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he Florida Indians in 1841; first lieutenant, Brigadier-General George Archibald McCall, 844; brevet captain for conduct at Monterey, born in Pennsylvania, about 1802, graduated 846 ; brevet major, for conduct at Buena Vista, at West Point, 1822 ; made first lieutenant of 847; instructor of artillery and cavalry at the infantry, 1829; aide-de-camp to Gen. Gaines ailitary academy, 1850–55, with rank of cap- from 1831 to 1836; promoted captain, 1836; ain after 1853 ; major Second Cavalry, 1855; brevet major and lieutenant-colonel in 1846, rigadier-general of volunteers, August, 1861; for gallant conduct at Palo Alto and Resaca ssigned to Department of Kentucky; fought de la Palma, 1846 ; assistant adjutant-general, attle of Mill Spring; and was engaged on the 1846 ; major, 1847; inspector-general, 1850; th and 7th of April, 1862, in the battle of brigadier-general of volunteers, 1861. hiloh.

Brigadier-General William S. Rosecrans is a Brigadier-General Ormsby McKnight Mitchell native of Ohio, born in 1825. He graduated vas born in Union County, Ky., July, 1810; with high rank at West Point in 1842; apraduated at West Point in 1829, and appoint- pointed brevet second lieutenant of engineers d brevet second lieutenant of artillery ; made same year, and made assistant professor of enssistant professor of mathematics 1829-31; gineering, and afterwards of natural philosophy ngaged in railroad surveys June to September, at the military academy. Resigned his com831; detailed to St. Augustine, Fla. ; resigned, mission in April, 1854, and established himself 832; went to Cincinnati, practised law for two as an architect and civil engineer in Cincinnati, ears, then opened a scientific school; in 1836 and subsequently as a manufacturer of kerosené lecame professor of mathematics, philosophy, oil; entered the army as colonel at the breaknd astronomy in Cincinnati College; project- ing out of the war; distinguished himself in d, and, in spite of great difficulties, achieved several battles in Western Virginia; was prohe establishment of the Cincinnati Observa- moted to the rank of brigadier-general in the ory; has lectured extensively on astronomy; regular arny May 16, 1861. dited “Sidereal Journal," 1846–55; invented Brigadier General Isaac I. Stevens was born magnetic clock in 1848; in 1859 was appoint- at Andover, Mass., about the year 1818; gradd superintendent of Dudley Observatory at uated as the first scholar in his class at West Albany; has published several works on as- Point, July, 1839; was appointed first lieutenronomy; soon after the commencement of the ant of engineers, July, 1840. He served upon var, he resigned, and offered his services to General Scott's staff throughout the Mexican he Government; was appointed brigadier- war, and for gallant and meritorious conduct eneral, and assigned to the Department of in the battles of Contreras, Churubusco, and Dhio. (Has distinguished himself in April, Chapultepec was brevetted captain and major 862, by the capture of Huntsville, Alabana, in 1848. Since 1849 Major Stevens has assistnd taking possession of nearly 200 miles of ed in the United States Coast Survey. In he Memphis and Charleston Railroad ; inade 1853 he was appointed Governor of Washingnajor-general by Congress soon after.)

ton Territory, and in 1857 was a delegate to Brigadier-General Thomas W. Sweeney was Congress. At the commencement of the war orn in Ireland in 1818; came to this country he volunteered, and was subsequently given the a childhood; was second lientenant of New command of the Seventy-ninth Highlanders. Cork Volunteers in the Mexican war; lost an He was made brigadier-general, September, rm at Churubusco; served on the western 1860, and commanded a brigade under General rontier subsequently, and was promoted to a Sherman at Port Royal. aptaincy; was appointed colonel of volunteers Brigadier-General Benjamin M. Prentiss was t the commencement of the present war, and born in Belleville, Wood County, Virginia, Nonade brigadier-general in the session of 1861–2. vember 23, 1819. In 1840 he removed to Illile distinguished himself at Wilson's Creek. nois and in 1846, being captain of the Quincy

