 annually collected. The fundamental fact is that the com
the doles go singly-one to a home. only $70,000,000 return to the policy- munity as a community has accepted What really happens is that the generholders as benefits. It cannot be pre- wholly unprecedented responsibilities for
ally prosperous home receives nothing tended that this is a satisfactory situa- the maintenance of the individual home.
at all, while the home that is out of tion. Yet it represents the utmost that Never before has a nation, ancient or
luck becomes eligible for several beneprivate enterprise has been able hitherto modern, guaranteed by law financial or
fits. to offer as an inducement to well-consid- other assistance to the sick, the aged, the ered thrift. tuberculous, to the wife in childbirth, to
The Effect of the Doles America and Great Britain the widow, and to her orphan children. THERE remains the question whether
Let us suppose that it is all a mistake. the doles do or do not perpetuate Compared
About some mistakes there is a certain unemployment. In the case of young men T HE American replies that in the year undeniable splendor of idealism.
discharged from the army whose minds 1921 the United States' endured a With the conduct of industry there is and whose nerves have been, it is to be spell of acute unemployment. Estimates no interference. Business continues to feared, permanently affected by the unof the number forced into idleness by de- be, as hitherto, privately owned and settling tragedies, comedies, miseries, and flation varied from 2,000,000 to 6,000,- managed. The insurance, taken as a heroism of war, there is evidence that the 000, yet no doles were granted. One fac- whole, represents a kind of neighborly dole has emphasized their disinclination tor that helped matters was, I am told, debenture on which an annual charge to settle down to steady work. But in prohibition, which has contributed, it is must be met. If we add together the other cases it has not been the dole that said, twenty per cent to the efficiency of contributions made by the state, the local has depreciated character, but the unemlabor. But it must also be borne in mind authorities, the employers, and the em- ployment itself. And this unemployment that the country happens to be in a posi- ployed persons, the total expenditure in- has been too often exaggerated and mistion unique among nations. In 1900 the volved in these schemes cannot be less understood. In the last ten years Britestimated wealth of the United States than $1,250,000,000—a billion and a ain has added about two million to her was $80,000,000,000—eighty billions. quarter. It far exceeds the entire na- population. The number of her emiTo-day the estimate is three hundred tional Budget of Britain before the war. grants has been reduced. And to-day and twenty billions, or four times the Britain contains 8,000,000 inhabited she is employing more people on indusprevious sum. No community that is houses. Each of these homes is involved tries, productive and unproductive, than quadrupling its resources in twenty-five to the extent of $3 a week, on the aver- ever before in her history. This despite years can be considered normal in its age.
the fact that, owing to high taxation, the handling of men and women out of work. The number of persons affected by number of domestic servants has been reA square mile of the United States has
the benefits at any particular time is duced by 500,000. With Russia under only to support thirty-five persons. A startling. There are, to begin with, Bolshevism, Germany emerging from British mile has to support six hundred about 2,000,000 grants and pensions to bankruptcy, China in chaos, and the persons. And when trade is depressed war veterans and dependents of soldiers world in general still disturbed, it is no there are no wide open spaces available and sailors, dead and wounded. The un- wonder that a larger population in Britfor the absorption of the displaced wage- employed number 1,250,000. The old- ain, swollen by young men and women
age pensions, men and women over sev- who before the war would have been butPresumably, a scheme of national in- enty years of age, have been 800,000, lers and housemaids, yields an abnormal surance, as applied in Britain, would be but, with the age reduced to sixty-five unemployment. Broadly, the usual half unconstitutional in this country of State's years, will be increased to 1,500,000. million who used to be out of a job have rights. If, then, it were to be adopted, a And the number of “paupers”-that is become a million and a quarter, while Twentieth Amendment--one might recall of destitute persons-in receipt of indoor nearly another million are the case of the income tax—would have or outdoor relief is still no less than time. to be a preliminary. For it is of the 1,500,000. These figures add up to The real cure for unemployment is essence of the British schemes that they 6,250,000, and, even so, do not include mobility of labor. It is really absurd that the engineering trades should be by experience what is the anxiety of liv- cal aspect of the case. At first the docasked to support 2,200,000 persons in- ing without resources on a weekly wage tors violently opposed the idea of substistead of the 1,500,000 persons supported which may stop at any time and for rea- tuting an annual grant per patient for the before the war, when the building trades sons wholly outside the control of the occasional fees, hitherto more or less are actually admitting to that industry worker affected. The evil to be grappled collectable. It meant, in effect, the Chifewer men than in 1913—this despite the with is not the dole. It is the obstinate nese plan of paying a doctor to keep you shortage of housing among the workers refusal of the unions and of the workers in heaith instead of paying him only themselves. It is not the dole that has within the unions to do the work which when you are ill. Beyond dispute, the caused this scandal. It is the restrictions wants doing when that work lies outside
wants doing when that work lies outside scheme has worked. The nation enjoys of the trade unions concerned.
