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Sherman's) battery of six rifled cannon, and a hican, Seminole, Pawnee, Unadilla, Ottawa, battalion of Serrell's volunteer engineers. Pembina, and Vandalia towed by the Isaac
The weather, which was unsettled when the Smith, he passed up the centre of the channel, fleet left Hampton Roads, soon changed into a delivering his fire at the forts on each side, storm of wind of great violence, which, in- and, sailing in an ellipse, passed down within creasing on the 31st October, became on Fri- 600 yards of Fort Walker, firing slowly and de day, Nov. 1, a hurricane from the southeast, liberately, but never losing the range. Meanand scattered the ships so widely that, on while the Bienville, Seneca, Curlew, Penguin, Saturday morning, but one of the whole fleet and Augusta had passed up on the left side of was in sight from the deck of the Wabash. On the channel, pouring their broadsides into Fort Sunday the wind had moderated, and the Beauregard, and then taking a station where steamers and ships began to reappear. The they could cut off Tatnall's fleet from any par. *Isaac Smith had been compelled to throw her ticipation in the fight, and at the same time battery overboard to keep from foundering; maintain a destructive flanking fire upon the the Governor and the Peerless, two of the weak left flank of Fort Walker. Three times transports, sank; but the soldiers and crews the line of vessels traversed their elliptical cir. were saved except seven of the marines on the cuit, the last time aided by the fire of the Pocs Governor, who were drowned by their own hontas, the R. B. Forbes, and the Mercury tog, imprudence. On the morning of the 4th, Com. which came up about twelve o'clock ». At Dupont anchored off the bar of Port Royal the completion of the third circuit, the guns of harbor, with twenty-five of his vessels in com- the forts were mostly disabled, and the garri. pany. The channel of the harbor was that day sons, consisting in Fort Walker of two South found, sounded out, and buoyed under the direc- Carolina regiments, and in Fort Beauregard of tion of Commander Davis
, the fleet captain. one, had fled in a terrible panic, leaving their The gunboats and lighter transports were, be- weapons, overcoats, and even their watches and fore dark of the same day, anchored inside of papers behind them. The Federal loss was: the bar, in the secure roadstead, and Com. Tat- killed, 8; wounded seriously, 6; wounded nall's (Confederate) fleet chased under their slightly, 17. Total killed and wounded, 31. own batteries. The next day a reconnoissance Confederate loss not known, but considerably in force was made by the Ottawa, Seneca, Our- larger than this. With these forts were captured lew, and Isaac Smith, which drew the fire of 48 cannon, 43 of them of excellent quality, and the Confederate forts, and showed which was mostly of large calibre, and large quantities of the strongest. On the 5th, the Wabash and ammunitions and stores. On the 9th of NovernSusquehanna, and the large transports crossed ber, the Seneca, Lieut.Ammen commanding, prothe bar, and the buoys which marked the shoal ceeded to Beaufort, and found the town in pos lines were planted. A storni postponed the session of the negroes, the whites having ded. attack until the 7th, when it was commenced The other islands were successively occupied, at about half-past nine o'clock a. M., and con- and on the 25th Nov., Com. Dupont reported to tinued for four hours, closing with the complete the Navy Department, that he had taken pos rout and flight of the Confederate force from session of Tybee Island, commanding the exboth forts. The Confederate fortifications were trance of the Savannah River. Meantime the Fort Walker, on Hilton's Head Island, at the troops under Gen. Sherman, though debarred right of the channel-a strong earthwork mount- by the circumstances from any active particiing 23 guns, all of the heaviest calibre and most pation in the capture of the two forts, had not approved pattern for sea-coast defence, some been idle. Having landed on Hilton Head, they of them rifed, and several imported from Eng- occupied and strengthened the fortifications, land since the war commenced. A small ont- and made that point the base of further opers work, mounting a single rifled gun, had been tions on Savannah, Charleston, and other places, erected near the fort and beyond it on the sea the record of which belongs to the year 1862. front. Fort Beauregard, at Bay Point, on Phil- 3. The Ship Island Erpedition.