Brigadier-General Harvey Brown is a native Blues, volunteered for the Mexican war with f New Jersey, born about 1798; graduated at his company, and was in the battle of Buena Vest Point in 1818; became first lieutenant Vista. At the commencement of the present f artillery in 1821 ; was aid to Major-General struggle he reorganized the Quincy Blues, was Brown in 1824–5; lieutenant-colonel of mount- elected colonel of the Seventh Regiment of d Creek Volunteers in the Florida war, in Illinois, and upon the organization of a brigade 836–7; brevetted major for his gallant con- at Cairo was appointed brigadier-general. uct in that war; distinguished himself at Brigadier-General Robert O. Schenck is a fonterey, Contreras, Churubusco, and Belen, native of Warren County, Ohio; was born in nd received two brevets for his meritorious 1810. He graduated at the Miami University, onduct there; promoted to rank of major in and afterwards was a professor in that institu851, and colonel in 1858; took command of tion. He studied law, and settled in Dayton; fort Pickens, Fla., in June, 1861, and twice served as State representative several years, ngaged the Confederate batteries and forts on and was twice elected to Congress; was aphe main land; was made brigadier-general of pointed Minister to Brazil during the admin, be regular army by Congress in its session of istration of President Fillmore. He received 861-2, and placed in command of the forts in his commission of brigadier-general May 17, Tew York harbor.,


Brigadier-General Frederick W. Lander was chief engineer upon the Central Park. In 1843 a native of Massachusetts, born about 1820. he was appointed chief engineer of the State of He was for some years connected with the New Jersey; and was made brigadier-general overland route to California ; acted as second of volunteers, August, 1861. of Hon. E. F. Potter in the threatened Pryor Brigadier-General Thomas Francis Meagher and Potter duel; was appointed colonel of a is a native of Ireland, born about 1818. He was regiment in Western Virginia early in the war, distinguished as a lawyer for his eloquence; and distinguished himself by his brilliant dashes took part in the Irish rebellion in 1848; was at the enemy; captured Philippi in June, 1861; banished by the English Government to Auswas made brigadier-general for services at Rich tralia in 1849 ; but made his escape to Califor. Mountain; was wounded at the battle of Ball's nia in 1853, and attained distinction there as Bluff, October 21, 1861; drove the Confeder- an advocate and orator. He joined the Sixtyates from Romney in February; died from ninth (Irish) Regiment of Colonel Corcoran as congestion of the brain, and the results of his captain, and was promoted to be major; was in wound, March 2, 1862.

the battle of Bull Run; aided in organizing the Flag-officer Andrew H. Foote is a native of Irish brigade from New York; was appointed Connecticut, born in 1807, a son of the late colonel, and subsequently brigadier-general; Governor Samuel A. Foote; entered the pavy and is now in service with his brigade in the in 1822 as midshipman, and has advanced army of the Potomac. through all the grades to the highest; serving Brigadier-General James A. Mulligan was born in the East Indies, where he routed the pirates; in the city of Utica, New York, in 1829, of Irish on the coast of Africa, where he made the slave parents. He was'educated at the Catholic college trade unsafe; and on the coast of China, where of North Chicago; studied law in 1852-54; he maintained the rights of American citizens edited the Western Tablet in Chicago; admitted and the honor of their flag. At the commence- to the bar in 1856; clerk in Department of the ment of the war, he succeeded Commodore Interior, Washington, 1857; captain of Shields' Breese in command of the Brooklyn Navy Guards, Chicago, 1859-61; colonel of the Irish Yard, and in the fall of 1861 was assigned to Brigade," Chicago, in June, 1861; defended the command of the Mississippi River squadron, Lexington, Missouri, for three days against a captured Fort Henry, and aided in the capture force five times his own, and finally surrenof Fort Donelson, where he was severely wound. dered with the honors of war, ed. In conjunction with Gen. Pope, he took Major-General Franz Siegel was born in the Island Number Ten after twenty-three days' Grand Duchy of Baden, in 1824. He was edusiege, and subsequently besieged Fort Wright cated in the military school of Carlsruhe, became on the Mississippi.

