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use Most of them have indicators on the stack so it would indicate when a dark puff would come out so they could change the ingredients, add more air or remove some of the air, so they would get proper combustion.

It was just a few years ago we worked very closely with the Federal government at one of the installations here in town and came up with more advanced technology so there was better combustion. I would say in these areas, yes there is, and we are talking in the neighborhood of a half million tons of coal in this area. Yes, they are being burned properly. But of course there is the problem of the $0, removal. We don't have the answers to that yet. We are working on them hard, when we do get the answers to them we will know the technology, but then applying the actual economics to it is something else again.

Mr. Winn. Thank you very much.

Mr. GUDE. Mr. McGrath, with reference to all of the research that the coal and oil industries are doing you seem unconvinced of the necessity of reasearch. Is it because you are not sure there is a problem?

Mr. MCGRATH. Well I'm not sure there is a problem with so, because it has not been sufficiently—it has not been a sufficient indictment on this other than a very shallow one, in my estimation. Nevertheless there has been terrific pressure because of abatement proceedings on behalf of the Public Health Service throughout the country. If you don't put a regulation setting up a one percent sulphur, the Federal government is going to step in and beat you over the head and make you do it. Because of the hearings that were held before the Senate, it has become quite apparent there is sufficient information as Dr.

Mr. GUDE. Insullicient informaton?

Mr. McGratu. Insufficient information to indiet sulphur dioxide as the principle contributor to the determental effects which occur as a result of air pollution. The two gentlemen from England, Jr. Clarke and Mr. Stone, were over here and testified and ther talked about deaths in England and how they had been reduced. They said for twenty years the studies in England have been going on to try to indiet sulphur dioxide as the culprit and they have failed to do so. It's this type of thing. Nevertheless the cause of precipitous action like Montgomery County, of which I am a resident, suddenly there is a one percent limitation in Montgomery County and there is Dickerson Plant way out there in the far northwest corner of Montgomery County without hardly any residents around, no complaints, and all of a sudden they are faced with the burden of one percent sulphur coal.

Mr. MULTER. We will have to suspend sir. We are being called to

Mr. MULTER. You will have to suspend sir. We are being called to the House Chamber.

Mr. MCGRATH. I'm sorry.

Mr. Gude. The claim Bas been made that farm crops are being damaged by sulphur dioxide.

Mr. MCGRATI. There has been no showing.

Mr. VULTER. I suggest you submit a list of questions to Mr. McGrath and let him answer them for the record.

Mr. GUDE. We have two additonal witnesses that have not submitted statements.

Mr. MULTER. I think we ought to ask them to do that. Mr. Coulter may submit a statement. We have other witnesses that want to be

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heard but obviously time has run out. We will ask them please to sub-
mit their statements for the record. We will add them to the record
when they come in. We will keep the record open for additonal data
for at least ten days, before we close the record.
The Committee will stand in recess subject to the call of the Chair.
(Whereupon, at 12:25 o'clock p.m. the Committee adjourned sub-
ject to the call of the Chair.)

(Subsequently, the following statements and letters were filed for the record :)

WASHINGTON, D.C., May 17, 1967.
Hon. B. F. SISK,
U.S. House of Representatives,
Rayburn Building, Washington, D.C.:

The Committee of 100 on the Federal City endorses H.R. 6981, the proposed
bill for prevention, abatement, and control of air pollution in the District of
Columbia. Such legislation is basic to an effective program to safeguard the
health of Washington area residents and preserve the appearance and livability
of the National Capital. It is respectfully requested that this statement be in-
cluded inthe official record of the current hearings.

Chairman, Air and Water Pollution subcommittee.

WASHINGTON, D.C., April 14, 1967.
Hon. JOHN MCMILLAN,
Chairman, D.C. Committee,
House of Representatives, Washington, D.O.

DEAR CONGRESSMAN MCMILLAN: As a citizen of the District of Columbia, I wish
to thank you for your interest and efforts in behalf of the city.

At the moment, I am most concerned about air pollution, I strongly urge that
public hearings be held on proposed legislation in the field, so that facts may be
brought out in the open and acted upon.

People are already being adversely affected by the conditions of our air. It
is my belief that everyone, statesinen, businessmen and private citizens must
begin to work together to solve this problem, before we are confronted by real
tragedy.
Thank you for any thing you may do.
Sincerely,

(Mrs.) GLADYS F. LOWREY,

ROCKVILLE, MD., April 15, 1967.
Subject: Air Pollution Bill
Hon. John L. McMILLAN,
Chairman, District of Columbia Committee,
House of Representatives,
Washington, D.O.