-Ship Island lips or Hunting Island, on the left bank of the is a small island, about 7 miles in length, and channel, 2} miles from Fort Walker, was also a from 1 to 4 of a mile wide, lying a little north of strong work, though not as formidable as Fort the 30th parallel of north latitude and near the Walker. It mounted 20 guns of the same gen- 89th meridian of west longitude. It is about eral character as those in the other fort, and was 60 miles from New Orleans, and with Horn, supported by an outwork nearly a half mile dis- Pelet, Bois, and Dauphine Islands on the east tant, mounting õ guns. About 2 miles above the and Cat Island on the west, forms the southem forts, where the Port Royal or Beaufort River barrier of Mississippi Sound, a body of water joins the Broad, Oom. Tatnall's (Confederate) extending from Mobile Bay to Lake Borgne, in fleet of six or seven gunboats was stationed. Louisiana, and forming an interior comment
The circunstances thus detailed influenced cation between Mobile and New Orleans. This Com. Dupont in deciding upon his plan of sound is 10 or 12 miles wide, and opposite Skip attack. He first stationed his transports at Island, which is south of the coast of Miss anchor, beyond the range of the guns of the sippi, are the towns of Biloxi, Mississippi City, forts; then leading the way with the Wabash, and Pascagoula. The island itself is mostly's followed immediately by the Susquehanna, Mo- bank of clear white sand, without trees
shrubs. On the east end, however, there are for their posts, and refused to commission, the live oak and other trees and grass. Excellent expedition was delayed for a time. The first water can be obtained in abundance by sinking instalment of troops for it were embarked at & barrel anywhere on the island. On the west Boston, on the 19th of November, on the U. S. end is a fort and light-house. The fort was transport Constitution, and sailed at first for commenced by the U. S. Government in 1859, Portland, Me., and thence for Fortress Monroe, and in May or June, 1861, was burned by the which they reached on the 26th Nov., and Confederates, who also destroyed the wood- sailed the next day for Ship Island, where they work of the light-house. The U, S. steamer arrived on the 3d Dec. . They consisted of Massachusetts visited the island on the 28th of the Twenty-sixth Massachusetts Regiment, Col. Jane, and found it unoccupied, and captured Jones, the Ninth Connecticut, Col. Cahill, and five Confederate schooners in its vicinity: Be- the Fourth battery of Massachusetts artillery, tween this date and the 4th of July the Massa- Capt. Manning, and
were under the command chusetts was absent at Fort Pickens, but on her of Brig.-Gen. John W. Phelps, a native of Verreturn from that it had been visited by a Con- mont, and graduate of West Point, in 1836. He federate force, who, however, were not then served for 23 years in the army, bat resigned on the island. On the 8th July the Massachu- in 1859, and was living at Brattleboro, Vt, at setts found a considerable force there, who the commencement of the war, when he was were throwing up intrenchments and had called to the command of the First Regiment mounted some heavy guns. An attempt was of Vermont Volunteers, (three-months men,) made to dislodge thein, but unsuccessfully, and and in July was appointed brigadier-general. they were allowed to remain in possession till Having completed the debarkation of his the 16th of September when, under the appre- command, Gen. Phelps issued a proclamation hension that a large naval expedition was coming to the loyal citizens of the southwest, for to attack them, they abandoned the island and which there seemed no occasion, as his superior escaped to the shore, taking most of their ord. in command, Maj.-Gen. Butler, had not arrived, nance with them. During the two months of and there were on the island none but U.S. their occupation they had re-built the fort, con- troops, and no invasion had been made upon structing eleven fine bomb-proof casemates and the territory claimed by the Confederate Gova magazine, and had mounted 20 guns. They ernment. The tone of the address was also innamed it Fort Twiggs. On the 17th Sept, the judicious, and Gen. Phelps was stated to have Massachusetts landed a force on the island, who been reprimanded by the U. 8. Government for took possession, and having been reënforced, issuing it. He announced in his proclaination have continued to hold it. They mounted can- as among the principles