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priation of private property for railway lines. No one is obliged to furnish aid to the army without an order from the civil magistrate, and indemnity shall be given for any loss sustained in obedience to such order.

The inhabitants of the country may pursue any occupation not injurious to the public welfare or to that of other citizens. Any person may freely enter the territory of the Republic, and his stay and departure are unrestrained as long as he observes the police regulations and injures no one.

In all treaties made by the Republic with foreign powers for the extradition of criminals political offenses are excepted. The

army of the Republic, on a peace footing, is composed of 3,200 private soldiers, commanded by 21 superior and 211 inferior officers. It is divided into 4 battalions of infantry, 4 regiments of cavalry, 1 of artillery, and the garrisons of Fort General Artigas and the National Park. Its organization is considered as excellent, its discipline good, and it is well instructed in drill and tactics. The infantry is armed with Remington rifles, and the armament of the artillery consists of 67 pieces of cannon and mitrailleuses. One battalion of the line and all the cavalry are stationed in garrisons in the different departments, the remainder being held at the capital.

The National Guard consists of about 20,000 men, and the Government could probably put a force of 35,000 soldiers in the field in case of emergency. The

navy consists of 3 gunboats and 5 small steamers. Of the former, the General Artigas was built in Trieste and the General Rivera was constructed in the works of the School of Arts and Trades. These vessels are manned by 227 men under officers, the entire navy being commanded by 11 superior officers. The armament consists of 7 large guns





Chapter IV.


The Republic is divided into nineteen Departments or provinces, as follows: On the Atlantic, Rocha; on the Rio de la Plata, Maldonado, Canelones, Montevideo, San José, and Colonia; on the Uruguay, Paysandú, Salto, Rio Negro, and Soriano; Artigas on the Uruguay and Brazilian frontier; Rivera, Cerro Largo, and Treinta y Tres, on the Brazilian border, and Durazno, Florida, Minas, Tacuarembó, and Flores, in the interior. Artigas is the most northern of these Departments and forms the extreme northwest angle, and below it, as the country broadens, are situated Salto and Rivera. To the south of these last, lie Paysundú, Tacuarembó, and Cerro Largo. Rio Negro, Durazno, and Treinta y Tres occupy the region to the south of these last, and below them, , lie Soriano, Flores, Florida, Minas, and Rocha. Colonia, San José, Canelones, Montevideo, and Maldonado occupy the southern territory of the country.

Up to 1880, there were but thirteen Departments, but in July of that

year, there were created by law the six additional ones of Rocha, Rio Negro, Artigas, Rivera, Treinta y Tres, and Flores.

Montevideo, the smallest of the Departments, is the most populous, although it possesses an area of only 256 square miles. Its capital is the capital of the Republic. It occupies the southernmost part of the national territory and lies along the Rio de la


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Plata. The population is generally concentrated in and around the capital, while a large part of its territory is but very sparsely inhabited and almost uncultivated, consisting, however, of beautifully undulating prairie lands, capable of sustaining a population many times as great. The Department, as far as yet known, possesses little or no mineral wealth.

Montevideo, the capital of the Department and of the Republic and the commercial emporium of the country, was founded in 1726. Its growth has been occasionally interrupted by civil wars and foreign occupations, but has, in the main, been continual. Its population in 1892, as officially given, is 238,080 inhabitants, thus having increased enormously, from 3,500 in 1818 and 9,000 in 1829. Until 1834, it was little more than a fortress, whose walls had withstood many a siege, but when these were demolished, the area of the city began to expand, new streets were opened and new squares laid out.

In 1838, its population received a new impulse from foreign immigration which began at that time. It unfortunately occupied territory whose possession was disputed by the English, by the Argentines, and by the Brazilians, whose forces at various times occupied the city. The arrival of some 1,400 French and Italians in 1836 was followed by a current of immigration which contributed to the more rapid growth of the city and country. From 1838 to 1841, 28,245 Europeans immigrants are estimated to have entered the port.

The city in its extension beyond the ancient walled limits absorbed the adjacent villages, and its growth in population was correspondingly rapid, although not so great as to reach in 1860 more than 45,000 inhabitants. In 1872, however, the population had increased to 105,000, being an increase of 1333 per cent in

twelve years.

The port or harbor of Montevideo is the best on the Plata. An elaborate and costly system of moles and docks for the shelter and accommodation of vessels has been projected. The plans include

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