DEAR SIR: On many days it is alarmingly obvious that the District of Colum-
bia desperately needs adequate air pollution control legislation immediately.
Clear days when landmarks may be seen for miles are a joy, appreciated in-
creasingly because of the many days when a film of smog hangs heavy.
"Let's Get Going On Air Pollution Control”, pp. 3 BULLETIN, NATIONAL
TT BERCULOSIS ASSOCIATION, March, 1967, is only one of a multitude of
articles protesting the apathy, ignorance and unconcern that prevent proper leg-
islation. We are aware that powerful, self-interest groups exert pressure, hoping
to delay what must be done if people are to escape suffering needless death and
sickness from pollution. The evidence is too great to be ignored, and once one
has watched a relative die in agony from a disease associated with air pollution,
a person no longer could possibly want to ignore mounds of research evidence.
Please conduct public hearings so that legislation such as that proposed by
Congressman Gude can be enacted.
Yours very truly,

(Mrs.) PATRICIA DOWNES.

WASHINGTON, D.O., April 29, 1967. Hon. JOHN L. MCMILLAN, Chairman, District of Columbia Committee, House of Representatives, Washington, D.O.

DEAR SIR:As responsible citizens of this country we should all be fully aware of and well informed in the problems that modern civilization has provided us with, not the least of which is the air pollution which is a blight on city living, and I wonder at the increasing number of asthmatic and allergic children that I find in my classes, if in part it might not be due to the pollution.

I want you to know that I support Congressman Gude's bill and believe it
imperative that public hearings be held on such important legislation.
Thank you.
Yours truly,

MARIE S. CONTRERAS
Mrs. B. R. Contreras.

BETHESDA, MD., May 10, 1967. Hon. John L. MCMILLAN, Chairman, District of Columbia Committee, Washington, D.O.

DEAR SIR; The members of The Woman's Club of Bethesda are keenly interested in Air Pollution Control. We urge you to schedule public hearings on the House of Representatives Air Pollution Act, H.R. 6981 at your earliest opportunity. Yours truly,

EATHOL W. ALLEN, President.

EASTLANDS GARDENS CIVIC ASSOCIATION,

Washington, D.O., May 16, 1967. Hon. JOHN L. MCMILLAN, Chairman, District of Columbia Committee, House of Representatives, Washington, D.C.

DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN: The Eastland Gardens Civic Association has voted to urge your committee to hold public hearings on H.R. 6981, a bill introduced by Vr. Gude, Sth District, Maryland, to provide for the prevention, abatement, and control of air pollution in the District of Columbia. Should hearings be held it is requested that our organization be permitted to express its views at these hearings.

We favor this progressive legislation ; our interest is more than casual in that our association's boundries are contiguous with a part of those of the Kenilworth Dump, the dump being a well known major source of air pollution in the District of Columbia Metropolitan area.

We as citizens urge the closing of Kenilworth Dump since it neeillessly adversely affects the lives of all of us, particularly the inhabitants of the District of Columbia and Maryland and those others that have business to attend to in the area.

It is our opinion that H.R. 6981 should be enacted into law as a vital piece of legislation designed for the protection of all people and living things in the Metropolitan area. Respectfully submitted.

WILBUR C. GOODWIN, President.

THE SILVER SPRING WOMAN'S CLUB, INC.,

Silver Spring, Md., June 14, 1967. Hon. JOHN L. MOMILLAN, Chairman, D.C. Committee, House of Representatives, Washington, D.C.

DEAR SIR: The Board of Directors of the Silver Spring Woman's Club voted to request that public hearings be held on Air Pollution Bill HR 69$1.

I present this request to you, with a copy to Congressman Gilbert Gude.

This important matter is the concern of many club women, who wish to keep informed of progress made and actions contemplated. Sincerely,

Mrs. G. E. MURCH, Corresponding Secretary.

KINGMAN PARK CIVIC ASSOCIATION,

Washington, D.C., June 24, 1967. Hon. John L. MCMILLAN, Chairman, District of Columbia Committee, House of Representatives, Washington, D.C.

DEAR SIR: The members of the Kingman Park Civic Association are deeply concerned about air pollution in the District of Columbia. They have bad first hand knowledge of the problem.

At the last regular monthly meeting, our Association voted to go on record as being in support of the bill introduced by Representative Gilbert Gude of Maryland.

The bill, H.R. 6981, provides for the prevention, abatement and control of air pollution in the District of Columbia.

Polluted air is a serious menace to the health of many individuals. That fact alone should be sufficient to warrant drastic controls for the air pollution. Yours sincerely,

ROBERT REID, President, Kingman Park Ciric Association.

WASHINGTON, D.C., August 19, 1967. Hon. John L. MCMILLAN, Chairman, Committee on the District of Columbia, House of Representatives, Washington, D.C.