by which his command non on the fort and strengthened it still further would be governed, that every slave State by the addition of two more bomb-proof case- which had been admitted into the Union, since mates, and a formidable armament of Dahlgren the adoption of the Constitution, had been so 9-inch shell guns and rifled cannon. They also admitted in direct violation of that Constituerected barracks for troops, with brick, left on tion; that the slave States which existed as the island by the Confederates, and lumber cap- such, at the formation of the Constitution tored from them. On the 19th October, Com. were, by becoming parties to that compact, Hollins, in command of the Confederate gun- under the highest obligations of honor and boat Florida, appeared in Mississippi Sound, morality to abolish slavery; urged the claims and challenged the U. 8. gonboat Massaehusetts of free, and especially of free foreign labor, to to a naval battle. The challenge was accepted, a share in the occupancy and cultivation of the and after a sharp engagement of forty-five min- soil of the Southern States, and the importance utes the Florida retired, seriously disabled, and and absolute necessity of the domination of put into Pass Christian, apparently in a sinking free institutions to the prosperity of the Oaucondition. Four of her crew were killed. The casian race on the continent. He then proMassachusetts was injured, but not seriously, ceeded to discuss the position and claims of by a 100-lb. shell, which struck her 5 feet slavery as a social and political evil, and the above her water line, but was repaired in a few necessity of its overthrow. In illustration of days. None of her crew were killed, and only this necessity, growing, as he avowed, out of one slightly wounded. On the 21st Nov. the its want of adaptation to modern times and ganboat New London arrived in the sound, free institutions, he drew a parallel between and in the course of a fortnight captured five slavery and the condition of the Catholic Confederate vessels.
Church in France before the Revolution, and The expedition to Ship Island was projected asked whether they ought not and could not in September, almost immediately after Gen. revolutionize slavery out of existence. In conButler's return from the expedition to Hatteras clusion he bestowed a high eulogium on free Inlet, and he was authorized to enlist troops labor, as the basis of free institutions; as the for it in New England. Coming into collision right, the capital, the inheritance, the hope of with Gov. Andrew of Massachusetts, in rela- the poor man everywhere; that it was especially tion to the appointment of persons as field- the right of five millions of our fellow-countryofficers for the regiments he raised in Massa- men in the slave States, as well as of the four chusetts, whom the Governor regarded as unfit millions of Africans there, and declared that all the efforts of his command, whether di- command of Brig.-Gen. John G. Parke, and rected against the interference of governments consisting of the Eighth and
Eleventh Connecabroad or rebellious combinations at home, ticut, the Fifty-third and Eighty-ninth New should be for free labor; that their motto and York, and a battalion of the Fifth Rhode Island their standard should be there, and everywhere, Regiment, together with Battery F. of the and on all occasions, "Free labor and working- Rhode Island artillery. These three brigades men's rights.". The proclamation was not cir- numbered about 16,000 men, and required not culated upon the mainland to any considerable far from 30 transports to take them to their extent; but it created much dissatisfaction destination, 5 vessels to transport the horses, 8 among Gen. Phelps' own command. The Con- or 10 to carry the supplies, a siege train, and 2 stitution left Ship Island on the 7th of Dec. on pontoon-bridge schooners, a division hospital, her return to the North, and arrived at For- and one for the signal corps; and the paval portress Monroe on the 15th ; in Jan. 1862, she tion of the expedition, when it left Annapolis, returned with another considerable body of consisted of 9 gun boats, and 5 floating batteries. troops. During the month of December the The expedition did not sail from Fortress Mongunboats Montgomery and New London had roe till the middle of January, 1862, and its two engagements with Confederate gunboats in movements, therefore, belong to the record of Mississippi Sound, but without decisive result. that year rather than 1861.