their own accepted industry. Analyses better health, probably, than ever before.
of the unemployed show, moreover, that Its mind is devoted, as never before, to Is It Bad Finance ?
a large majority of them were once boys the prevention of disease instead of cure. o sum up, I may perhaps express a and girls whom their parents removed There are those--Mr. Lloyd George is,
belief, which has never altered since from school at too early an age. It is I think, one of them—who would welI was at close quarters with Mr. Lloyd not only the professions, it is the trades come the establishment of a state mediGeorge during his fight for the Budget also, that to-day require a minimum of cal service outright. The "panel sysof 1909, that national insurance against education. The money paid in doles is tem” of doctors is a compromise, which unforeseeable but certain risks to health the money saved on schools—with com- enables the physician to serve the state and employment is not bad finance. pound interest.
while he still retains his private pracThey only think this who do not know A word should be added on the medi- tice.
The Twin Cities
Cities of Minnesota
By GEORGE MARVIN
OHN PHILIP SOUSA says of the enough Sousa kind of band, dominated olises. Nearly all of them walk to work
composition of a good band, “Give by a few real musicians. Over in St. every day. And they have been walking
me seven or nine musicians, and Paul old J. J. Hill was a soloist. During to work—some of them for thirty or the rest of the sixty can toot.” Thirty- his lifetime the rest of his city listened. forty years. They walk because they five or forty stalwart citizens set the mu- He was so big that he was alone. In want to walk, because they like to walk, nicipal tune in the big Minneapolis Minneapolis nobody is as big as Hill not because they have to walk as leading orchestra. The rest of the 425,435 toot was, but nearly twoscore Minneapoli- citizens of some other municipalities are -generally in accord.
tans have attained sufficient stature to compelled to do if they want to get anyMinneapolis, in contradistinction to its raise them into positions of admitted where through the motor-traffic congesTwin City, has generally been an oli- leadership without giving one another tion. And maybe this is one reason why garchy, a benevolent government by the cause for apprehension or alarm.
at threescore years and over most of few; some of the time primarily for the One thing distinguishes these musi- them are hale and hearty enough to confew, but most of the time for the many. cians from the great, the near-great, and stitute oligarchy, sound-winded It has been throughout its history a good the prominent in other American metrop- enough to dominate and determine the
Courtesy Minneapolis "Journal"
"Stepping cheerfully along to their offices.” The men in this picture, all prominent and well-known Minneapolitan citizens, are (left to right) C. F. Deaver ; F. A. Chamberlain, President of the First National Bank ; George Draper Dayton, proprietor of the Dayton Store and a famous character throughout the Northwest; Alexander Campbell ; J. H. McMillan, Jr.; A. C.
Andrews; and John H. McMillan
The welcoming hand of Minneapolis held out to all comers by motor transportation or by railway. This gateway is
Nicollet Hotel is just behind the gateway municipal melody. Almost any fine pality. Minneapolis is a friendly town. and jumpers and fast skaters have for morning you can see them in couples or It is also a very neighborly town. The many years come from the Scandinavian open-order squads, between eight and “musicians” are not by any means the population of Minneapolis. In summer nine o'clock, stepping cheerfully along to only folks who walk to work. Hundreds argosies of canoes are launched every their offices on Nicollet or Marquette and thousands of men and women in evening, and the whole family goes swimAvenue or Fifth Street from their break- Minneapolis walk every day to business ming. In the Indian lands of the Minfasts, one mile, a mile and a half, or two or to market or for the sheer fun of walk- nesota lakes people never get “sick for miles away. They deploy by neighbor- ing, because it is in Minneapolis so ex- the sky-blue water." hoods on schedule: Mr. McMillan, for traordinarily convenient to get from That two communities so mortised into instance, will get under way from his pleasant abiding-places to points of daily each other physically as the Twin house at 8 A.M., pick up Mr. Andrews at duty or necessity. Thirty per cent of the Cities of Minnesota, and with so many 8:02, and Mr. Campbell waiting on his population live within ten minutes' ride mutual interests, should remain distinct front-door step at 8:04. Farther on their of their jobs; seventy-five per cent are is at first sight baffling. The situation, way the head of the big Dayton store within a twenty-minute radius by tram however, does not escape analysis. St. falls into line, then the President of the car or by bus. Doubling this time will Paul historically is the older community. First National Bank, and so on until a approximate the corresponding walking The original settlers, creeping up the squad of eight or nine plutocrats go interval. Urban and suburban dovetail Mississippi to the head of navigation, swinging along in step after the manner here together. Fifteen minutes in a established here their outpost for trading of our forefathers in the quaint old days motor car will put you on the shores of with the Indians. St. Paul remains tobefore it became unfashionable to use the lakes that look a thousand miles away day at heart a trading post. As the capihuman hind legs for transportation. from the fret of big cities. In the Twin tal of the State and the center of the Along another line of march Mr. Hovey Cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis thir- railroad systems that grew into and out Clarke has formed a squad of lumber teen of these lakes are the centers of of Minnesota, it held, until the late ninemagnates and flour potentates. They parks and residential districts, and these ties, undisputed leadership. For a long are friendly groups, all on a first-name areas are among the Twins' greatest time it bought more 4 per cent bonds basis: “Good-morning, Alec," "Hello, assets. This great metropolis of more than its younger neighbor. George,” “What's the good word, John?” than 700,000 doesn't have to pack up But upstart Minneapolis has forged to A good many of them meet together and go somewhere and spend a lot of the front from behind, until now it exdaily for luncheon at the Minneapolis money for recreation. It plays right in ceeds the capital in population by 150,Club.