chief adjutant in the Baden army in 1847, and Flag-officer Samuel F. Dupont is a native of was considered the best artillerist in Germany. New Jersey, born about 1802. He entered the In the revolution of 1848 he became comnavy in 1815; served with great distinction mander-in-chief of the Revolutionary army, but under Commodore Shubrick in California; with was overpowered by the immense army of the one hundred men defeated and routed five hun- Austrians and Prussians, and emigrated to this dred Mexicans; and commanded the Minnesota country. He was colonel of a German region the China station in 1858-'9 with great suc- ment in New York, professor of military scicess. He was appointed commander of the Phil-ence in St. Louis, colonel and acting brigaadelphia Navy Yard in 1859, and flag-officer of dier-general under Lyon, made a successful the Port Royal expedition in 1861.

retreat after the battle of Wilson's Creek, was Brigadier-General Egbert L. Viele was born in present in a three days' fight at Pea Ridge, Saratoga County, New York, in 1825. He gradu. Arkansas, February, 1862; received : rote ated at West Point, 1846; served in the Mexic of thanks from Congress, and was made s can war; for several years has pursued bis pro- major-general for his bravery and skill in that fession of civil engineer in New York, and was battle.

V VERMONT, one of the New England States, according to the census of 1860, was $15,116. the first admitted under the Federal Constitu- It is eminently an agricultural State. In 1860, tion. It is situated between lat. 42° 44' and 4,995,624 acres of land were tased, and the 45° N., and long. 71° 33' and 73° 25' W., and is average price at which the land was assessed bounded north by Lower Canada, east by New was over $14 per acre. A large proportion of Hampshire, from which the Connecticut River the land is better adapted to grazing than to separates it, south by Massachusetts, and west tillage, and the horses, cattle, sheep, and swine by New York and Lake Champlain, of which of the Stato are of excellent quality. On the abont two-thirds lies within the State. Its area 1st of January, 1862, there were 576 miles of is 9,056 square miles, or 5,795,960 acres. It railroad completed or in progress in the State, is divided into 14 counties. The population, of which 555 miles, costing for construction and equipment $22,586,705, were open for ernment, was authorized, and also the organitraffic. According to the census of 1860, the zation and placing upon a war footing, without value of the products of industry for the year delay, of two more regiments, with provisions ending June 1, 1860 were, in round numbers, for drilling the same in barracks or encamp$16,000,000. The following were some of the ment. items : sawed and planed lumber, $1,060,000; The Governor was empowered to call out four flour, $1,660,000; steam engines and machine- more regiments, if needed, (making seven in ry, $490,000; agricultural implements, $160,- all,) with provision for filling the ranks of all 000; tanned leather, $1,000,000; iron ore, the regiments by draft from the enrolled mili$18,000; bar iron, $63,000; pig iron, $93,000. tia, when volunteers are wanting. The commerce of Vermont is conducted entire- An act exempting militia men, in service, ly on Lake Champlain. The enrolled and li- from arrest on civil process; granting to each censed tonnage of the State in 1860 was 7,744 private seven dollars a month, in addition to tons; the arrivals 29,232 tons, and the clear- the regular pay of the United States army; ances 23,460. The exports of the State the providing for their families at the cost of the same year were $783,702, of which $257,083 State, in case of destitution; and paying for the were domestic products, and $526,619 foreign. uniforms of those enlisting after March 12, The imports were $2,731,857, of which a large 1861, was passed. proportion were British goods admitted through An act authorizing banks to loan over ten Canada under the reciprocity treaty. The per cent. of their capital to the State, and an number of banks in the State in 1861 was 44, act for a State tax of ten cents on the dollar, whose condition was as follows:

were also adopted. Capital....:


They also repealed sections ten and eleven Loans and discounts..


of the Personal Liberty bill, which had been Stocks....

190,372 complained of as inconsistent with the ConstiReal estate..

174,736 tution of the United States, and substituted for Other investments..


it the following law : Due by other banks...

1,299,595 Notes of other banks.

58,558 It is hereby enacted by the General Assembly of the Cash items...


State of Vermont, as follows: Specie....