DEAR MR. MOMILLAN: As control of air pollution in the National Capital area is one of our major current objectives, the COMMITTEE OF 100 ON THE FEDERAL CITY would greatly appreciate having the attached statement included in the printed record of your hearings on H.R. 6981 and H.R. 12232. Respectfully yours,

David SANDERS CLARK,
Chairman, Subcommittee on Air and Water Pollution,

Committee on 100 on the Federal City.
STATEMENT ON H.R. 6981 AND H.R. 12232, BILLS TO PROVIDE FOR THE PREVENTION,
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

AUGUST 19, 1967. The Committee of 100 on the Federal City urges prompt enactment of H.R. 6981 as an essential first step toward prevention and control of air pollution in the Washington area. We find it appalling that among 65 major metropolitan areas studied by the Public Health Service, Washington ranks 6th in the amount of sulfur dioxide in the air from burning coal and heavy oils, 13th in carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, and hydrocarbon from gasoline, and 18th in general severity of air pollution.

As residents of the District of Columbia and nearby Maryland and Virginia, our members are acutely aware that air pollution is a regional problem. Efforts to clean up the air over the National Capital will not be truly effective until regulations are enacted for the District of Columbia which are compatible with those adopted by Montgomery County, Maryland, and now under consideration in other adjoining jurisdictions. H.R. 6981 meets the requirements for compataThe bill further merits approval because it establishes definite standards limiting emissions from fuel-burning equipment, incinerators, and motor ve hicles

, and sets dates by which these standards must be met. H.R. 12232, which merely authorizes the District Commissioners to take air pollution control measures, but requires no positive action on their part, would, in our judgment, be quite ineffective.

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bility.

STATEMENT BY DR. Harold Silver ON WHAT AIR POLLUTION MEANS IN THE

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

My name is Harold M. Silver. I am a physician who has been active in Pulmonary Disease from the standpoint of research, teaching, and, most important, patient care, for more than ten years. I am Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine and Director of the Pulmonary Research Laboratory at the George Wash

ington University School of Medicine. I am a charter member of the D.C. Thoracic Society and a member of the Board of the District of Columbia Tuberculosis Association.

As one who takes care of patients with emphysema, bronchitis and asthma, I am deeply concerned about our

air pollution, as it relates to the well being and even survival of these people. The high level of atmospheric pollution in the Washington area constitutes a potentially explosive situation to which these patients are hostage. Current levels of air pollution may well aggravate the disease which these patients have, and are probably a contributing factor to the development of chest diseases in people who are still well.

Perhaps more important and certainly more alarming is the real risk of a major air pollution disaster which could cause hundreds of deaths and hospitalizations here in this area. Such catastrophies have occurred in New York, London, and Donora. and with certain weather conditions could occur here.

This situation is particularly unhappy and frustrating because the individual doctor and patient have no control over it. It differs from the personal form of air pollution, cigarette, smoking, where the physician's firm advice and the patient's resolution can control it instantly and completely. To control atmospheric air pollution, community action in this entire geographic area is required. Only through cominunity activity can this clear and substantial danger to the public health be improved, and people spared the possible anguish of an air pollution disaster.

There is already ample knowledge for some action. We know that most harmful substances such as sulfur dioxide result from the combustion of fuels such as happens in open burning of garbage, and the use of coal, gasoline, and fuel oil. By putting an immediate stop to open burning, and by furthering the use of energy forms which minimize air pollution, this committee could take prompt positive action. By furthering electric mass transportation and by requiring devices on automobiles which reduce their discharge of pollutants, this committee could have an important impact on the problem now.

There is, however, a need for more research as well as for immediate action. Means must be developed for purifying air in the home, in the work situation, and possibly even in the streets. Research is required to study the long term effects of air pollution on the development and progression of obstructive lung disease. I have personally done research in the field of early recognition of these diseases and similar surveys in areas of high and low air pollution could be very valuable. I have also done research on the progression of these diseases in each individual patient and similar work in areas of high and lower air pollution could well reveal the exact quantitative effect of air pollution on the natural history of these diseases.

Careful study of the proposed HR-6981 indicates that this offers promise for decreasing air pollution in the District of Columbia and therefore it earns my enthusiastic support.

HAROLD M. SILVER, M.D. MAY 29, 1967.

[Editorial from Washington Evening Star, August 13, 1967]

POISONED ATMOSPHERE

The evidence continues to pile up on Washington's contaminated air. A few days ago the Public Health Service reported that the city ranks 18th in the nation in severity of air pollution. Its atmosphere is exceedingly high in sulfur dioxide from the burning of coal and heavy oils, and ranks 13th in gasoline consumption, a source of deadly carbon monoxide.

Now additional testimony has been heard by a House District subcommittee. Dr. Jason Geiger, specialist in respiratory ailments, reported his caseload at Washington Hospital Center clinic goes up when air pollution levels are heavy. Assistant Surgeon General Vernon MacKenzie pointed out that the area's auto density is one of the highest in the nation. And Dr. Murray Grant, District health director, noting that carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide are “totally uncontrolled" under persent city law, warned that an “air pollution disaster" could occur here.

Can anything be done before such a calamity takes place? A bill introduced by Representative Gilbert Gude of Maryland at least offers one approach. It would require the District government to appoint au air pollution control agency, bringing all regulation under one roof, and would set minimum standards for pollu

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