4. The Burnside Expedition.—The prepara- 5. The Mortar Fleet of Com. Porter.—This tions for this expedition were commenced early fleet, of which not more than, perhaps, two or in September, and in October about 11,000 troops three of the vessels composing it sailed until had been concentrated at Annapolis, to prepare January, was fitted out at the Brooklyn Navy for the enterprise, and to be perfected in drill. Yard, and was for some months in preparation. Just before the departure of the expedition, an It consisted of one gunboat, the Octorara, addition of several regiments was made to this mounting 18 guns, and serving as Com. Porter's force. At the commencement
it was resolved flag-ship, but subsequently diverted from the exto place it in charge of Brig.-Gen. Ambrose E. pedition to Fortress Monroe, and 20 schooners, Burnside, a native of Indiana, born May 23, 1824, of from 200 to 300 tons each, of great strength who graduated at West Point in 1847, distin- and solidity, and carrying each a mortar, weighguished himself as a lieutenant in the Mexican ing 84 tons, of thirty-nine inches length of bore, war, and in 1849, and several succeeding years, forty-three inches external and fifteen inches inwas engaged in frontier service in New Mexico, ternal diameter, and intended to throw a 15-inch during which he manifested great bravery in an shell
, weighing, when unfilled, 212 lbs. They engagement with the Apache Indians. He was are elevated or depressed by means of projections quartermaster of the boundary commission with on the breech. Each vessel also carried two 32Mexico; and in 1851, with an escort of three pounders, rifled. men, he travelled 1,200 miles through the Indian This class of vessels has been selected be Territory in seventeen days. He was next sta- cause they are stronger in proportion to their tioned at Fort Adams, Newport, but soon re- size than larger ones, at the same time that their signed, to enter upon the manufacture of a light draft enables them to go into shallow wabreech-loading rifle. This proving unprofit- ter; and from their small tonnage they can be able, he entered the service of the Illinois Cen- handled by a small number of men. tral Railroad Company as cashier and subse- To fit them to receive the mortars, a bed has quently as treasurer. Gov. Sprague, of Rhode been prepared, which is supported by an slIsland, tendered him an appointment as colonel most solid mass of wood, built from the keel to of one of the Rhode Island regiments, in April, the deck. This consists of timbers over one and he immediately accepted and took a promi- foot square and twelve feet in length, interlaced nent and honorable part in the battle of Bull and firmly fastened. The bed rises two or Run, where he was acting brigadier-general. three inches above the deck, and consists of a On the 6th of Aug. he was appointed brigadier- solid horizontal surface, circular in form, with general, and soon after detailed for this expe- a truck near its edge, upon which run rollers dition. The naval commander was Flag-officer bearing a revolving platform. The bed itself L. M. Goldsborough, of the Atlantic Squadron, is carefully braced and supported by the entire and Commander Samuel F. Hazard of the U. s. strength of the vessel, so as to sustain the reNavy had charge of the transport fleet. The coil of the mortar. army corps consisted of three brigades: the The circular platform surmounting the bed first under command of Brig.-Gen. John G. and bearing the mortar carriage, is constructed Foster, (the Capt. Foster of Fort Sumter,) and of heavy timbers, and is one foot in depth, and consisting of the Twenty-third, Twenty-fourth, nearly twelve feet in diameter. When in poTwenty-fifth, and Twenty-seventh Massachu- sition for a discharge, it lies flat and firmly on setts, and the Tenth Connecticut regiments; the bed, but by ingenious mechanism it may be the second under command of Brig.-Gen. Jesse made to revolve, in order to aim the mortar in L. Reno, comprising the Fifty-first New York, any direction, or to re-sight it if the vessel shifts the Fifty-first Pennsylvania, the Twenty-first its position. The change of direction is easily Massachusetts, the sixth New Hampshire, and and quickly accomplished. By means of four the Ninth New Jersey; the third under the eccentric axles in the platform, to which lerers
18 13 13 13 13 9 9 9
are fitted, the mortar and machinery (weighing of the West, and decided upon the plans and altogether over ten tons) may be raised, and tho ordered the construction of the number of weight transferred by the same movement to each he deemed necessary. Their completion, a great number of metallic rollers attached to a and the furnishing of them with their arma. framework of immense strength under the plat- ment and crew, and the collection of the reform. Then, by means of tackle, already ar- quisite land force to accompany them, so doranged, the whole mass may be moved to its layed the expedition, that it did not move till desired position, and instantly, by a reverse February, 1862; but it was almost entirely movement, replaced on the bed. In the centre prepared during the year 1861. of the platform, and extending into the solid The fleet consisted of twelve gunboats, carrymass beneath, is an iron cylinder or spindle ing an armament in all of 126 guns, viz. : which prevents any side movement.
Benton..... The inortar carriage is constructed almost Essex.. exclusively of wrought iron. Its length is Mound City.