185,670 Section 1. If any person shall kidnap or unlawfully Circulation.

3,784,673 carry off or attempt to kidnap or unlawfully carry off Deposits.....


any other person, or shall decoy, or attempt to decoy, Due to other banks.


any other person from, or shall without due process of

law remove, or aid, or assist in removing any other The number of savings banks was 14, of person from this State, or shall without due prowhich 2 were in the hands of receivers in chan- cess of law deprive any other person of his liberty, cery, 2 were winding up their affairs, and 10 with intent to remove, or aid, or assist in removing were receiving deposits. The deposits in 12 of such other person from this State, he shall be pun these banks were $1,145,263. The State valu- ished by a fine of not less than one hundred and not

exceeding three thousand dollars, or be imprisoned ation of the real and personal estate of its in- in the State prison for a term not exceeding three habitants in 1860 was $86,871,851.65. The gov. years, or both said punishments, in the discretion of ernment valuation under the census of 1860 was

the court.

Sec. 2. Sections ten and eleven of chapter one hun$122,477,170. Up to January, 1861, the State dred and one of the compiled statutes, and sections had no permanent debt; a temporary loan, to two, three, four, six, seven and eight of an act enbe reimbursed by State tax, of $175,000, had titled "An act to secure freedom to all persons within been contracted for the completion of a new

this State," approved Nov. 25, A. D. 1858, are hereby State house. The government of the State had repealed.

Sec. 3. This act shall take effect from its passage. been conducted with great economy, the entire expenditure for executive, legislative, and judi- The raising of the sum of one million dollars, cial purposes seldom or never reaching the sum by loan or otherwise, was an unprecedented of $200,000.

measure in the little State of Vermont. So No State in the Union responded more large a sum had bardly ever been mentioned heartily or willingly to the President's procla before in its Legislature, and the levying of a tax mation of the 15th of April, 1861, than Ver- of ten cents on the dollar on the grand list, was mont.

an act equally without parallel in its history; On the 21st of April, despatches received yet there was no hesitation, and no dissenting from all the principal towns of the State re- voices. ported the prevalence of intense enthusiasm and On the 10th of May, her first regiment arinterest, and the rapid enlistment of volunteers. rived in New York, admirably equipped, under Gov. Hall called an extra session of the Legis. the command of Colonel (now General) J. lature, which convened at Montpelier on the Wolcott Phelps, a graduate of West Point. 22d of April, and in the course of a brief ses. This regiment was in many respects the most sion passed an appropriation of one million dol. remarkable of the many which entered the serlars for military purposes, one-half absolutely, vice as three-months men. It was composed and one-half at the Governor's discretion. to an extraordinary extent of men of superior

The organization of one regiment for imme- education and social position. Nearly one-tenth diate service, in response to the call of the Gove of its numbers, including many privates, were graduates of New England colleges. Many taining the proper materials and proportimas were professional men of high standing, and for reproducing it artificially. In this inte almost all were men of strictly temperate hab- tigation he visited and explored 80 of the de its. The remarkable stature of a considerable partments of France, and his report was so number of the men attracted attention. Ten judged worthy of the statistical prize of the men from one of the companies lay down upon Academy of Sciences in 1837. He had bee the ground for measurement, and formed a line elected a corresponding member of the Acad sixty-seven feet and ten inches in length. A emy in 1833. The report which received se visitor admired the unusually firm and substan- prize was published in 1839. The municipal tial character of their blankets, so different council of Paris, in token of their appreciate from the shoddy blankets of some of the regi- of his labors, voted him a silver vase od se ments from other States ; " Our wives and sis- value of $480, with the inscription - The Gia ters made them,” said the Vermonter, proudly. of Paris to M. Vicat, in commemoratie A second regiment from Vermont reached New the services rendered by his discoveries." I York on the 25th June, and a third on the 24th cat gave freely to the public the results of bio July. Two more followed in September, and a investigations, seeking no profit from their e sixth in October, making in all over 6,000 men clusive use; and, in token of their appreciated sent from this State. A cavalry regiment, in of his disinterestedness, the French Chambe addition, was subsequently organized, and a of Deputies, in 1843, on motion of 1. Ang large number of the citizens of the State en- decreed him a pension of $1,200 per sans listed in regiments from adjacent States. with reversion to his children. He see

The apportionment of the United States tax ceived the decoration of the orders of Rose of August 6, 1861, due from Vermont, and Prussia, and Piedmont, and the rank o Com amounting to $211,068, was assumed by the mander in the Legion of Honor, in February State.