They function on the same its own front or back yard. Winter car- 000. Its origins are different. When boards of directors and form the back- nival sports, now spreading like a healthy New England ran out of timber sixty bone of the various civic and commercial epidemic over the States of the northern years or more ago, the Lorings and the associations. And the friendly relation- East, were born on the lakes and hills of Pillsburys and the Washburns and the ship they have for so long a time borne St. Paul in the late eighties, almost two rest of the pioneers migrated into the to one another permeates their munici- generations ago. Champion ski runners still heavily wooded States of Michigan - 54 רס
The Ford plant, actually in the territory of St. Paul but affecting the trade well-being of Minneapolis almost equally. This plant is the largest assembling base in the United States, and, next to Detroit, the largest Ford manufacturing establishment. Henry Ford planted his plant on the Government dam, thereby damning the most beautiful residential district of the city of St. Paul, but with the full approval and consent of its citizens. In the foreground is the ship lock by which river traffic may reach the water
front of Minneapolis further upstream and Minnesota. And they found in the at seventy the active partner in one of the internecine strife of the related comfalls of St. Anthony, above the fur- the largest lumber companies of the munities to their greater joint future. trading post of St. Paul, the power to Northwest, spoke of this "Gold Medal” From his hill in St. Paul he approved the turn the water-wheels of their sawmills. president as an example of how the na- establishment of the Federal Bank in Minneapolis has always been a mill tive sons "all turned out well.” Other Minneapolis. Men of lesser vision now, town. For a long time it was lumber. specific examples—the sons-in-law of the old and young, fill the air with recrimiThen, as the timber was cleared away Peaveys, the Crosby boys, the sons of nations as they tug-of-war over the locaand grain sprouted over the Northwest, the Pillsburys, the Daytons, the Bells, tion of industrial plants that cannot fail it became a city founded on flour. The and the Bowmans—keep this statement to benefit both localities. St. Paul lands lumber has gone and the flour is going— from being a generality. Devotion to Henry Ford, and then blocks the buildgoing farther East—and the city in its family and to family undertakings would ing of a bridge which will permit some of industries is beginning to readjust itself seem to be in Minneapolis almost Japan- Henry's fourteen thousand (estimated) to the big economic changes which tran- ese in its strength.
employees to live on the Minneapolis spire beyond the control of States or So it happens that the mill city, side of the river. And Minneapolis municipalities. But it is at heart still a younger than the trading post, is never- comes back by prying loose the Minnemill town. And, as a matter of distinc- theless more mature in character, less sota Creameries from their warehouses in tive personality, the pioneer spirit and impulsive. The men who sit around the St. Paul, with their constituent 475 some of the pioneers themselves still ex- long lunch table at the Minneapolis Club creameries, their cohorts of dairy farm
are older than those who gather at the ers, and their 80,000,000 annual pounds In this integrity of purpose the second Minnesota Club over in St. Paul. Back of butter, to a new location at the Mingeneration joins to a remarkable degree. of the industries and beneath the figures neapolis end of the community. It is perhaps not too much to say that in stand the men. J. J. Hill, the biggest Together the two cities share the bigno other city of the same or larger popu- single force the community has produced, gest State fair in the United States, and lation have the sons of the original cap- thought in terms of the State and the together they profit by the close neightains of industry followed so faithfully Northwest. Setting one point of a borhood of Fort Snelling, headquarters where their fathers trod. Keeping up draughtsman's dividers on the Twin of the Seventh Corps area and training with the Joneses in Minneapolis involves Cities and the other on Jacksonville, grounds for the citizen army of the hard work. There is no local chapter of Florida, he traced with that same radius Northwest. A great many of the new the Sons of Rest, and neither lounge liz- the arc of a circle that came east of and larger plants which have more reards nor movie sheiks flourish in the Spokane, Washington. The territory cently come to the neighborhood occupy land. “An idle man,” says the hard- that formed the segment to the north sites along University Avenue, on the working young president of the largest and west he believed to be the rightful older conservative side of the ri flour mill in the world, “would die lonely trade area of the Twin Cities. He was district which used to be gene here." A friend of his father's, himself an empire builder. He saw clear over still is by some Minneapolita