13 about nine feet, and its height and width each Cincinnati four feet. In form it bears the slightest pos- Carondelet
Louisville..... sible resemblance to a land carriage-gradually St. Louis sloping at the point where the mortar rests, Cairo .. in the direction of the breech; and having Pittsburgh.. wheels, yet not resting on them when the mor- Lexington.... tar is discharged. The carriage is composed Tyler....... principally of plate_iron, riveted together, braced and bolted. It is a framework of ex- None of these guns are less than 32-pounders cellent design, and though weighing probably --some are 42-pounders, some 64-pounders, and not more than two tons, is capable of resisting one (on the Essex) throws a shell weighing 128 & pressure of one to two hundred tons.
lbs. In addition to these, each boat carries a Two wheels are set close to the framework, Dahlgren rifled 12-pounder boat howitzer on the directly under the mortars; and connected upper deck. Several of the larger guns on each with them are eccentric axles, so arranged as boat are rifled. Naval officers regarded the to permit so large a part of the weight to be 10-inch Dahlgren shell guns as their most effithrown on the wheels, that the carriage may cient weapons. The Benton carries two of be moved on them.
these guns in her forward battery; the others It is not intended, however, that the recoil of
carry one each. the mortar shall in any degree be taken up or les- Seven of the gunboats were iron-clad, and sened in its effect by the moving of the wheels. able to resist all except the heaviest solid-shot, The carriage lies firinly on the platform when the These boats cost on an average $89,000 each. mortar is discharged, and the only possible mo- The other five were of wood, but strongly and tion will be that of the vessel in the water. substantially built ; all were fast sailers.
The bombs are the most formidable ordnance Beside these, thirty-eight mortar-boats were missile known, except those used in the Rod- ordered; each abont sixty feet long and twentyman columbiad of 15-inch bore. In addition to five feet wide, surrounded on all sides by ironthe two 32-pounder guns, the vessels are pro- plate bulwarks, six or seven feet high. The vided with pikes, cutlasses, and other necessary mortar itself weighs 17,200 lbs.; has a bore weapons.
easily admitting a 13-inch shell, and from the The mortars cannot be fired directly over the edge of the bore to the outer rim is seventeen sides of the vessels, and therefore the latter inches. The mortar bed weighs 4,500 lbs. must be partially headed towards the point of The mortar-boats were thoroughly tested attack. The vessels will therefore be anchored, before being used in actual service, and were and a part of the rigging removed. The extra- found to produce but slight recoil, and the conordinary weight and strength of the mortars, cussion caused by the iron bulwarks was remethe unprecedentedly large charge of powder, the died. With a charge of 11 lbs. of powder the morlong range and high velocity of the projectiles, tars threw a shell
, weighing 215 lbs., a distance with their destructive character, combine to of 24 miles; and with a charge of 15 to 23 render this novel expedition one of the most lbs. the same shell was thrown from 3 to 3} important undertaken during the war. The miles. vessels made their first rendezvous at Key There was also a sufficient number of steamWest and subsequently proceeded to Shipboats and tugs provided for towing and transIsland, Mississippi.
port service. The fleet was under the com6. The Mississippi River Expedition.-Soon mand of Flag-officer Andrew H. Foote, an exafter taking command of the Western Depart- perienced and able commander in the navy; ment, Maj.-Gen. Fremont became convinced of and each boat was in charge of a lieutenantthe necessity of preparing a fleet of gunboats commanding, who had already seen service. and mortar-boats, for the purpose of command- Very efficient service was subsequently pero • ing the Mississippi and other navigable waters formed by this fleet.
F FAIRFAX COURT HOUSE is a small town for this purpose, and recommend that the people as and the capital of Fairfax County, in Virginia. semble on that day, according to their several forms It is 120 miles north of Richmond, 21 miles of Worship, to keep it as a solemn fast.