1846. After serving as engineer in chief of the The State election in September resulted in corps of roads and bridges for more than an overwhelming majority for the Republican years, he retired in 1851 to his native city. and Union candidates. Frederick Holbrook, His discoveries in the subject of cemaat. Leve the Republican and Union candidate for Gov- been of immense value to France. lle a nie ernor, received 40,000 votes, against 6,000 cast the author of two or three works on suspension for the other two candidates, one of whom was bridges. nominated as “Union ; ” the Legislature was VIENNA is a small village on the railroad almost unanimously Union. The vote of the which extends from Alexandria to Leesburg is State at the presidential election in 1860 was as Virginia. It is fifteen miles from Alexandris follows: Lincoln, 33,808; Douglas, 6,849; and twenty-three miles from Leesburg. ku Breckinridge, 218; Bell, 1,969.

the scene of surprise and disaster to the Fes VIOAT, Louis JOSEPH, a French engineer, Ohio Regiment, Col. McCook, on the 17th born at Grenoble, France, March 31, 1786, died June. On the day previous, a train de at the same city, April 10, 1861. In 1804, he passing over this portion of the road had been entered the Polytechnic School, and graduated fired upon, and one man killed. In esse in the corps of roads and bridges, in which he quence, the Government resolved to piese pics speedily attained the rank of an engineer of the ets along the road, and this regiment, com first class. The study of mortars and cements, panied by Brig.-Gen. Schenck, set out in strain then in its infancy, attracted his attention, and of cars, and the men were distributed la de in 1818 he published the first results of his tachments along the line. As the e persevering researches under the title Re- proached Vienna, Col. Gregg, with 600 Soda cherches experimentales sur les chaux de con- Carolinians, and a company of artillery sad te struction les bétons et les mortiers, Paris, 1818, companies of cavalry, on a reconnoitring one 4to. Encouraged by his success, he made a dition, heard the whistle of the locomotive se chemical analysis of those mortars which had immediately wheeled his column and marked proved most durable, and found that they were back to Vienna, which he had just left The made with hydraulio cement, and that their force bad scarcely time to place two canse te good properties were dependent upon the clay position, when the train, consisting of sta disseminated through them. He published his and a baggage car, pushed by the locative discoveries in this direction in his Résumé des came slowly around the curve. As the trazia connaissances actuelles sur les mortiers et les cé- was about to stop, the artillery opened a ments calcaires, Paris, 1828. The result of this directed fire, which raked the cars from fires ia publication was an entire revolution in the rear. At the same time the coupling of the loc method of constructing the foundations of motive became detached or destroyed was the bridges. M. Vicat was the first to apply his engineer retired, leaving the cars in their a own principles at Souillac in 1822, on a bridge posed position. The Ohio Volunteers imped whose construction gave him a high reputa- ately took to the woods on each side, and we tion. He was next charged by government pursued a short distance by the Confedersen with the investigation of the localities in fantry and cavalry. The Federal loss was la France which produced the best natural hy- killed, six wounded, and seren missing. The draulio lime, and with experiments for ascer- cars were burned, and a considerable quantity


carpenters' tools, blankets, and other baggage be resisted by Virginia.” The bill in favor of was taken by the Confederates, who sustained calling a State convention was finally adopted, no loss.