The Union of the States is at the present moment west of Washington, and 14 from Alexandria, threatened with alarming and immediate danger After the United States forces had taken pos- panic and distress of a fearful character prevail session of the south bank of the Potomac oppo- throughout the land-our laboring population are site Washington, and the Confederate forces had without employment, and consequently deprired of concentrated at Manassas Junction, near the to have deserted the minds of men. All classes are
the means of earning their bread-indeed, hope seems end of the month of May-Fairfax, thus situ- in a state of confusion and dismay; and the wisest ated between the two armies, became the scene counsels of our best and purest men are wholly disreof many skirmishes. On the 1st of June a dash garded. was made through the village by a company of
In this, the hour of our calamity and peril, to whom
shall we resort for relief but to the God of our Fathers! regular cavalry, consisting of forty-seven men, His omnipotent arm only can save us from the awful under command of Lieut. Tompkins. The Con- effects of our own crimes and follies-our own ingratifederate troops, in some force, were in posses- tude and guilt towards our Heavenly Father. sion of the village, and made a vigorous and row, unite in bumbling ourselves before the Most determined resistance.
The cavalry charged through the principal and in acknowledging the justice of our punishment street, and, upon their return, were met by two Let us implore Him to remove from our hearts that Confederate detachments of troops with a field false pride of opinion which would impel us to perse piece. Again wheeling about, they found them- vere in wrong
for the sake of consistency, rather than
yield a just submission to the unforeseen exigencies by selves assailed in the rear by another detach. which we are now surrounded. Let us, with deep ment, through which the cavalry fought their reverence, beseech Him to restore the friendship
and way and escaped, bringing off with them five good will which prevailed in former days among the prisoners.
people of the several States, and, above all, to save us The cavalry lost nine horses, six shot down Let our fervent prayers ascend to His throne, that He
from the horrors of civil war and blood guiltiness." in the engagement, and three so badly wounded would not desert us in this hour of extreme peril, but as to render it necessary to kill them shortly remember us as He did our fathers in the darkest days after leaving the village. They captured, how. of the Revolution, and preserve our Constitution and ever, with their five prisoners, three good our Union--the work of their hands-for ages yet to horses with their saddles and bridles. The lossisting evils for permanent good. He can make the on the other side was estimated to be larger. wrath of man to praise Him, and the remainder of This was the first skirmish of any interest be- wrath He can restrain. Let me invoke every indi. tween the Federal and Confederate forces in vidual, in whatever sphere of life be may be placed, to
feel a personal responsibility to God and his country Northeastern Virginia.
for keeping this day holy, and for contributing an in FAST DAYS are periods of time, usually his power to remove our actual and impending didia day, in which abstinence from food is main culties.
JAMES BUCHANAX. tained as a religious observance. They are WASHINGTON, Dec 14, 1861. designated in the institutions of religion, and, On the 14th of May, the Confederate Conin the United States, they are often appointed gress passed a resolution as follows: by the highest civil officer. In some of the New England States, the Governor has usually That the President be requested to issue his proclama
Resolved by the Congress of the Confederate State, fixed by proclamation a day in the spring tion, appointing a day of fasting and prayer in the ob to be observed "by fasting, humiliation, and servance of which all shall be invited to join, who reprayer," when religious services have generally cognize our dependence upon God, and who desire the been conducted in the churches. A few times happiness and security of that people "wbose God is
the Lord." the President of the United States has, since the existence of the Government, issued a proc
In compliance with this resolution, President lamation inviting all the
people thus to observe Davis issued the following proclamation: a particular day. During the year 1861, this
A PROCLAMATION. occasion was made more frequent than ever God feel themselves surrounded by peril and difficulty,
When a people who recognize their dependence upon before. On the 14th of December, President it becomes them to bumble themselves under the dis Buchanan issued the following proclamation : pensation of Divine Providence, to recognize His rightA PROCLAMATION.
eous government, to acknowledge His goodness in Numerous appeals have been made to me by pious the future.
times past, and supplicate his merciful protection for and patriotic associations and citizens, in view of the The manifest proofs of the Divine blessingo hitherto present distracted and dangerous condition of our extended
to the efforts of the people of the Confederate country, to recommend that a day be set apart for States of America to maintain and perpetuate public humiliation, fasting, and prayer throughout the Union. liberty, individual rights, and national independence. In compliance with their request, and my own sense demand their devout and heartful gratitude. It be of duty, I designate
comes them to give public manifestation of this gratiFRIDAY, THE 4TX DAY OF JANUARY, 1861, tude, and of their dependence upon the Judge of all