and February 4th fixed as the day for the elecVIRGINIA, one of the largest States of the tion of the delegates, and the 13th as the day Union, is bounded on the North by Ohio, Penn. for them to assemble. sylvania, and Maryland; east by Maryland and Numerous Union meetings, at this time, were the Atlantic Ocean ; south by North Carolina held in Western Virginia. Resolutions were and Tennessee; and west by Kentucky and passed by the Legislature, declaring that the Ohio. The population in 1860 was 1,047,613 Union, being formed by the assent of the States, white, 57,579 free colored, and 490,887 slaves. ought not to be maintained by force, that the The area of the State is about 61,352 square Federal Government had no power to make war miles. The assessed value of real property in on a State, and that they would resist all at1860 was $417,952,228; of personal property, tempts at coercion into reunion or submission, $239,069,108. (See New AMERICAN CYCLOPÆ- On the 10th of January another resolution, DIA.) The popular vote for President in 1860 having for its object to preserve peace, was

as follows: Lincoln, 1,929; Douglas, adopted in the House. It requested the Presi16,290; Breckinridge, 74,323; Bell, 74,681. dent, and also the Governors of the seceded That at the election in 1856 was: Fremont, States to give assurances that the statu quo in 291; Buchanan, 89,706 ; Fillmore, 60,310. all matters tending to a collision should be

No State watched the proceedings in South maintained for the present. In the Senate the Carolina and Alabama relative to secession, resolution was amended to ask of the President with greater interest than Virginia. In favor an assurance of absolute preservation of the of the Union by a large majority, she still pos- peace for sixty days, and the whole matter sessed the warmest sympathy with the slave- was then referred to a committee. It was holding States. Public affairs, however, main- also resolved in the House to submit to the tained their ordinary course until the 7th of people on the election for delegates to the January, when an extra session of the Legis- State convention, the question whether, if any lature convened at Richmond. Governor action should be taken in convention relative Letcher, in his Message, alluding to the con- to the Federal Union, it should be submitdition of the country, said that all see, know, ted to the people for ratification or rejection. and feel that the danger is imminent, and all The vote was ayes 77, pays 61. This was contrue patriots are exerting themselves to save sidered by the friends of the South as so the country from impending perils. He re- "emasculating" the convention bill as to throw newed the proposition in his previous Mes. into imminent peril“ all that the people of Virsage for a convention of all the States, and gina held most sacred and dear, both as to the said it is "monstrous to see a Government like Federal Constitution and the rights and honor ours destroyed merely because men cannot of the State." agree about a domestic institution. It becomes On the 14th propositions were introduced in Virginia to be mindful of her own interests. A the Legislature looking to a national convendisruption is inevitable, and if new confedera- tion, to be held at Washington on February tions are to be formed, we must have the best 4th. (See page 178.) Meantime Union meetguarantees before we can attach Virginia to ings were held in Winchester, Portsmouth, and either." He charged upon the non-slaveholding other towns, particularly in the western part States the responsibility for the state of affairs, of the State. and, if the Union was disrupted, upon them On the 17th the Governor communicated to would rest the blame. He alluded at length the Legislature the resolutions which had been to their aggressions, and said they have the adopted by the New York Legislature, with a power to end the strife and restore confidence. Message expressing the utmost disdain; saying, 1. Will they do it?” He awaited their response at the close, that the threat conveyed can inwithout apprehension.

spire no terror with freemen. The Legislature The Governor further declared he would re- ordered these resolutions to be returned to gard any attempt of the Federal troops to pass Gov. Morgan, in New York, as an expression through Virginia for the purpose of coercing of the indignation with which they were reany Southern State as an act of invasion, which ceived, because understood to countenance the would be repelled. He was not without a hope doctrine and contemplate the policy of coerthat the present difficulties would find a satis- cion. (See NEW YORK.) On the same day the factory solution. “Let New England and House adopted the resolutions contemplating a Western New York be slonghed off and ally national convention at Washington, providing themselves with Canada.” He opposed a State that the commissioners should at all times be convention, and suggested such measures as to subject to the control of the Legislature or the him seemed most suitable for the crisis. In the State convention, if in session. This was reHouse, a resolution was unanimously adopted garded as embracing an approval of the Critto appoint a committee with instructions to re- tenden propositions. port a bill for assembling a State convention; The passage of the propositions for a peace and anti-coercion resolutions were passed, say: conference at Washington were a matter of ing that "any attempt to coerce a State would considerable interest, not only to the State,

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